18.104.22.168.Spatial / Visual
intelligence refers to the ability to perceive the visual-spatial world
accurately. This intelligence relies heavily on images, pictures, maps color,
line, shape, form, space in order to communicate and to organize information.
It involves visualizing and representing spatial ideas. According to Teele
(2000), visually inclined learners enjoy doing maps, charts, diagrams, jigsaw
and mazes ,puzzles as well. Architects, designers, photographers, sculptors,
and inventors possess a high level of visual intelligence.
It is also known as “self-smart”. It
refers to as self knowledge and the ability to act accordingly on that
basis .Learner with a highly developed intrapersonal intelligence “can easily
access her own feelings, discriminate between many different kinds of inner
emotional states, and use her self-understanding to enrich and guide her
life” (Armstrong, 1993, p. 11).
This intelligence involves awareness of one’s strengths and weakness,
thoughts, motivations, and moods .An interpersonal learners have a good sense
of self-esteem, self-regulation and self-discipline. They prefer working alone
rather than working with others .They also respond well to a set of medium
including journals, bibliography, and diary etc.
This intelligence is trigged by
interactions with others. According to Gardner (1983), an individual with a
highly developed interpersonal intelligence understands and distinguishes others’
motivations, intentions, needs, and their desires .It involves being sensitive
to verbal communications such as voice and nonverbal cues like facial
expressions, voice and gestures. Learners who are strong at interpersonal
intelligence “may have been labeled “too talkative” or
“excessivelySocial” in the traditional classroom” (Mckenzie, 2005,
p.12).Students with interpersonal tendency learn best interacting with others.
They do enjoy engaging in social gatherings such as committees’ and clubs.
Politicians, teachers, Clinicians and religious leaders are likely to exhibit a
strong interpersonal intelligence
Bodily / kinesthetic intelligence
This intelligence is trigged
through physical interaction with the environment .Gardner (1999) defines bodily
intelligence as the capacity to use one’s whole body or parts of it to solve
problems or to create something. This intelligence involves certain physical
skills such as coordination, strength, flexibility, and speed, as well as haptic
abilities. Students who are strong at physical activities learn best by doing.
This means that “they thrive in hands-on learning environments” (Mckenzie,
2005, p.12). Dancers, athletes and surgeons exhibit a well-developed
22.214.171.124. Musical intelligence
This intelligence is referred to
as “Sound Intelligence”,” Sound Smart “and “Musical-Rhythmic Intelligence”. This
intelligence involves musical skills such as composing, performing, and
appreciating music (Gardner, 1999). According to Nicholson-Nelson (1998)
individuals who are sensitive to pitch and rhythm have a musical intelligence.
They enjoy listening to music and recognizing sounds. Their learning is
associated with singing, humming, rapping, recording and
tapping and so on. Musicians,Singers, songwriters,dancers,
composers, and music teachers exhibit a strong musical intelligence.
The naturalist intelligence was
proposed afterwards. Gardner (1999)
defines this type of intelligence as the ability to recognize and classify species
of environment . This intelligence has
to do hierarchies and categories. According to Armstrong (1993) “the naturalist reveals the intelligence of the
“green thumb”that knack that some people have to garden, to nurture household plants,
create wonderful landscapes, or in other ways show a natural care for flora”
(p. 225). Hunters, fishermen, farmers and
gardeners exhibit a well developed naturalistic intelligence.
Gardner (1999) identifies the
existential intelligence as “human capacity to raise and ponder large
questions” (p.19) .It is the understanding of processes within a large context.
It subsumes philosophy and religion and
underscores the values of beauty, truth as well as goodness. It allows learners
to see their place in the big picture in relation to the classroom, the
community or the universe. Students with a well-developed existential
intelligence are able to summarize and synthesize ideas from various