Intelligence
is
a basic construct on which individuals differ from one another. Intelligence is
one of the important concepts in psychology that is difficult to define and complex
to measure. The word intelligence
is derived for the Latin nouns
“intelligentia” or
“intellectus”, refers to “comprehend or perceive”. As per the Oxford Dictionary
“intelligence is the power of Perceiving, learning, Understanding, and knowing”.
Early intelligence theorists also used these attributes while opertionalize it.
Alfred Binet was one of the first psychologists who worked on intelligence. In 1916,
Binet defined intelligence as a general intellectual capacity, to reason well
with abstract materials, to comprehend well, to have clear direction of
thoughts, to relate thinking with attainment of desirable goals, and to be self
critical. In 1923, Boring defined intelligence as whatever the intelligence
test measures. In other words, Boring’s definition highlights that when we administer
an intelligence test, we implicitly accept as intelligence whatever the test
measures. Thurstone in 1938 was the first person to define “intelligence as a
combination of groups of traits or factors”. According to Wechsler (1944),
intelligence is “the aggregate or global capacity of the individual to act
purposefully, to think rationally, and to deal effectively with his
environment”. While Stoddard (1943) definedĀ 
intelligence as “the ability to undertake activities that are characterised
by (1) difficulty (2) complexity (3) abstractness (4) economy (5) adaptiveness
to goals (6) social value and (7) the emergency of originals and to maintain
such activities under conditions that demand a concentration of energy and
resistance to emotional forces.” Besides, some theorists also define
intelligence in terms of ability to learn (Piaget, 1950).He defined
intelligence on the basis of assimilation and accommodation, which together
determines a person’s ability to learn. In 1987, Snyderman and Rothman
opertionalize intelligence in terms of (1) abstract thinking or reasoning (2)
problem solving ability (3) capacity to acquire knowledge (4) Memory (5)
Adaptation to one’s environment.