1. IntroductionThe workforce of the future is not going to be the same.
When the 20th century was making its entry then no one would have even had the figment that it’s the women who will the workforce of the future. The introduction of service sector industry to world economy made this impossible to get happened. This service sector industry is actually poised to get dominated by the female workforce.
If the variations in the percentage are being observed, we will find that in the period between 1900 and 2003, the percentage of the work force that is white collar increased from than meagre 18% of the total work force to dominant 60.5%. At the same time in the second half of 20th the percentage of manual workers has instead shrunk from a recognizable 41% of the work force in 1950 to a very smaller value of 23% in the year 2003. The rise in white collared jobs has made one considerable change in the social job pattern and now the work force almost a equal proportion of both men and women. The women now i.e., in the year 2003 comprises of around 47% of the total workforce which is much more than the much smaller value of 29% in 1950. In some of the sectors like that of administrative support, technical support, customer support and in some of the professional and technical positions the majority is formed by women while men are now lagging behind (Department of Professional employees, 2006).
The two sectors which have been made a point of research in this report are the Banking and Public Relation and the way women have made their presence felt in these sectors. The research work that has been documented over here aims to derive the result that would have been achieved after comparing the women as a workforce in the two sectors. The primary objective has been the comparison mentioned above while the secondary objective being the two sectors with women as a workforce.
The method applied over here has been depended mainly on secondary research with emphasis being done on analysing data collected from various sources which range from various surveys being done by a number of reliable sources as well previous research work done by eminent personalities making in-depth research on the project and research. The methodology has been extensive with analysis being both quantitative and qualitative in nature. The outline of the method is as follows:· Research Methodology1. Research Framework2. Research Tool3.
Sampling The research methodology has been designed while taking into consideration the three general feature that are being supposed to have an association with the proposed research work i.e., it should be exploratory, descriptive and explanatory (Eriksson and Wiedersheim-Paul, 1997). The exploratory outlook is for increasing the understanding of the problem (Saunders et al, 2000); while the descriptive study approach looks at the isolated empirical generalisations that have published and made available for further study (Miles and Huberman, 1994). Explanatory research is for beginning with various complex issues associated with the project and then is being applied to make them more understandable by examining cause and effect relationship (Miles and Huberman, 1994). The project has been of great importance in understanding various facts that are related to women and their ability in various technical and financial sectors.
The Banking and Public Relation were used to be predominantly a male dominated sectors but now both of these important sectors in this new economy have made way for women and the complicated matters related to finance, banking and Public relation are no longer a male bastion and women are contributing same vigour. 2. Literature Review 2.
1 IntroductionThe world has grown into a big industrialized society which is growing at the rate unprecedented in mankind. This industrial revolution in its beginning made a very perfect social order getting stretched into family where men have to be the bread winner while the women use to play the role of care providers. This social life had been designed to organize the matter related to a sound gender arrangement.
Women used to withdrew from paid work and concentrate on raising children and performing necessary household jobs. The case was as such that work and family life were treated as two separate affairs of life (Gerson, 2004). But in the last few decades there has been dramatic change in the picture related to the private spheres of life and livelihood.
The women have started taken their career very seriously and instances of working women is on rise. More and more women are joining various sectors and are working longer hours often comparable to men. The women have now changed the social scenario and are progressively taking up various roles in the public sphere and their availability at home is getting lessened. Statistical information has given detailed report related to the rise in the number of working women over the 20th century.
In the beginning it was around 5.1 million i.e.
, 18% of the total work force in the year 1900. It saw a marginal increase to 18.4 million in the year 1950 but made a massive growth to 65.7 million in 2005 with percentage being 46.4 of the total workforce. This number is expected to rise up to 76 million by 2014 with expected percentage being 46.8 of the total work force (Hecker, 2004).
This sudden rise in last few decades can be attributed to rise in service sectors which require large number of white collared professionals. The clear picture comes from the data which suggests that almost 73% of working women had white collar occupations in 2005 and this percentage is going to rise with every passing year (Department of Professional employees, 2006).2.2 Women as WorkforceWomen are now forming a majority of professional employees but their occupational distributions is much different than that of men. In United States, a data related to the year 2005 gives details which suggested that women comprises of almost 92% of registered nurses, 82% of all elementary and middle school teachers, and 98% of all preschool and kindergarten teachers.
This can suggest that the teaching sector especially that of primary and secondary as well health care have been the most female dominant sector. Since these sectors are often related wit care and compassion so it can be sometimes considered as an extended form of the job women used to perform at home. But in sectors which are related to science and technology, the number of women working is quite less. There are only 13% women civil engineers and electrical and electronics it gets reduced to 7% and as pilot there are only 3% females (Department of Professional employees, 2006).
