Evita is the 1996 film adaptation of Tim Rice and Andrew Lloyd Webber’s musical based on the life of Eva Peron. It was directed by Alan Parker and starred Madonna, Antonio Banderas and Jonathan Pryce. It was released on December 25, 1996 by Hollywood Pictures and Cinergi Pictures. Evita traces the life of Eva Duarte (later Eva Duarte de Peron) (Madonna) from a child from the lower class to becoming the first lady and spiritual leader of Argentina.
The film begins with the announcement of Eva’s death and public funeral as the audience is introduced to the film’s narrator, Che (Antonio Banderas), an everyman who tells the story of Eva’s rise to power and subsequent illness and death, appearing in many different guises and serving as Eva’s conscience and critic. The film flashes back to Eva’s childhood, and she is seen as a young girl attempting to attend her father’s funeral in the town of Junin with her mother and siblings.
But her father’s wife and other family (who are middle class) ban Eva’s family from entering and carry Eva out screaming and claiming that she’s her “papa” after she runs in on her own and pays her last respect. At age 15, Eva decides to leave Junin to seek a better life and hitches a ride to Buenos Aires with a tango singer, Augustin Magaldi (Jimmy Nail), with whom she’s having an affair. After Magaldi leaves her, she progresses through several relationships with increasingly influential men, becoming a model, actress and radio personality, until her fateful meeting with Colonel Juan Peron (Jonathan Pryce) at a fundraiser.
Peron’s connection with Eva lends him a populist air, since she is from the working class (as is Peron himself). Eva has a radio show during Peron’s rise and uses all her skills to promote Peron, even when the controlling administration has him jailed in an attempt to stunt his political momentum. The groundswell of support Eva generates forces the government to release Peron, and he finds the people enamored of him and Eva.
Peron wins election to the presidency and Eva promises the new government will serve the “descamisados” (literally, “those without shirts”—i. e. , the working poor). Eva establishes a foundation and distributes aid while the Peronists otherwise plunder the public treasury. Argentine society is very class-based, and the military officer corps and social elites despise Eva’s common roots and affinity for the poor. During a world tour Evita becomes ill and is rushed home.
Towards the end of her life she understands that she is terminally ill but rationalizes that her life was short because she shone like the “brightest fire” and helps Peron prepare to go on without her. A large crowd surrounds the Casa Rosada in a candlelight vigil praying for her recovery when the light of her room goes out, signifying her death. Eva’s funeral is shown again. Che is seen at her coffin, and he kisses it. Individual Psychology presents an optimistic view of people while resting heavily on the notion of social interest, a feeling of oneness with all humankind.
In this assumption, the movie presents Eva Peron delivering dramatic addresses to mass meetings and over the radio waves, bringing up her working class credentials, indentifying herself as one of them – the descamisados, and calling on the working class to back her and Peron. Adler saw people a being motivated mostly by social influences and by their striving for superiority and success. Adler believed that people are largely responsible for who they are. In death, she was transformed into a Virgin Mary style icon, a Saint of the poor, easily managed by a predominantly Catholic country.
Present behavior is shaped by people’s view of the future. Adler believed that psychologically healthy people are usually aware of what they are doing and why they are doing it. Individual Psychology holds that everyone begins life with physical deficiencies that activate feelings of inferiority – feelings that motivate a person to strive for either superiority or success. Eva Duarte was born in a village 150 miles to the west of Buenos Aires. The facts of her early life are obscure, not least because of her efforts in later life to make out that she was younger and had come from a poorer background than was true.
When her father died at seven, the financial position of her family took a plunge. By 1934, however, Eva’s mother had increased her wealth by her running of a boarding-house. Psychologically unhealthy individuals strive for personal superiority, whereas psychologically healthy people seek success for all humanity. Eva Peron was a combination of both. A person’s final goal reduces the pain of inferiority feelings and points that person in the direction of either superiority or success. In striving for their final goal, people create and pursue many preliminary goals.
Evita had many preliminary goals before she ultimately reached her final goal – to become powerful. Peron, who was born out of wedlock, was motivated by her family’s poverty to strive to move to Buenos Aires, where she became an actress. She was a successful radio performer in 1943 when the Army overthrew the Castillo government. Realizing that the Army were the important people to know now, Eva Duarte became the lover of Colonel Imbert, Minister of Posts and Telegraphs. But her aims were higher. She deliberately sought out Colonel Juan Peron, seen as the strong man among the colonels.
