1.

    Code SwitchingA number of thedefinitions of codeswitching have been proposed by researchers for centuries.Code switching refers to the condition when the mixture of two languages madein a single clause, sentence, or turn (Poplack, 1980 and Heller, 1988).Valdes-Fallis (1978) adds that the combination can be in the form of words,phrases and clauses. Moreover, according to Schendl and Wright (2011, p.3) seescode switching as the ability in adapting and modifying between languageswithout changing the setting, often with unchanged utterance. Thus, it can beconcluded that code mixing is a situation in which two languages are mixedwithin the same conversation turn without changing its setting. Code switching hasbecome a natural phenomenon in language classroom. As Simon (2001, p.

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313) putsit, this topic has developed for decades in many countries; United States,South America, Canada, Europa and South-East Asia (Milroy and Muysken, p.90). Theresearches unveil the positive and negative aspects of code switching inlanguage classroom.

Gumperz and Hernandez-Chavez (1972, p.582) sees learnerswho do code switching make mess in conversation and they portray themselves aspeople who cannot speak language properly. Moreover, Thomas (2001, p. 137)claims that code switching is something that cannot be accepted in languagelearning. However, on the otherhand there are some researchers who see code switching as a tool in helping thelanguage development. Sert (2005) argues that code switching has a positiveimpact in the classroom because it creates linguistic solidarity betweenlearners who have similar ethno-cultural identity.

Liebscher and Dailey-O’Cain(p.235) promote teachers to use code switching instead of forbidding it. There are somereasons why learners do code switching. Firstly, their mastery of foreignlanguage and native language is unbalanced. Sert (2005) thinks that learnerstend to code-switch and “use the native lexical item whens/he has not got the competence for using the TL explanation for a particularlexical item”.

Secondly, the learners need to negotiate the meaning (mentalsloppiness). Simon (2001) sees the learners’ different perceptions in gettingthe information led them to share and negotiate the meaning with their peersand thus it helps their learning process. Thirdly, code switching is a strategyto be better understood. Some ideas are better communicated in a certainlanguage (without translating it).

As Heredia and Brown (2005, p.214) emphasizethat people often do the code switching in order to be understood better.  Matrix LanguageFramework developed by Myers-Scotton (1993b) underlines two general types ofcodeswitching; intersentential and intrasentential. Furthermore, she explainsthat intersential code switching happens when learners switch two languages inthe form of the entire sentences.

Interlocutors utter native sentence firstthen in the second sentence they speak in foreign language. On the other hand,intrasentential conde switching appears when two languages are mixed within asentence. It means that in a single sentence they may be two languages; nativeand foreign,  2.

    Foreign Language AnxietyIn the scope ofproductive skills, foreign language anxiety can be defined as psychologicalphenomenon such as feeling nervous, worry or uneasy in the process of producingforeign language. The term is firstly proposed by Horwitz, Horwitz and Cope(1968) in expressing the result of particular language learning process in theform of a noticeable complex of self-beliefs, feelings and behaviors occurredin the classroom language learning. Moreover, he adds that the anxiety isformed from the fear of communicating with people, being tested and beingjudged by othersThe effect of foreignlanguage anxiety in oral performances is still debatable. Horwitz (2000, 2009),Horwitz & Cope (1986) argue that it has a weak effect with languageperformance and achievement. They assume that it is just merely a fear of”sounding weird” in foreign language performance. On the other hand, someresearchers strongly state that anxiety does affect foreign languageperformance. It makes learners making mistakes as the result of forgettingthings they want to utter.

Furthermore, Arnold and Brown (1999, p.8) believethat “anxiety is quite possibly the affective factor that most pervasivelyobstructs the learning process”.  3.    Fluency of SpeakingRichards (2009, p.14)defines fluency as the way people use the language naturally within aconversation and can maintain its comprehensibility despite their limitation inthe communicative competence.

Second language learners often face somechallenges in speaking foreign language. Brumfit (1984) sees fluency as themaximal use of language system by a person. Fluency can bemeasured from some criteria proposed by Brumfit (1984). They are the speed oflanguage production, the degree of control and the interaction between languageand content, Furthermore, Brumfit argued that the best activities to developthe learners’ fluency are those who focus on communicating the meaning ratherthan language form.