Last updated: August 29, 2019
Topic: SocietyWork
Sample donated:


Does the link layer encapsulates the datagram received from the
network layer into a frame?

Yes the link layer encapsulates
the datagram received from the network layer into a frame. Clarification Almost all connection layer
conventions exemplify each system layer datagram inside a connection layer
outline before transmission onto the connection.

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The data link layer ensures that all packets of information
are passed on free of errors. It makes sure the appropriate physical protocol
is assigned to the data. The data link layer is the second layer in the OSI
Model. The three main functions of the data link layer are to deal with
transmission errors, regulate the flow of data, and provide a well-defined interface
to the network layer. When it exchanges the
information to the system layer, it utilizes clocks and grouping numbers to
check for blunders to guarantee that all information is effectively gotten. The
information connect layer has distinctive administrations and conventions to
finish its errands. The conventions are the guidelines required to pass
information effectively to the following layer.

So there is a different layer having different device,
protocol and concept. The link layer is work based on frame. Generally Switch,
Hub and bridge devices are works at link layer and router is basically works at
network layer. So packet comes from router have IP datagram and it has to
convert into frame so that switch can understand packet and can proceed with it.

Header Encapsulation

Data Link layer receives the packets from the Network layer and places them on
the network medium such as cable or wireless medium. The Data Link layer
encapsulates each packet in a frame and the MAC header carries the source Mac
address and destination Mac address. If the device is on a different network,
then the frame is sent to a router to be routed through an internetwork.

 Is the link
layer incapable of detecting an error in a received frame?  

There is a different method for error
correction and detection. there is no need to forward a
datagram that has an error, many link-layer protocols provide a mechanism to
detect the presence of one or more errors. This is done by having the
transmitting node set error-detection bits in the frame, and having the
receiving node perform an error check. Error detection is a very common service
among link-layer protocols. Error correction is similar to error detection,
except that a receiver cannot only detect whether errors have been introduced
in the frame but can also

 determine exactly where in the frame
the errors have occurred (and hence correct these errors).

So we can use different
method for error detection and correction.


Is flow control one of the
services provided by the link layer?

Flow control manage the
throating the speed of sender to match of the beneficiary. This the dynamic
procedure. Flow control coordinates the amount of data that can be sent before
receiving acknowledgement.  It is one of
the most important functions of data link layer. • Flow control is a set of
procedures that tells the sender how much data it can transmit before it must
wait for an acknowledgement from the receiver.

The hubs on each side of
a connection have a constrained measure of edge buffering limit. This is a
potential issue, as a getting hub may get outlines at a rate speedier than it
can process the casings over some time interim. Without stream control, the
recipient’s cushion can flood and edges can get lost. Like the vehicle layer, a
connection layer convention can give stream control so as to keep the sending
hub on one side of a connection from overpowering the getting hub on the
opposite side of the connection.

flow control method uses a common protocol that contains well defined rules
about a sender may transmit the next frame.


What operations does the link
layer support?

The link layer ensures the suitable physical convention is allocated to
the information. The information interface layer is the second layer in the OSI
Model. The three fundamental elements of the information connect layer are to
manage transmission blunders, direct the stream of information, and give an all
around characterized interface to the system layer.

The Data Link Layer is
isolated into two sub layers: true blue association control (LLC) and media get
the chance to control (MAC). The LLC sub layer supervises correspondences
between contraptions over a single association of a framework. This sub layer
reinforces fields in associate layer traces that enable diverse higher layer
traditions to share a singular physical association.

The MAC sub layer
oversees tradition access to the physical framework medium. Through the MAC
watches out for that are typically named to all ports on a device, diverse
contraptions on the same physical association can especially perceive each
other at the Data Link Layer. Mac addresses are used as a piece of development
to the framework watches out for that are ordinarily composed physically on
ports inside a framework.

Link layer Introduction.

Some wording: host and
switches are hubs and correspondence channel that interface nearby hubs along
correspondence way are joins.

Wired connections,
remote connections, LANs.

Layer 2 bundle is
outline exemplifies information gram.






In this lesson we look
at the information interface layer – its administrations, the standards hidden
its operation, and various critical information connect layer conventions. We
discover that the fundamental administration of the information connect layer
is to move a system layer datagram from one hub (host or switch) to a
neighboring hub. We explore the distinctive administrations a connection layer
convention can give notwithstanding this essential administration, including
join get to administrations, conveyance administrations, stream control
administrations and transmission administrations. These distinctions are
expected to some degree to a wide assortment of connection sorts over which
information interface conventions must work. We look at blunder discovery and
remedy, benefits that are frequently present in interface layer conventions. We
research numerous get to conventions, regularly utilized as a part of LANs

Link Layer:

Setting the Context
Almost all connection layer conventions epitomize each system layer datagram
inside a connection layer outline before transmission onto the connection. An
edge comprises of an information field, in which the system – layer datagram is
embedded, and various header fields. (A casing may likewise incorporate trailer
fields; in any case, we will allude to both header and trailer fields as header
handle.) An information interface convention determines the structure of the
edge, and also a channel get to convention that indicates the guidelines by
which an edge is transmitted onto the connection. For point-to-point connects
that have a solitary sender toward one side of the connection and a solitary
beneficiary at the flip side of the connection, the connection get to
convention is basic (or non-existent) – the sender can send a casing at
whatever point the connection is sit without moving. The all the more
fascinating case is the point at which numerous hubs share a solitary
communicate connect – the purported various get to issue.


For a given
correspondence interface, the connection layer convention is, generally,
executed in a connector. A connector is a board (or a PCMCIA card) that
ordinarily contains RAM, DSP chips, a host transport interface, and a
connection interface. Connectors are likewise normally known as system
interface cards or NICs. The system layer in the transmitting hub (that is, a
host or switch) passes a system layer datagram to the connector that handles
the sending side of the correspondence interface. The connector exemplifies the
datagram in a casing and after that transmits the casing into the
correspondence interface. At the opposite side, the accepting connector gets
the whole edge, extricates the system layer datagram, and passes it to the
system layer

In the event that the
link layer convention gives

l blunder recognition,
at that point it is the sending connector that sets the mistake location bits
and it is the getting connector that performs mistake checking; l solid
conveyance, at that point the systems for dependable conveyance (for instance,
succession numbers, clocks, and affirmations) are altogether executed in the
connectors; l arbitrary get to, at that point the irregular get to convention
is completely actualized in the connectors.