Peron, an ardent admirer of Hitler, had been a driving force in the Group of United Officers that had engineered the coup. Peron realized the regime could not survive for long without the help of other sectors of Argentinean society outside the military. He looked for the active support of the working class. He was put in charge of the Ministry of Labor as a first step in this maneuver. Peron first met Eva Duarte at a concert given for survivors of an earthquake in January 1944. The charity work she did there was to become a large part of her future career.
The publicity given from the charity work put her in the spotlight, helping her in her show business career. Peron was also using the earthquake tragedy to put himself forward as a champion of the poor, indeed Eva Duarte sang his praises on the radio before she had met him. At the concert Eva jettisoned Imbert, and became Peron’s lover. Adler (1956) used the analogy of the playwright who builds the characteristics and subplots of the play according to the final goal of the drama. When the final scene is known, all dialogue and every subplot acquire new meaning.
When an individual’s final goal is known, all actions make sense and each subplot takes a new significance. In all of Latin America, only one other woman has aroused an emotion, devotion and faith comparable to those awakened by the Virgin of Guadalupe. In many homes, the image of Evita is on the wall next to the Virgin. According to Nicholas Frasier, biographer of Evita, “In her own country, her story is at last part of history, arousing the sort of peaceful controversy one might expect from so astonishing career. In the rest of the world however, she has attained the condition of apotheosis. In a 1996 interview, Tomas Eloy Martinez referred to Eva Peron as “the Cinderella of the tango and the Sleeping Beauty of Latin America”. Martinez suggested Eva Peron has remained an important cultural icon for the same reasons as fellow Argentine Che Guevara: “Latin American myths are more resistant than they seem to be. Not even the mass exodus of the Cuban raft people or the rapid decomposition and isolation of Fidel Castro’s regime have eroded the triumphal myth of Che Guevara, which remains alive in the dreams of thousands of young people in Latin America, Africa and Europe.
Che as well as Evita symbolize certain naive, but effective, beliefs: the hope for a better world; a life sacrificed on the altar of the disinherited, the humiliated, the poor of the earth. They are myths which somehow reproduce the image of Christ. ” People strive for superiority or success as a means of compensation for feelings of inferiority or weakness. In 1920, when Eva was a year old, Duarte returned to his legal family, leaving Juana Ibarguren and her family of five children in a severe state of poverty. As a result of the impoverishment, Ibarguren and her children moved to the poorest area of Junin.
In order to support herself and her children, Ibarguren sewed clothes for neighbors. The family was stigmatized by the abandonment of the father, especially since Argentine law frowned upon illegitimate children. Eva allegedly destroyed her birth certificate in 1945 so as to erase this part of her past. As a result of her success with radio dramas and the films, Eva achieved some financial stability and its comforts. In 1942, she was able to move into her own apartment in the exclusive neighborhood of Recoleta, on 1567 Calle Posadas Street.
The next year Eva began her career in politics, as one of the founders of the Argentine Radio Syndicate (ARA). People are continuously pushed by the need to overcome inferiority feelings and pulled by the desire for completion. Some people strive for superiority with little or no concern for others. Their goals are personal ones, and their strivings are motivated largely by exaggerated feelings of personal inferiority, or the presence of inferiority complex. It was Eva who had shown remarkable resolve when Peron was wavering and preparing to go into exile.
It was she who was a chief architect in mobilizing the masses in a populist show of support for Peron. In the meantime she continued to do what she had been doing before Peron became President. She moved her relatives into positions of power. Her brother became Peron’s private secretary. Husbands and lovers of her sister and mother were given influential positions. This nepotism benefited her family it also allowed her access to provincial government, the Senate, the judiciary, communications, and her husband’s daily schedule.
At the same time she spent a fortune on jewelry, hats and clothes and an extravagant lifestyle – a long way from the lives of the people she made her impassioned speeches to. Some people create clever disguises for their personal striving and may consciously or unconsciously hide their self-centeredness behind the cloak of social concern. Then there was the Eva Peron Foundation. She had set this up when she had been refused the Presidency of a national establishment charity sponsored by upper class women, shortly after Peron became President.
