1. A)

The Indian anti-corruption movement, which started in 2011, was a series of demonstrations and protests across India intended to establish strong legislation and enforcement against political corruption. The movement was named among the “Top 10 News Stories of 2011” by Time magazine.

The movement gained momentum from April 2011, when anti-corruption activist Anna Hazare began a hunger strike at the Jantar Mantar in New Delhi. The chief legislative aim of the movement was to alleviate corruption in the Indian government through introduction of the Jan Lokpal Bill.

Anna Hazare embarked on a series of hunger strikes in protest of the graft. Hazare’s fasts — even the threat of them — triggered mass demonstrations of support across India’s major cities and heaped pressure on the government to create an independent ombudsman body capable of investigating the nation’s political elites — even the Prime Minister — and bringing the corrupt to justice.

The Parliament of India enacted The Lokpal and Lokayuktas Act, 2013 a few days after the Delhi election in December 2013. This kept in check the corruption in the government of India, more than what previously had been checked.

 

 

B)

1.    Democracy is representative. All eligible voters can vote on choosing representatives that make important decisions for the country. This shows equality in the voting system.

2.    Democracy is most commonly a republic, where it has a written constitution of basic rights that protect the minority from being completely unrepresented or overridden by the majority. This protects the rights of all the people in a democracy.

3.    Democracy does not allow a concentration of power. It creates a dispersion of power by giving the control to the people. It does not restraint the people by taking away their power.

4.    Democracy attributes independence to the nation. It does not fall under any other nation or an authoritarian to be run, but rather, its own people, and their own laws. This creates a sense of liberty and freedom among the citizens.

Democracy

Freedom

Representative

Equality

Republic

Rights

Dispersion of power

Unrestrained

Independent

Liberty

 C)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2. A)

China has banned references to hip-hop culture and actors with tattoos from appearing in the media as part of a crackdown on “low taste content”.

There were four “don’ts” that the media must now abide by, according to Gao Changli, the publicity department director at the State Administration of Press, Publication, Radio, Film and Television of the People’s Republic of China. 

·      Absolutely do not use actors whose heart and morality are not aligned with the party and whose morality is not noble

·      Absolutely do not use actors who are tasteless, vulgar and obscene

·      Absolutely do not use actors whose ideological level is low and have no class

·      Absolutely do not use actors with stains, scandals and problematic moral integrity

Chinese news outlet Sina reported that the regulator now “specifically requires that programs should not feature actors with tattoos or depict hip hop culture, sub-culture and dispirited culture.”

Hip hop artists Wang Hao, known as “PG One” and Zhou Yan, known as “GAI”, both won popular television show “Rap of China “, but both were sanctioned in recent weeks for bad behavior or content at odds with Communist Party values.  The ban follows the removal of the prominent rapper GAI from Hunan TV’s Singer, a hit competition show. Clips of GAI were also removed from China Hunan TV’s official Youtube Channel, but no official explanation has been given. PG One was forced to apologize for lewd lyrics, which critics said were insulting to women and encouraged the use of recreational drugs.

Last July, Beijing’s Municipal Bureau of Culture said it was “not appropriate” for Justin Bieber to tour in China because previous performances there had created “public dissatisfaction.” A month later, organizers aiming to bring Grammy Award-winning artists to China said they would only “promote artists with a positive and healthy image.”

Political journalist Gao Yu said the move seems similar in tone to the “anti spiritual pollution” censorship campaigns of the 1980s, when rock’n’roll stars like Cui Jian were the target. Wu Fan, editor in chief of the U.S.-based Chinese-language magazine Chinese Affairs, said there was no basis in law or aesthetics for the move. “My feeling is that they are going back to the Cultural Revolution era, or the period just before it,” he said. “Back then, they had ‘clean-up’ campaigns too, and you couldn’t sing or perform anything that wasn’t in accordance with Mao Zedong Thought.”

Chinese citizens took to the internet to vent, and left many negative comments on social media.

B)        

1.    China is a unitary state. It is a state governed as a single power in which the central government is supreme. It gives the privilege of decision making to the state, and is often contrasted with federations.

2.    Chinese government has authority over its citizens. It can take away permission to various things such as hip hop music in this case, when it feels like the culture and heritage is being threatened.

3.    The central government has supremacy. It has control over the rights of the people, even basic human rights such as freedom of speech in this case.

4.    The political parties in China rule the land. They decide the civil rights of the people according to their will.

 

 

Democracy

Freedom

Unitary                       

Privilege

Authority

Permission

Supremacy

Free speech

Political

Civil rights

 C)

 

 

 

 

 

3. A)

Alexei Navalny, Russia’s best-known opposition leader, was barred from running in the upcoming elections after a 2017 criminal conviction for embezzlement.

Navalny, a long time critic of President Vladimir Putin, was arrested during nationwide rallies protesting what the opposition leader calls rigged presidential elections set to take place on March 18, 2018. Mr Navalny – President Vladimir Putin’s most vocal critic – is barred from standing in the 18 March election.

Earlier, police raided his offices in Moscow, reportedly seizing equipment.

In more than one hundred cities across the country, Russians took to the streets in support of opposition politician Alexei Navalny’s call for what he has termed a “voters’ strike.” Navalny called for the boycott earlier in January after being barred from registering as a candidate due to a prior criminal conviction. Demonstrations have ranged from gatherings of a few dozens in remote areas to about a thousand people in central Moscow.

Putin controls and dominates Russian State TV, where there has so far been no mention of the demonstrations.

The Kremlin has rejected allegations of widespread, high-level corruption and has condemned Navalny as a dangerous influence whose calls for protests could plunge Russia into chaos.

B)

1.    Russia practices universal adult suffrage, where every citizen over the age of 18 with very few exceptions are allowed to vote in elections. This is a basic human right.

2.    The laws practiced in Russia are constitutional, they allow the basic civil rights of the country’s citizens.

3.    Although everyone can vote, there is no real choice, as the current president ensures that the opposition is handled to not win the elections. The choice as well as the freedom is limited.

4.    There is no inclusion that is seen in the political system of Russia, as the current president has remained in power for 18 years. The rights of the people have been compromised in subtle ways slowly over a decade such that they seem to be a democracy from the outside but its characteristics are not practiced. For example, the freedom of press is clearly suppressed by the president in this case.

 

Yes:

Democracy

Freedom

Suffrage

Human rights

Constitutional

Civil rights

 

 

 

 

No:

Democracy

Freedom

Real choice

Limited

Active participation

Freedom of press