Continuing with the economic responsibilities associated with working women apart from the family it has been found in the year 2004 that around 49% percent of working women are unmarried which clearly shows that participation of married women as a workforce is no longer a rarity instead its s majority. Academically the women are better performers and have been earning more bachelor’s degree then men. The situation in master’s degree is the same. The level of women participation in higher education is quite evident from the facts which shows that in first professions degrees conferred to women have risen from2.6% in the year 1961 to 46% percent in the year 2004. The same pattern has been observed in case of doctoral degrees as well as law school (Department of Professional employees, 2006).
The trend that is being depicted above has successfully shown that the women have now made their working ability useful enough to present themselves as an able workforce despite a number of issues that generally play against them in form of social as well as familiar obligations.2.3 Banking and contribution of women in the sectorWith rise in instances of women joining various sectors as an employee, banking sector is also looking at them with great enthusiasm and is employing a very active recruitment strategy for enabling women to work under their fold. Several banks especially the private banks are now leading the field in hiring process. The list of active recruiters includes Barclays Wealth, Deutsche Bank, Merrill Lynch, and Citigroup.
This very policy of banks has led to exponential rise in the number of female bankers in recent years particularly the last two decades. The driving force is the rise in nation which suggests that women have qualities which give them a competitive advantage in private banking. This rise in the hiring of female bankers is not just for toning down the gender bias in industrial sector or some sort of political correctness measures but actually has come into foreground to make up for the shortage of skills in the financial services industry through tapping the inherent quality of women to explain matters with patience laced with the knowledge of finance and new age business policies thereby helping the banks to capitalize on increased opportunities. The issue is no longer related to affirmative action and private bank are hiring women for their talent not their gender (Datamonitor, 2007) The complete picture gets displayed with the number of banks which have routinely making their place of work as one of the best in work lists of Working Mother and Fortune so that they could be well be considered as a very desirable to work giving full regards to women sensibilities. Some of the leading organizations are the Chase, Bank of America and Union Bank. They have received consistent high marks for their diversity programs and progressive policies to ensure advancement of women and minorities (Datamonitor, 2007). Technology has its own effect on the rise in the number of women working under various departments of banks Introduction of IT has also been a very important reason and has made many women’s manufacturing jobs redundant and instead have created a very large number of jobs in service sector. Service sector have been found to be the most desirable job for women with importance being given to customer care, intelligent decision making and management policies while the physical strength has become a backstage issue.
Various service sector industries including information processing, banking, insurance, printing, and publishing are on rise. These sectors require higher skill than manufacturing sector. Out of these the majority of women in the service sector are in information processing, particularly data entry. Banking being a very data intensive sector has considerably made progress in women employment (Prussel, 2007).;The main thrust in hiring women for more responsible positions in private banking has been the increasing importance of Relationship Managers. Women as Relationship Managers have been found to be the more beneficial for the banks and have helped in making further heading in most lucrative commercial banking which requires direct deals with individuals.
The increased interest in hiring women for some of the important positions has also attracted women to join banking sector (Prussel, 2007).;With increase in interest among women to join banking sector the banks have been using its female employee base for making further inroads into women customers through attracting women into the private banking customer base. The personalized banking relationship developed by female bankers with women customers have actually transformed themselves as an able wealth managers presenting themselves as a major helping hand to many women customers as hand of support providing them every possible banking benefits ranging from simple savings account to personal loans (Prussel, 2007).;2.
4 Public Relation and contribution of women in the sectorPublic Relation has been one of the major sectors which are now no longer a male bastion. The industry which was at one time dominated by men is now boasts of more women professionals than the men. The sector at one time in the year 1987 was employing four times more men than women with ration being 20:80 has seen dramatic change and in this tear i.e.
, 2007 it’s the women who are dominating the workforce with a ratio of 60:40. The majority is now of women who have drawn a niche of themselves in the sector. This growth has also been due to shortage of men coming into the fold of Public Relation and the required workforce being compensated through the recruitment of women (Sharp End infoseek, 2002).;Women PR professionals have been found to be very successful and their success have been attributed to the high flexibility factor associated with this sector. The flexible work culture and associated career growth opportunity helps working women to concentrate on work as well as the act of balancing family.