From a show of egotism, the Foundation developed into a kind of welfare state, which built hospitals, schools, orphanages and old peoples’ homes, distributing food, medicine and money. But each act of the Foundation was used as a publicity stunt to show how benevolent Eva Peron was. At the same time many gimmicks were used as grist for the publicity mill. Very poor children were housed and fed for a few days and then flung back into poverty, peso notes were flung at random into the crowd.
At the same time money was raised by the Foundation by a compulsory levy on union members (three days’ pay) a national lottery and enforced contributions from the industrialists. The Foundation gained publicity for Peronism for its good deeds, it bolstered popular support through its “good deeds” – and Eva was able to divert up to $700 million into overseas accounts! She was known to be vengeful as well, often expelling from the Peronist inner circle anyone who had shown the slightest indication of not being completely loyal to the mandates Evita and her husband set forth.
The slightly act of “disloyalty” was grounds for dismissal from the inner circle. It has often been said that Evita blacklisted the artists Libertad Lamarque and Nini Marshall. In contrast to people who strive for personal gain are those psychologically healthy people who are motivated by social interest and the success of all humankind. These healthy individuals are concerned with goals beyond themselves, are capable of helping others without demanding or expecting a personal payoff, and are able to see others not as opponents but as people with whom they can cooperate for social benefit.
The Fundacion Maria Eva Duarte de Peron was created on July 8, 1948. It would later be renamed simply the Eva Peron Foundation. Crassweller (1987) writes that the foundation was supported by donations of cash and goods from the Peronist unions, private businesses, and that the Confederacion General del Trabajo donated three man-days (later reduced to two) of salary for every worker per year. Tax on lottery and movie tickets also helped to support the foundation, as did a levy on casino and revenue from horse races. The foundation also gave scholarships, built homes, hospitals, and other charitable institutions.
Every aspect of the foundation was under Evita’s supervision. The foundation also built entire communities, such as Evita City, which still exists today. Fraser and Navarro (1996) claim that due to the works and health services of the foundation, for the first time in history there was no inequality in Argentine health care. Fraser and Navarro write that it was Evita’s work with the foundation that played a large role in her idealization, leading some to even consider her to be a saint. Though it was unnecessary from a practical standpoint, Evita set aside many hours per day to meet with the poor who requested help from her foundation.
The value of human activity must be seen from the viewpoint of social interest. Social interest can be defined as attitude relatedness with humanity in general as well as empathy for each member of the human community. It manifests itself as cooperation with others for social advancement rather than for personal gain (Adler, 1964). Fraser and Navarro write that toward the end of her life, Evita was working as many as 20 and 22 hours per day in her foundation, often ignoring her husband’s request that she cut back on her workload and take the weekends off.
The more she worked with the poor in her foundation, the more she adopted an outraged attitude toward the existence of poverty, saying, “Sometimes I have wished my insults were slaps or lashes. I’ve wanted to hit people in the face to make them see, if only for a day, what I see each day I help the people. ” In 1947, Eva embarked on a much-publicized “Rainbow Tour” of Europe, meeting with numerous dignitaries and heads of state, such as Francisco Franco and the Pope. The tour was billed not as a political tour but as a non-political “goodwill” tour. During her tour to Europe, Eva Peron was featured in a cover story for Time magazine.
The cover’s caption – “Eva Peron: Between two worlds, an Argentine rainbow” – was a reference to the name given to Eva’s European tour, The Rainbow Tour. In contrast to Freud, Adler (1930, 1956) believed that the psychic life of women is essentially the same as that of men and that a male-dominated society is not natural but rather an artificial product of historical development. According to Adler, cultural and social practices not – anatomy – influence many men and women to overemphasize a condition he called the masculine protest. In many societies, both men and women place an inferior value on being a woman.
Girls often learn to be passive and to accept an inferior position in society. Some women against their feminine roles, developing a masculine orientation and becoming assertive and competitive, others revolt by adopting a passive role, becoming exceedingly helpless and obedient, still others become resigned to the belief that they are inferior human beings, acknowledging men’s privileged position by shifting responsibilities to them. Biographers Fraser and Navarro wrote that Eva Peron has often been credited with gaining for Argentine women the right to vote.
