A successful organization is one with the capability to manage all of their assets to achieve the company’s key objectives and desired performance measures, which in turn yield profitability. The Asset Management System adopted by a company shows its willingness to commit to good practice, and demonstrate their sound stewardship of managing their assets to support the organization’s functions by ensuring that the support is sustainable financially. The purpose of the Asset Management System is to make key decisions pertaining to an asset lifecycle that range from its acquisition to its disposal. The process involves careful planning by senior management from the organization, and this plan has to be aligned throughout the different levels of function in the organization. With the guidance from Asset Management System, a list of Asset Management Policy and Plans are developed. These plans allow the organization to: Document and plan maintenance and work practices and proceduresDevelop a long-term master plan that details the budget, funding and renewal plans requiredDevelop a sustainable financial and lifecycle planDevelop a risk management plan and identify possible risks and its mitigationMeet legislative requirements The Asset Management Plan included in this report looks at the maintenance of the Train Traction Motor. A detailed coverage on the asset is covered in the Asset Management Plan which entails the following: Asset Key ParametersLifecycle StrategiesBudget PlanningRisk Mitigations The interdependencies and funding prioritisation is also covered on how should be best managed for the Train Traction Motor. A detailed and comprehensive asset management structure will benefit the organization in the foreseeable future and yields long term benefits as well. The ISO 55000 series of standard establishes a guide for the management of assets. From an asset management perspective, policies and strategies are overarching elements required to be determine by an organization in order to achieve an effective asset management system (Poland, 2015). The right implementation approach adopted in an organization will yield tangible performance benefits across the lifecycle of all assets. 1.1 Scope In this report, an analysis will be done for the chosen component – A Train Traction Motor, whereby an in-depth coverage of the asset management framework, sustainability, systems interdependencies and life-cycle thinking will be covered. 1.2 Methodology The methodology adopted in this analysis requires in-depth understanding on the established ISO 55000 series of Asset Management Framework, with cross-referencing to multiple sources pertaining to the methodologies currently practised by industries. 1.3 Assignment Structure In this assignment, the analysis will be done in a systematic format based on the structure of the assignment. The assignment will list according to the ISO 55000 Asset Management Framework, followed by discussing about the lifecycle and sustainability considerations of the assets, system interdependencies, and lastly, about using risk-based prioritization for the funding of maintenance activities. 2 ISO 55000 – Asset Management Framework Assets, such as Train Traction Motor, have to be maintained professionally by an organization in order to maximise the performance benefits and to meet its intended target and or objectives upon procurement of the asset. All assets, including Train Traction Motor, have a lifecycle. In this section, a detailed explanatory of the life-cycle approach will be elaborated to explain how the asset fit into an Asset Management Framework. The process of optimizing the value of an asset and making the appropriate decision throughout the life of the asset is done with the guidance of asset management. According to ISO 55000, Asset Management is the coordinated activity of an organization to realize value from assets (International Standard, 2014). Asset management enables the realization of value by balancing financial costs, managing the risk associated to the asset, and lastly, balance the quality of performance from the asset. Figure 1 – Asset Management Framework (Hung, 2017) The method of implementing asset management system can be done with reference to Figure 1 – Asset Management Framework. The framework comprises of the fundamental parts of asset management in ‘Asset Management Policy’, ‘Asset Management Strategy’, ‘Asset Management Objectives’ and ‘Asset Management Plan’. These processes are done in a systematic flow, one after another, so that the plans and objectives are ultimately aligned to the initial policy that is set out. Another key process includes the understanding of the asset lifecycle as well. Through the application of these processes, it maximises the value-for-money and satisfaction of expectation from stakeholders. 2.1 Asset Management Policy The asset management policy is a statement set out by the senior management of the organization whom intend to apply asset management to achieve the organizational objectives. The policy will outline and define the framework for setting the asset management strategies and objectives. 2.2 Strategic Asset Management Plan (SAMP) The strategic asset management plan provides the linkage between the organisational objectives and the asset management objective. The SAMP should be established according to the relevant functional levels, and are often done in the form of performance targets set out for asset management activities, and the condition of assets (Poland, 2015). 