PR is perhaps one of the most fragmented professions in the western world and the whole class of professionals comprises of various types of professionals including in-house, independent and consultancy-based practitioners. The rise in use of IT and corresponding use of electronic technology has also propagated the rise of independent sector which led to the creation of thousands of individuals and freelance operators comprising mainly of women PR professionals. Though the top executive posts are still under the control of male managers but the way the women are making entry into the sector, nay in next decade this difference will also get an exit. But as we move towards the middle management tiers, the gender gap widens with large number of women executives and women as a whole dominate the work place (Sharp End infoseek, 2002)..
;There might be many reasons behind the above mentioned success of women as PR professionals but the most prominent of all is their willingness to be totally hands- on and are always ready to take on administrative roles right from the entry level positions and work their way up the seniority level. Women also have been found to be more practical than theoretical particularly in the circumstance which necessitates more attention to detail for obtaining much needed critical success behind any of the award-winning PR campaigns. One of the main reasons behind the rising dominance of women in the market place as PR professionals is that of on a different level of thinking they generally apply at the same time. Apart from this women have been a very good listener and it’s this ability induced with patience has helped them in applying personalized methodology on every individual while paying full attention to their problems and matters. So the list of positives associated with women begins with them selves being better listeners, more methodical in decision making, less confrontational or argumentative and the possibility of getting off the directions is last thing that actually happens with them (Sharp End infoseek, 2002)..;Looking at the profession as a whole, one can easily recognize that the profession of PR is related more towards making new relationship and then developing the same while bringing influence to bear.
The women have been the master of making new relations and have taken this process out of any formal or business type instinct and have personalized the whole process. The loyalty has now been the most prominent issue and women are more flexible in accommodating loyalty in service. The revolution in the PR profession making way for more and more female employees with employers showing enough flexibility to provide ample support to its female professionals in form of accommodating return-to work mothers in their fold has made this sector the most congenial for women to work.
So the crowd now belongs to women who are not only highly qualified but also competent enough to make big in the industry. The onus has now shifted to men if they really want to do something big in the industry. They are now on test. Their intelligence and extraordinary communication skill is now the only tool to raise others if they want themselves to get noticed. The profession of PR is a very different zone altogether. Women are something a regular feature while men are becoming a rarity with every passing day (Sharp End infoseek, 2002)..
2.5 Comparing the two sectors;Banking and PR are the two prominent white collared jobs in this service industry based economy. Both of them were initially predominantly male dominated sectors.
But when globalization came into fore and due to increased scope of business and shortage of skilled workforce, the corporations started looking towards women to fill up the shortages. But the above mentioned move turned out to be potent enough to change the scenario of women workforce in these industries. The banking sector has now evolved to a level where women are growing parallel to their male counterparts.
Though their number at higher positions or top management is quite negligible but they are a considerable force at middle stage administrative setup and are equally dominating at lower levels.;Things in PR profession are a bit different. Women are the dominating entities while men are fast becoming a rarity. The flexibility factor has been the most beautiful part of this profession and hence has attracted a large number of women professionals. The inherent ability of women have been found to be more than beneficial in projecting themselves as a better professionals with a class of their own utilizing various IT enabled units as well as electronic items for working as a freelance in PR profession.3. Methodology3.1 IntroductionThis research will examine the importance and position of women in the sectors of Banking and Public Relation and comparing the performance of the women workforce in the two sectors.
The approach will be based on proven methodologies applied to the market, starting with an in-depth literature review followed by secondary research. This research will concentrate on the research methodologies for the primary research.;3.2 Research MethodologyBefore research is undertaken it is important to determine the general approach that is to be used. Looking at the goals that are to be attended and the way research can help to attain these goals.;3.2.1 Research FrameworkEriksson and Wiedersheim-Paul (1997) has stated that the purpose of the research is to tell the readers of the paper the intentions of the study and how these results can be utilised.
With the understanding of the purpose the methodological design can take place.;There are three general structures that can be used in research terms; exploratory, descriptive and explanatory (Eriksson and Wiedersheim-Paul, 1997). Where there is a problem and the purpose of the study is to increase the understanding of that problem the exploratory approach can be very useful (Saunders et al, 2000).