A new bill in support of women’s suffrage was introduced which the Senate of Argentina sanctioned on 21 August 1946, and it was necessary to wait for more than a year before the House of Representatives could sanction it on 9 September 1947. Law 13,010 established the equality of political rights between men and women and universal suffrage in Argentina. Eva Peron then created the Female Peronist Party, which was the first large female political party in the nation. Thousands of previously apolitical women entered politics because of Eva Peron.
They were the first women to be active in Argentine politics. The combination of female suffrage and the organization of the Female Peronist Party granted Juan Peron a large majority (sixty-three percent) of the vote in the 1951 presidential elections. In 1951, Evita set her sights on earning a place on the ballot as candidate for vice-president. This move angered many military leaders who despised Evita and her increasing powers within the government. She did, however, receive great support from the working class, the unions, and the Peronist Women’s Party.
The intensity of the support she drew from these groups is said to have surprised even Juan Peron himself. Eventually, she declined the invitation to run for vice-president. Bowlby’s attachment also departed from psychoanalytic thinking by taking childhood its starting point and then extrapolating to adulthood (Bowlby, 1962/1982, 1988). Bowlby firmly believed that the attachments formed during childhood have an important impact on adulthood. The film flashes back to Eva’s childhood, and she is seen as a young girl attempting to attend her father’s funeral in the town of Junin with her mother and siblings.
But her father’s wife and other family (who are middle class) ban Eva’s family from entering and carry Eva out screaming and claiming that she’s her “papa” after she runs in on her own and pays her last respect. She moved her relatives into positions of power. Her brother became Peron’s private secretary. Husbands and lovers of her sister and mother were given influential positions. This nepotism benefited her family who were left nothing but to feed from themselves by her father.
At the same time she spent a fortune on jewelry, hats and clothes and an extravagant lifestyle – a long way from the lives of the people she made her impassioned speeches to. In contemporary psychology, the “Big Five” factors of personality are five broad domains or dimensions of personality which have been scientifically discovered to define human personality. The Big Five model is considered to be one of the most comprehensive, empirical, data-driven research findings in the history of personality psychology. Identifying the traits and structure of human personality has been one of the most fundamental goals in all of psychology.
Eva Peron’s extraversion shows that she was affectionate, fun loving, active and passionate. During meetings with the poor, Evita often kissed the poor and allowed them to kiss her. Evita was even witnessed placing her hands in the suppurated wounds of the sick and poor, touching the leprous, and kissing the syphilitic. Fraser and Navarro write that though Argentina is secular in many respects, it is essentially a Catholic country. Therefore, when Evita kissed the syphilitic and touched the leprous she “ceased to be the President’s wife and acquired some of the characteristics of saints depicted in Catholicism (Fraser and Navarro, 1996). On August 22, 1951 the unions held a mass rally of two million people called “Cabildo Abierto”. At the mass rally, the crowd demanded that Evita publicly announce her official candidacy as vice president. The exchange between Evita and the crowd of two million became, for a time, a genuine and spontaneous dialogue, with the crowd chanting, “?Evita, Vice-Presidente! “. When Evita asked for more time so she could make up her mind, the crowd demanded, “?Ahora, Evita, ahora! ” (“Now, Evita, now! “).
Neuroticism places Evita as anxious, emotional, calm, even-tempered, and self-satisfied. The landowners and industrialists forced Peron to resign in 1945, after a wave of protests and strikes to defend the reforms put through by Peron. When Peron was arrested, Eva threw herself into frenetic activity to build up support among the unions. In alliance with Cipriano Reyes, she visited many factories, docks and union HQs, singing the praises of Peron as the workers’ friend. This culminated in a mass demonstration on October 17th, when 50,000 workers demonstrated in the capital.
She began to deliver dramatic addresses to mass meetings and over the radio waves, bringing up her working class credentials, calling on the working class to back her and Peron. Openness would appraise her as liberal, comfortable, down-to-earth, conventional, and prefers routine. After his release from prison, Juan Peron decided to campaign for the presidency of the nation. Eva campaigned heavily for her husband during his 1946 presidential bid. Using her weekly radio show she delivered powerful speeches with heavy populist rhetoric urging the poor to align themselves with Peron’s movement.