2.3 Asset Management Plan (AMP) The asset management plan details the approach that relates closely to the assets. The intended objective of the plan is to bridge the current state or performance of the assets to the required or desired future state of the asset. It contains the asset management activities, plans for the operational and maintenance of the asset, asset condition assessment, the renewal plans and resource planning. The planning stage involved during the establishment of the AMP is crucial, as it involves the evaluation of the asset and their potential to meet service delivery requirement – which is usually specified in the asset management objectives (Keqa, 2016). A detailed explanation on the AMP of the chosen component – Train Traction Motor, will be elaborated. The content of the AMP for the asset class of Traction Motor should contain the following pointers: 2.3.1 Asset Key Parameters In this section of the AMP, the description, usage, number of assets and its criticality should be documented. 2.3.2 Current and Desired Performance This portion of the AMP will include the performance measures and the key performance indicators of the traction motor. 2.3.3 Lifecycle Strategies This portion of the AMP includes plans through all phases of the asset lifecycle. Tools that can be used in this stage includes the Lifecycle Cost Analysis. 2.3.4 Budget In this section of the AMP, it shall elaborate on the sources of funding, a budget that has been allocated for the scope of AMP required and its future requirements. 2.3.5 Risks Mitigation For the successful management of asset, an AMP should also identify and assessed the risks involved, with the corresponding actions to mitigate the risks involved. In particular to the Train Traction Motor, one of the foreseeable risks would be the failure of the traction motor. Therefore, it is important to highlight the contingency and redundancy plans in the AMP, to address such issues. The mitigation of such risks, for consideration to be added into the AMP, are listed below: a) To improve the competency of staff b) To procure spare traction motors Through the use of AMP, an organization is able to plan in accordance with the SAMP, to weigh the type of maintenance activities required for the Traction Motor. In such instance, the organization should decide to adopt either reactive maintenance or predictive maintenance regime. The use of predictive maintenance can be incorporated through remote condition monitoring of the performance of the bearings within the Traction Motor. Traction motors are used to drive the wheelset of Electrical Multiple Unit (EMU). A key part of the motors are the bearings within. Failure in the bearings will affect the operational reliability of the train, and may even result in severe damage to other components. Apart from the type of maintenance activities, frequency of scheduled maintenance should also be documented and planned forth, based on the number of resources available to attend to these scheduled maintenance. A decision should also be made on whether the asset require an overhaul upon reaching a certain lifespan deliberated by the Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) or by the organization. 2.4 Implementation of Asset Management Plan Upon the careful planning and consideration involved in the planning of the AMP, the implementation of the plan will follow suit easily. The implementation of the AMP usually differ in terms of asset, as each asset require different approaches, however, it will comply with the overarching asset management policy. In the implementation phase, a criteria should be established for the required processes. The delivery plans upon acquisition to the documentation of Quality Procedures (QP) and Work Instruction (WI) should be planned accordingly. Through these documentation, the implementation for specific assets are tailored accordingly. In particular to Train Traction Motor, the QP and WI should detail the task list of maintenance activities, competency of staff, service reliability required of the asset. On top of these, it should also specify the need for performance data measures and trending which should encompass the following area in the performance of the asset: a) Safety Performance of Traction Motor b) Failure Analysis c) Availability of Traction Motor d) Mean Time Between Failure of Traction Motor e) Budget Planning The implementation should also take into consideration those factors for future improvement. These factors include addressing: a) Non-conformities to what is specified in the QP and WI b) Continual Improvement through periodic review of asset management plans c) Preventive actions or measures such as incorporating the use of condition monitoring 3 Sustainability and Life Cycle Considerations The framework for both asset management and sustainability are robust in its own ways by addressing multiple objectives in each of their framework. The primary objective of asset management is to extend the life of an asset with minimal lifecycle cost, while that of sustainability is to minimize the use of natural resources, while allowing activities to continue as per usual. The integration of both sustainability and asset management will provide an even robust framework, as reflected in Figure 2 below. Figure 2 – Integration of Sustainability and Asset Management 3.1 Lifecycle Considerations All assets have a lifecycle. There are multiple stages involved, however, organizations tend to keep it simple and identify these four key stages of asset lifecycle: 1) Planning 2) Acquisition 3) Operation and Maintenance 4) Disposal In short, the phrase “from the cradle to the grave” sum up the entire lifecycle of an asset. In the context of a traction motor, it is also similar to all other assets by having to go through the same lifecycle process. However, in this section, two key stages will be further discussed on its importance compared to the rest in the lifecycle process. 