This is an approach that looks at gathering the basic data regarding the problem and the scenario and has the aim of developing that knowledge and proposition that can then be used for further research (Yin, 1994).;The descriptive study approach looks at the isolated empirical generalisations that have already been study and published and tries to explain these (Miles and Huberman, 1994). This can be defined as making “complicated things understandable by reducing them to their component parts” (Miles and Huberman, 1994). This is most suitable where the research is not to look at the research between the causes and the symptoms, but wants to understand, predict or decide (Eriksson and Wiedersheim-Paul, 1997).;Explanatory research takes complex issues and then tries to make them more understandable by examining the connections between the different parts by examining cause and relationship (Miles and Huberman, 1994). When this approach is utilised the research need to consider the use of more than a single research model as this would not be sufficient to explain the observed phenomena and create a full explanation that can be tested.;It is worth noting that when undertaking research there is no need for the methodology to be confined to only a single approach, indeed it has been suggested that mixed approaches can be very valuable with the research itself broken down into three stages of exploratory, descriptive and explanatory (Reynolds, 1971).
;The stage of the research depends on the existing knowledge within the area, at the explanatory stage the aim is for the researcher to obtain a better understanding of the area of research. In the following stage there is the aim to develop descriptions of the patterns which are observed that may have been indicated as expected at the exploratory stage (Reynolds, 1971). The last stage is that of explanatory at which stage the research that has already taken place can be utilised in order to determine the relationship between the cause and effect this can then provide a researcher with a cycle of construction of the theory, hypothesis testing and the restatement of the theory (Reynolds, 1971).;This research has the aim of collecting data, assessing and describing the patterns seen in the Banking and Public Relation with respect to women as work force. When considering the way in which the research can be undertaken there are two philosophies; inductive and deductive, but both are able to produce valid results (Eriksson and Wiedersheim-Paul, 1997).
Where there is the use of empirical data and research will draw conclusions from this empirical data and then applying and apply theories and models observed in the real world this is an inductive approach. Where there is an approach that makes use of existing theories and testing these theories this is deductive research (Eriksson and Wiedersheim-Paul, 1997).;This approach to the research will ensure that the attention is focused on what can viable be achieved within the time frame and budget and also on the context of work that has already taken place, which is lacking.The data has to be gathered from the population being sampled, so the next consideration is the way in which sampling will take place.;3.2.2 Research ToolQuantitative research over here has relied more on the large amount of results, with the recorded data being mainly numerical in type and has been suitably used as a method of determining cause and effect relationships (Curwin and Slater, 2001).
But this qualitative research is narrower and more concentrated by looking to information to be gained in-depth from a smaller quantity of subjects (Curwin and Slater, 2001). Since the data over here require phenomenal research of Grounded theory as well as historical research hence this Qualitative research is best suited for getting applied (Curwin and Slater, 2001).;Since the research undertaken over here has been basically done on analysing how the Women have grown and contributed in the two sectors as well as the change in the social pattern of the state, the study of the same is going add something to the existing knowledge. Therefore, we must consider the different aspects of research that will characterise a research project as valid; these may include issues such as reliability, validity, objectivity, causality and bias.;Reliability may be perceived as one of the easier objectives.
This is often seen as the ability of the same study to be conducted and the results to prove the same, however repeatability does it mean that a research project is valid and can be relied upon (Denzin, 1978). We have considered other aspects of the research rather that just reliability in order to make the project valid. Reliability must also come from the level of confidence that may be seen in a study from the objectivity or recognised subjectivity which may be seen to arise.;The first stage to recognise that subjectivity is present and then recognised in order to overcome. If we set out to prove a model is true it is easy for the research to be biased, just as if we are looking for specific information other aspects may be ignored or forgotten. As such although the researcher may be biased there are certain measures that can be taken to ensure the research model used can be seen to have been implemented objectively.;With the consideration and design of the research tool the next consideration is that of sampling.
;3.2.3 SamplingWhen looking at the way a sample should be chosen there will be the desire to choose a sample that is representative of the population that is going to be targeted. If the population is not representative then the results will not be representative. The way in which we need to consider the population is to look at the way sampling will be used.
In this scale we need to look into various secondary sources that have given details related to the banking and PR sectors.;The first aspect is whether probability or non-probability sampling should be used. Probability sampling is a more random sampling style, the basis of this is that the selection of each respondent is a matter of chance and that all respondents will have an equal chance of being chosen, in many cases this can be a known probably of the respondent being selected. There are a number of sampling techniques that fall into this category.
These include simple random sampling, systematic sampling, stratified and cluster sampling. In total there are more than 30 probability sampling techniques (Malhotra, 1999).;Random sampling is best defined as a sampling method was any member of the population will not have a zero chance of selection where the chances can be calculated. Looking at these different methods, simple random sampling is the most basic.
