A Time of Change-Part 1: Nixon through CarterRichard Nixon (1969-1973, 74) RepublicanDomestic PolicyNew Federalism- Decreased the size and influence of the government and gave local governments more financial freedom, reformed welfare requiring the every member of a family that was able to work worked. Impounded money from organization nixon disagreed with and increased social security, medicare and medicaid.Stagflation- US experienced high inflation and unemployment between 1967 and 1973, caused by growing international markets competing with US.Southern Strategy- Nixon trying to win dixiecrats, delayed desegregation of schools in SC and MS, opposed extension of voting rights act.Vietnam War”Peace with Honor”- US’s plan to slowly pull troops out of vietnam to avoid appearing weak and keep their status as a world power.Bombings in Cambodia- US bombed and raided villages in Cambodia to cut of supply chains to the NVA. My Lai Massacre- Hundreds of unarmed South Vietnamese civilians were killed by US soldier as they raided town.Pentagon Papers- Papers released on the vietnam war exposing lies the government had been telling people about the war, caused a mistrust in the government.War Powers Act- Was law that prevented the president from gaining as much power as johnson had during the vietnam war.WatergateDNC- The convention that was going on during the scandal, cia wiretapped a room and took photos of papers.Saturday Night Massacre- 7 to 8 government officials were fired within a couple hours of each other trying to get access to nixon’s tapes.Impeachment- Nixon was impeached for disobeying the public trust and inhibiting an investigation by refusing to release his tapes.Foreign PolicyVisits China and USSR-Détente- mended relations between the US and Russia creating things such as the salt treaty.SALT I- Limited the number of missiles in Russia and the United states.Gerald Ford (1974-76) RepublicanDomestic PolicyPardoning Nixon- Pardoned nixon due to a deal made by the 2 before nixon succeeded office, said he did it so America can move on and focus on the future.Stagflation Continues- Ford was a ford not an lincoln and had little to no knowledge of how to fix the economy.Foreign PolicyHelsinki Accords- promised peaceful negotiations between eastern and western nations.Vietnam- Wanted to continue aiding south vietnam at the end of the war after the ceasefire was broken down. also lost 41 men trying to save 39 hostages.Jimmy Carter (1976-1980) DemocratDomestic PolicyEnergy Crisis- He believed that economic problems stemmed from a dependence on foreign oil, urged conservation of energy, oil, and gas.Economy- Inflation rose 11.3% people believed he had no economic policy. US standard of living dropped from first to fifth.Foreign PolicySoviets invade Afghanistan- Ended the SALT 2 treaty.Human Rights/ Civil Rights- More african americans were in the carter administration than any other previous administration. The supreme court turned against affirmative action.Collapse of Détente- US Russian tensions picked up after the russian invasion of afghanistan, creating more conflict between the two.Middle EastCamp David Accords- Egyptian and Israeli leaders meet with president at camp david and discuss peace. Lasted for 12 days, resulted in Israel withdrawing from the sinai peninsula and the Egyptians recognizing the country of israel.Iran Hostage Crisis- America accepted the Iranian shaw for cancer treatment. Iranian students protest by raiding the US embassy and taking Americans hostage, would be released in Cater released the shaw.Ronald Reagan (1980-88), RepublicanReaganomicsReduce Income TaxesSupply-side economics- Decreased the amount of taxes and gave more loans to businesses in the hope that it would boost the economy. Reduce Government Spending- Cut government spending by taking away from only lower class programs, did not hurt the middle class.Increase Defense Spending- Increased defense spending to make US a world power again. Developed the B1 bomber and the SDI otherwise known as starwars.Domestic PolicySavings and Loan Crisis- thousands of loan and savings organizations crashed during a short depression, caused slight panic and mistrust in the system.Professional Air Traffic Controllers Organization Strike- Workers strike due to the cuts of the lower class aid programs and the weakening of unions.Nation at Risk (book)- Stated that america was falling behind other developed nations in education, sparked changes in the education system lengthening school days, and starting curriculum earlier.Vouchers- Allowed people to send their child to a school of their choice on government funding.AIDS- Is a mysterious disease at the time that causes confusion and discrimination.Minorities- Minorities are gaining power in the government and holding better positions in business