3.1.1 Planning The planning phase is the first of the four stages in the lifecycle process, and in my opinion, is the most important of all. All the requirements has to be established in this stage, and these requirements can be done with reference to the evaluation of existing traction motor. A successful planning will ensure: a) Resources are available when required b) Sufficiency of asset to meet the availability target c) The funding of the acquisition of the traction motor d) The cost of the lifecycle (Whole Lifecycle Cost) is catered sufficiently Figure 3 – Life Cycle Costing (The University of Vermont, 2015) The acquisition cost as shown in Figure 3, usually represents a tiny proportion of the total cost for owning the asset. A huge chunk of the cost is not visible upon acquisition. Therefore, during the planning stage, it is indeed crucial that these costs be anticipated or predicted prior to its acquisition and planned for accordingly. The lack of such anticipation during the preliminary planning phase will eventually result in a higher expenditure spending, which may bust the budget that was originally planned for. The anticipation of such costs will also determine the subsequent maintenance and operations support and activities. 3.1.2 Operation and Maintenance This stage indicates the application and management of the traction motor asset, with the aim of delivering its intended outcome according to the specified performance measures. In contrast to the planning phase, the operations and maintenance phase can be considered as the ‘execution’ phase of the lifecycle process of the asset. In my opinion, the traction motor shall deliver if operations and maintenance approaches are clearly defined, with steps taken in a systematic way to ensure that maintenance are carried out as per listed during the planning phase. The ineffective maintenance delivery of an asset shall contribute to its premature failure. It is worth noting that these failures maybe resulted from unknown failure modes. The failure of the traction motor asset does have a consequence tagged to it in the form of affecting: 1) The traction motor’s whole lifecycle costing 2) The traction motor’s performance 3) Safety of the rolling stock and its commuters A way to better manage and ensure that maintenance of the traction motor is optimised, tools and techniques are available to ensure that the life of the asset can be sustained and, if possible, extended beyond its intended lifespan. The tools and techniques are discussed in Figure 4 and Figure 5. In my opinion, two of the most important tools that should be used in conjunction with the maintenance are, ‘Fault Tree Analysis’, and ‘Failure Mode, Effects and Critical Analysis’ (FMECA). With reference to Figure 4, it can be seen that these two tools relate closely to the analysis of failure of the traction motor. With the use of both ‘Fault Tree Analysis’ and FMECA, the failure modes of the train traction motor is looked at. These failures include the P-F failures, usage-related failures, hidden failure modes and failures that may not be related by maintenance. Furthermore, it provides an in-depth analysis into the critical component within the traction motor. Through the use of these tools, maintenance strategies can be better established and in turn, it may sustain the asset or even extend the life of the asset. Figure 4 – Maintenance Tools and Techniques (AMCL, 2017) Figure 5 – Listing of Maintenance Tools and Techniques (AMCL, 2017) 3.2 Sustainability Considerations Over the past decades, the landscape for mobility has been ever changing and increasing to cope with the demands of commuters around the world. As a result of which, transportation has become one of the leading sources of contribution to greenhouse gases. There is a need to shift transportation and urban development to a more sustainable path that will lower environmental costs and reduce reliance on natural resources (Asian Development Bank, 2017). Urban railway contribute to sustainable development in the form of ‘Environmental’, ‘Social’ and ‘Economic’ factors. In my opinion, the two most important factors of sustainability are ‘Environmental’ and ‘Social’ factors. The ‘Environmental’ factors involve the interaction of the railway with the natural environment. This is one of the most direct interaction, and any considerations made has an impact on the overall environment. The ‘Social’ factor involves the community and society in totality. A sustained community support do have an impact on the sustainability of the overall railway landscape. Figure 6 – Factors influencing sustainability (NetworkRail, 2013) According to a report by International Transport Forum, global transportation accounts for fifty percent of the overall fuel consumption. Within the entire transportation landscape, railways accounts for two percent of carbon emission. (International Transport Forum, 2010). Based on the report, it is worth noting that transportation has a huge impact on environmental factors, and considerations should be made to ensure that transportation is sustainable. Sustainable development is substantially more than “doing less harm” (NetworkRail, 2013). In