The term “dynamic” nature of health, is interpreted as always having a constant change overtime. This type of change depends on the impact of the actions that have been taken upon or challenged. According to the WHO, health is a state of complete social, mental and physical well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. This assertion is indicating that an individual cannot be contemplated as a healthy well-being if they do not have a complete state of well-being that include the mental, social and physical factors.
There are four main determinants of health that can influence a young person’s health, which are the individual factors, socio cultural factors, socio economic factors and environmental factors. Individual factors, such as attitude, genetics and skills and knowledge affect a young persons health status. Technology, such as the internet has attained information about health. However, this information still does persuade people to live a healthy lifestyle. Genetics are passed on by chromosomal formation, hence heredity diseases can be obtained.
Socio-cultural factors such as religion, media, peers, family and culture also have an influence. Religion provides social support, a sense of purpose and a moral code. On the other hand, certain religions are judgemental, aggressive and prejudice e. g of a young person being same sex attracted, which can contribute to poor health. The media advertises programs devoted to live a healthy life. However, often the media exposes and influences too much, leading people to become easily overwhelmed.
Peers influence young people as they enhance in social support and involvement in physical activities, but negative decision making by peers can lead to danger or low health status. Family have a strong impact as young people are looked after by elders. However young people from disadvantaged families or one parent hound are likely to have a poorer health status. Cultural factors can make a young person feel accepted in society within ethnic groups. But, language difficulties, socio exclusion and isolation can lead to mental problems and limit health literacy.
Socio Economic Factors include employment, income and education. Being employed creates a bond between occupation and health, however unemployment can lead to poorer health psychologically such as alienation and low self esteem. Education ends up to higher income, and a clear knowledge to achieve a healthy lifestyle as a young person can be educated through school family etc. If young people are uneducated the opposite occurs, hence they can involve themselves in smoking. Income purchases goods and services and are beneficial towards health.
More educated young people would end up having professional jobs and a higher income compare to unskilled workers. Environmental factors consist of geographical location, access to health services and to technology. Young people that live outside the metropolitan areas can easily access heath care services, where as rural people are limited from these benefits. Young males in rural areas are socially pressured and take part in risky behaviour with farm vehicles. Living isolated in communities has increased the suicide level of young rural males.
Many groups in society have difficulty accessing health services, due to non-english speaking. They cannot absorb information as quickly as English speakers and hence still be confused. Access to technology can be difficult in remote areas as the health services and support can be a long distant travel and costly. There is a higher risk of poor dimensions of health due to limited access to health services. However, internet is available and affordable in these types of areas.
The three different approaches to health promotion consist of lifestyle and behavioural approaches, preventative medical approaches and public health approaches. Lifestyle and behavioural approaches are to improve risk factors to individual behaviour such as poor eating habits, physical inactivity, smoking, unsafe sexual activity and drug and alcohol abuse. It aims to change the level of the population to adjust to healthy behaviour choices. An example of lifestyle and behavioural approach is the national tobacco campaign, as smoking is a behavioural choice that all individuals have control over.
With plenty of media influences, the campaign aims to prevent increases of young smokers, make them aware of the future consequences and diseases, and promote how to live a healthy lifestyle without cynical factors. Preventative medical approaches targets both the remedies for illnesses as well as deterrents and medical impact reduction on the lives of individuals. These preventative medical techniques prevail at primary, secondary and tertiary stages. Doctors, nurses and other health professionals are all involved in these approaches to assist young people.
An example of a preventative medical approach is the HPV Vaccination program which is school-based. Young girls aged 12-13 are immunised during school. Vaccinating young girls prevents the chance of the virus spreading, hence being a primary approach. However, parental consent is required for this procedure. A public health promotion is to influence young people and communities to be lively engaged in controlling their health needs and provide strategies to do so.
These programs try to explain the determinants that take part in poor health such as access to affordable nutritious food, housing, income, employment, social isolation, transport isolation, transport, geographical location and education, and try to construct more healthier backgrounds that encourages young people to make promising health choices. The Eat it, Work it, Move it, was a program in a school in Sydney which involved students and teachers and outlined the risks and increases of obesity. In the 12 month period, they school had received positive results of their aims.