This is where all members shave the same chance of being chosen and where the knowledge of another population member being chosen for sampling will not alter the odds. A method of undertaking this is choosing names out of a hat or any other random method.;Stratified sampling is where the population of the sample is separated into distinct groups which do not overlap; this is where stratification is seen. There will then be samples taken from each of these groups. For example, this may be a sample that is divided into male and females, likewise we may look at those who can and do use the internet and those who do not. There may also be the use of age groups, they key is no overlaps between the groups.;The next potential method may be multistage sampling. This may consist of two, three or more stages in the sampling.
The process will start with the division of the population into non-overlapping groups as seen with the stratified sampling. However this is only the first stage, following this a sample of the first stage units will be chosen according to different criteria.;This can be complex, but we could look at using this to use the second stage to ensure that we can gather results which are relevant to the study, such as Banking sector or PR sector and those ladies who are currently contributing to the industry taken into consideration.;In order to overcome the danger of skewed result we will look at non probability sampling techniques as these will have a level of intervention to ensure the sample is representative. The most common is quota sampling, but this will also include judgement sampling, convenience sampling, random route sampling and snowball sampling (Talmage 1988).;Quota sampling is exactly as it appears to sound; there is the definition of quotas to be used.
In many cases these will consist of gender, age groups and social class quotas, which may or may not have crossovers. This is used widely in commercial settings but this is also a method that is not supported as widely in academic circles (Ojeda and Sahai, 2002).;Random route sampling where is there is a route planned and the interviewer may travel that route to gather data and hopefully meet potential subjects. This is a very random method of sampling and is also difficult to gain the correct numbers where there is quantitative data required.
;Snowball sampling is a method that can be used when there is a scenario of a large level of data being required in a short period of time (Talmage 1988). This may be used with a few key people being approached and interviewed which will then lead to more potential candidates being identified (Talmage 1988).;With each of these methods there are advantages and disadvantages, we need to consider which is going to be most appropriate considering the population required and the sample and the sampling method.
Looking at all of these it appears that the most appropriate method will be that snowballing, it is not the fastest but it is likely to provide the best results in identifying potential respondents for the research.;;4. DiscussionThe women are on rise. They are no longer belonging to the section which only looks after household anchors. They have now increased their participation in processes which can earn a livelihood. They are now going to factories, offices, banks and many more places. Their rise has been attributed to the rise in the number of white collared jobs.
The advent of IT has revolutionized the workplace and the same place is now getting more and more women as a reliable workforce.;The data analyzed for this report have actually attributed this growth of women employees to the vast expansion of service sector. The service sector presents one of the most congenial environments of women to work and hence more than 73% of the women workforce as of now has moved to the service sector. The matter of study being the two sectors namely Banking and Public Relation and how the women have made themselves an able employee. The banking sectors have now evolved itself into a sector which is going for equal participation of women in overall distribution of the workforce. But the PR profession has almost caused a revolution and is now predominantly a female stronghold with male female ratio being 40:60. It is the same profession in which the same ratio was 80:20 twenty years back in the year 1987. In banking sector the women are making their presence felt but in the profession as PR they are the dominant entity.
;5. ConclusionThe last two decades have seen major development in all aspect. The technology has changed the very way the world used to be viewed. The IT has led to the creation of a completely different world of service sector industry. The workforce demographics has changed. The women are gaining acceptance in almost all sectors while maintaining the majority which moves towards service industry. This project has been undertaken for analyzing the rise in influence of women workforce as a whole and how the same have gain prominence in banking and PR professions. Though in banking they are very much approaching half of the total workforce but it’s the PR profession where they have become a dominating force.
They are the majority and it is they who form the common ground. The PR professionals have proved that women are competent enough to manage both family and career when flexibility factor is being introduced in the work culture. They are equal in intellectual ability and better in emotional handling of issues.
The project required extensive secondary research and statistical analysis so that actual growth of women as workforce could be depicted and be made a part of this report.;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;5. ReferencesBronfenbrenner, K. (2001), Organizing Women Workers in the Global Economy: Findings from NLRB Certification Elections—1998–1999;Curwin J, Slater R (2001), Quantitative Methods for Business Decisions, London,Thompson Business Press.;Datamonitor (2007) Targeting Women in Private Banking 2007;;Denzin N K. (1978), The Research Act, New York: McGraw-Hill;Department of professional employees (2006) fact Sheet 2004–8, Vital Work Force Statistics;Department of professional employees (2006) fact Sheet 2006, Professional Women: Vital Statistics;Directorate General for Research (2006) Women in science and technology –the business perspective, Science and Society – Women and Science;Eriksson L T; Wiedersheim-Paul F, (1997), Att Utreda, Forska och Rapportera, Malmo, Liber Ekonomi.
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