terms of railway, considerations in terms of environmental and social factors can be made through: a) Reducing the overall carbon emission of rails b) Be energy efficient across rail infrastructures and operations c) Improve accessibility of stations and rail network d) Procuring sustainable materials The corresponding actions to such considerations can be done so by implementing: a) Energy Recovery Mechanism for Traction Motor – One of such ways is the use of regenerative braking technology to convert mechanical energy into electrical energy for the train traction motor. b) Energy Saving Technology – Energy will be conserved when not required across the network of infrastructures in urban railway c) Integration of land use with rail transit to reduce carbon emissions from roads d) Proper disposal of assets upon end-of-life – Materials from the assets should be recycled or disposed of properly 4 Systems Interdependencies Among the subsystems of railway infrastructure, there are numerous interdependencies between these systems in order for the whole railway system to function efficiently and properly. Based on the subsystem of a train traction motor, the interdependency relationship is shown below: Figure 7 – Interdependency relationship of Subsystems Based on figure 7, it can be seen that these subsystems are interdependent: a) The train traction motor require power supply to function b) The staff working in the power plant require transportation to get to work c) Power plant require raw materials, such as oil and gas, as fuel supply to generate electricity d) Staff working in the fuel supply plant require transportation to get to work e) The Power Plant and Fuel Supply is dependent on the Fire Station during an emergency f) During an emergency, the staff working for these systems are dependent on the hospital With reference to figure 7, it indeed shows that all the systems are in one way or another dependent on each other. These interdependencies will then benefit the efficient functioning of each subsystem holistically. 5 Funding Prioritisation All physical assets deteriorate over time or usage, with their own characteristic pattern of deterioration. Most good practice techniques uses risk or reliability studies to optimize the asset interventions and prioritize their funding for maintenance. One important tool that can be used with regards to risk-based prioritization is “Bow-Tie Analysis”. “Bow-Tie Analysis” reduce the occurrence of undesirable events through engineering means, with identified control as mitigations. Figure 8 – Bow Tie Analysis (AMCL, 2017) The “Fault Tree Analysis” tool can be used to complement the bow-tie analysis, as the tool involves tracing and analysing all branches of causal factors that could contribute to the accident or undesired event. Figure 9 – Fault Tree Analysis of Train Traction Motor In Figure 9, the probability of occurrence that leads to the Train Traction Motor to catch fire is calculated. The probability is calculated based on the number of occurrences, over a period of years. Through the “Fault Tree Analysis” diagram, it can be seen that ‘Mechanical Failure’ contributes to 80% of the probability of occurrences, with ‘Bearing not replaced periodically’ contributing to 50% of its probability of occurrence. A worked example in the format of a “Bow-Tie Analysis” has been illustrated based on the hazardous event of “Train Traction Motor on Fire” below: Figure 10 – Bow Tie Analysis Illustration of a Train Traction Motor Through the analysis using the tools of “Fault Tree Analysis” and “Bow Tie Analysis”, it can be concurred that funding for maintenance should be done through risk-based prioritization. From the “Fault Tree Analysis” in Figure 9, it can be seen that the funding should also correspond to the highest probability causal factor in the diagram – which is the ‘Changing out of motor bearings periodically’. By applying such techniques, it will definitely help in the management of assets more effectively with all these risks being addressed. 6 Conclusions Asset management is a long term approach that requires constant review to ensure that the value of an asset can be realized. This approach has to be conducted in a systematic and integrated manner which encompasses a whole lot of planning, checking and execution in a top down approach in any organization. The need to understand and manage the risks and costs that are associated to each and every individual asset is crucial, as assets are one of the key capabilities to define if an organization is successful. A holistic asset management structure involves more than just the asset and the organization, it requires staff to be competent as well as having sufficient resources allocated to facilitate the asset management system. Every organization has its own discipline, however, the approach to the management of assets remain the same. It helps organization to increase their visibility on the assets lifecycle, with forward planning on the asset with regards to its performance measures and whole lifecycle considerations. Organizations just have to follow the same methodology and approach, and will eventually achieve its key objectives. A successful asset management structure yields long term benefits, and help to put an organizations investment into perspective. Gaining ISO 55000 certifications will also boost the reputation of any organization and increase its recognition. The act of good asset management shows the organization’s willingness to commit to good practice, which in turn, help to attract investors.