Although she had become wealthy from her radio and modeling success, she would highlight her own humble upbringing as a way of showing solidarity with the impoverished classes. After returning to Argentina from Europe, Evita would never again appear in public with the complicated hairdos of her movie star days. The brilliant gold color became more subdued in tone, and even the style changed, her hair being pulled back severely into a heavy braided chignon. In an attempt to cultivate a more serious political persona, Eva began to appear in public wearing business dress suit combinations.
Agreableness makes her softhearted, trusting, generous, lenient, good-natured, ruthless, stingy, and antagonistic. According to the Fundacion Investigaciones Historicas Eva Peron, within a few years, the Eva Peron Foundation had assets in cash and goods in excess of three billion pesos, or over $200 million at the exchange rate of the late 1940s. It employed 14,000 workers, of which 6,000 were construction workers, and 26 priests. It purchased and distributed annually 400,000 pairs of shoes, 500,000 sewing machines, 200,000 cooking pots.
Conscientiousness listed her as hardworking, well-organized, punctual, ambitious, and persevering. Fraser and Navarro write that toward the end of her life, Evita was working as many as 20 and 22 hours per day in her foundation, often ignoring her husband’s request that she cut back on her workload and take the weekends off. The more she worked with the poor in her foundation, the more she adopted an outraged attitude toward the existence of poverty, saying, “Sometimes I have wished my insults were slaps or lashes. I’ve wanted to hit people in the face to make them see, if only for a day, what I see each day I help the people. In The Woman with the Whip, the first English language biography of Eva Peron, author Mary Main writes that no account records were kept for the foundation because it was merely a means of funnelling government money into private Swiss bank accounts controlled by the Perons.  Fraser and Navarro, however, counter these claims, writing that Ramon Cereijo, Minister of Finance, kept records, and that the foundation “began as the simplest response to the poverty (Evita) encountered each day in her office” and “the appalling backwardness of social services — or charity, as it was still called — in Argentina. Objective biography emphasizes what has happened in people’s lives (objective) rather than their view or perceptions of their experiences (subjective). Every behavior or response becomes part of the cumulative record. Whereas theorists such as Alfred Adler (style of life) or Dan McAdams (personal narrative), emphasize the subjective interpretations of one’s life story, Cost and McCrae focus on the objective experiences – the events and experiences one has had over one’s lifetime. La Razon de Mi Vida (The Reason for My Life) is the autobiography of Eva Peron, First Lady of Argentina from 1946 until her death in 1952.
Published in 1952 shortly before Eva Peron’s death, it became one of the fastest selling books in Argentine history. Written in a conversational tone, it is largely a compilation of her speeches. Eva Peron shares her perspectives on feminism and the role of women in political life, labor rights, poverty, and, of course, Peronism, the political movement founded by her husband Juan Peron. In 1952, the year she died, the Congress of Argentina ordered the autobiography to be used as a textbook in the Argentine schools.
Horney believed that the neurotic conflict can stem from almost any development stage, but childhood is the age from which the vast majority of problems arise. A vanity of traumatic events, such as sexual abuse, beatings, open rejection, or pervasive neglect, may leave their impressions on a child’s future development; but Horney (1937) insisted that these debilitating experiences can almost invariably be traced to lack of genuine warmth and affection. Eva Peron spent her childhood in Junin, Buenos Aires province.
Her parents, Juan Duarte and Juana Ibarguren (sometimes referred to as Dona Juana), never married. Juan Duarte was a wealthy rancher from nearby Chivilcoy, where he already had a wife and family. During this time period in rural Argentina, it was not uncommon to see a wealthy male with multiple families. In 1920, when Eva was a year old, Duarte returned to his legal family, leaving Juana Ibarguren and her family of five children in a severe state of poverty. As a result of the impoverishment, Ibarguren and her children moved to the poorest area of Junin.
In order to support herself and her children, Ibarguren sewed clothes for neighbors. The family was stigmatized by the abandonment of the father, especially since Argentine law frowned upon illegitimate children. Eva allegedly destroyed her birth certificate in 1945 so as to erase this part of her past. Prior to abandoning her, Juan Duarte had been Juana Ibarguren’s sole means of support. Biographer John Barnes writes that after his abandonment, all Duarte left to the family was a document declaring that the children were his, thus enabling them to use the Duarte surname.
Soon after, Juana moved her children to a one room apartment in Junin. In order to pay the rent on their single-roomed home, mother and daughters took up jobs as cooks in the houses of the local estancias. The second subsystem of the self is the Ideal Self, defined as one’s view of self as one wishes to be. The Ideal self contains all those attributes, usually positive, that people aspire to possess. After years of struggle, she eventually found work as a radio and film actress, being credited as Eva Duarte, to make it appear that she was not an illegitimate child.
Her personal favorite movie was the 1938 epic Marie Antoinette, starring Norma Shearer. It is said she dyed her naturally brunette hair to blonde to look more like the queen, as played by Shearer. After returning to Argentina from Europe, Evita would never again appear in public with the complicated hairdos of her movie star days. The brilliant gold color became more subdued in tone, and even the style changed, her hair being pulled back severely into a heavy braided chignon. In an attempt to cultivate a more serious political persona, Eva began to appear in public wearing business dress suit combinations.
A third level of awareness involves experiences that are perceived in a distorted form. When our experience is not consistent with out view of self, we reshape or distort the experience so that it can be assimilated into our existing self-concept. Eva Duarte met Colonel Juan Domingo Peron at a charity event to raise funds for the victims of the San Juan earthquake. She and Peron married on October 21, 1945. On her marriage license, she stated her maiden name as Maria Eva Duarte, so it would appear that she had he ather’s last name; she also put that she was several years younger, and had her birth certificate altered. After her marriage to Juan Peron, all of Eva’s movies were banned from being shown in Argentina. As children (or adults) become aware that another person has some measure of regard for them, they begin to value positive regard. That is, the person develops a need to be loved, liked, or accepted by another person, a need that Rogers (1959) referred to as positive regard. Eva, who was born out-ofwedlock found the person in Peron who loved, like, and accepted her unconditionally.
By marrying her, Evita was for the first become legitimate, a recognition she badly needed for the very long time. During this period in Argentine history, politicians were expected to not socialize with entertainers – particularly entertainers born out-of-wedlock and who worked in soap operas. That is why; we say that she devoted her entire life in cultivating the political career of her husband and of her own. Positive regard is a pre-requisite for positive self regard, defined as the experience of prizing or valuing one’s self.
Rogers (1959) believed that receiving positive is established, it becomes independent of the continued need to be loved. This conception is quite similar to Maslow’s notion that we must satisfy our love and belongingness needs before self-esteem needs can be become active, but once we begin to feel confident and worthy, we no longer require a replenishing supply of love and approval from others. In 1947, Evita embarked on a much-publicized “Rainbow Tour” of Europe, meeting with numerous heads of state, including Francisco Franco and the Pope.
It was aimed at being a massive public relations coup for the Peron regime, which in the post-World War II world has increasingly viewed as Fascist. She was well-received in Spain. During her visit to Spain, Evita handed out 100-peseta notes to every poor child she met on her journey. She later met the Pope in Rome, and then traveled to Paris. She eventually created the Eva Peron Foundation, an institution to assist the poor. It was incredibly popular and made valuable contributions to Argentine life. The hospitals and orphanages that the Foundation established endured long after Evita’s own premature death.
The Foundation also increased her political power within Argentina. By 1949, Evita was the second most influential figure in Argentina. Eventually, Evita became the center of her own vast personality cult and her image and name soon appeared everywhere, with train stations, a city, and even a star in the sky being named after her. “A condition of worth arises when the positive regard of a significant other is conditional when the individual feels that in some respects he (or she) is prized and in others not (Rogers, 1959, p. 209). Though Evita was worshipped by her working-class followers, she was bitterly hated by a vast number of Argentine’s middle class and also by the wealthy Anglophile elite. They detested her humble roots and lack of formal education. Many felt that as a woman she was far too active in politics. On July 26, 1952, Maria Eva Duarte Peron died of uterine cancer. On her death, Argentina plunged into mourning. Without her to get hold of the masses, her husband was ousted by a military coup in 1955 returning in 1973 for the last time to become President.
His third wife, Isabel became VicePresident – a position Evita was denied and ultimately President in her own right in 1974 (the first female president in World History) when Peron died. She was later removed from office a coup in 1976. According to Tomas Eloy Martinez, “She was far from being a saint, despite the veneration of millions of Argentines, but she was not a villain either. Human beings are full of contradictions and labyrinthine complexities. Rarely do they resemble their portrayal in the musicals of Hollywood and Broadway. ”