but still face discrimination. Supreme Court- Mostly conservative due to the 2 back to back conservative presidents Conservative Justices appointed- Antonin Scalia, Anthony Kennedy, Sandra Day O’Connor Sandra Day O’Connor- Was the first woman justice on the supreme court.William Rehnquist- Was another conservative justice appointed during the administration.Foreign PolicyStrategic Defense Initiative (Star Wars)- A missile defense system created due to the funding reagan gave the united states military.Controversial Weaponry/ US and USSR relations- US and USSR both possed long range ballistic missiles that could carry a nuclear warhead. Agree to policies of openness with decreased tensions and allowed for the de escalation of the conflict.START I Treaty- The US and USSR mutually agreed to eliminate the use of nuclear and conventional ground launched missiles.Berlin Wall Falls- Gorbachev tears down the berlin wall reuniting germany and symbolizing the downfall of communism.Cold War Ends- The Soviet union dissolved after gorbachev resigns leaving most of its satellite states independence and the country weak after gorbachev’s resignation.USSR breaks up into many nationsMiddle East- Involved camp david accords which tired to achieve peace between egypt and israel. It also involved the Iranian hostage crisis in which us citizens taken from the embassy were taken hostage. George H.W. Bush (1989-1993), RepublicanDomestic Policy- Establishment of education reform and the extension on the war on drugs.Foreign PolicyCentral AmericaNicaragua- A soviet outpost according to reagan, US supports the Contra revolution and eventually gets a contra elected in 1990. Congress ruled against aid provided to them.Grenada- Military for was present to prevent ties with communist cuba, staged a coup and replaced the pro-cuban government where 18 US soldiers died.Panama- 2000 troops were sent to over through general manual for drug trafficking.INF Treaty- An agreement to eliminate the use of conventional or nuclear missiles against one another.START II Treaty- Restricted the use of MRVs on ballistic missiles, eventually fell through for the SORT treaty.Iran-Contra Scandal- Reagan admin accepted trade for hostages in exchange for arms deal. They then used profits to go against congress and fund the contrasPersian Gulf War- Conflict to retake oil supply captured by the iraniansDesert Storm-. year long war in which UN lost 400 men when iraq is lost over 100,000, US victory nationalist park fled to atmosphereTiananmen Square- Chinese massacred studentoritest by running them with tanks Bill Clinton (1993-2001), DemocratElection of 1992 Platform- Wanted to move the democratic party farther from the left and more towards the middle to make liberalism more marketable.Domestic PolicyHealthcare reform- Hillary clinton led the team to compose a bill to make health care affordable, even to those who lacked insurance. Was killed by congress after a year of debt.Budget- Cut spending by billions of dollars, his goal was to target a balanced budget by 2002. Included programs for children and health care. Economy began to boom again at the beginning of 1993Welfare reforms- The 1996 bill was created to limit the length of benefits. Health care control given to states instead of feds.Crime/Terrorism- Crime was more shocking during this time due to the lower crime rates.Brady Bill- Was a bill that mandated the background check of those buying firearms in response to the terrorist attacks on american soil.Oklahoma City Bombing- Bomb was set off in Oklahoma city killing hundreds. Timothy McVeigh was to first person to be executed by the federal government in 30 years.Columbine- Two students opened fire on their peers and teachers, killed 12 students and 1 teacher. Left nation in state of shock copycat crimes followed.Election of 1996- Clinton defeated Bob dole for his second term in the white house.Scandal and impeachment- Clinton was impeached for the misuse of his funds when he was elected governor of arkansas along with his affair with monica lewinsky. He was impeached in House but was not convicted in senate.Newt Gingrich- Conservative leader in congress, was elected half way through clinton’s office. Promised things such as Welfare reform, Tax cuts and a balanced budget.Foreign PolicyEuropean Union- NAFTA- Promotes free trade between US, Canada, and Mexico. Some say will export jobs from US, while others say it will strengthened trade between the three countries.WTO- Organization that monitors world trade, created NAFTA and later FTAA to support smaller countries around those in NAFTA>Cold War- Cold War ends as tensions descalate between U.S and Russia through negotiations and treaties such as SALT ITerrorism- Events such as the Oklahoma city bombing, The bombing of the World Trade center, and columbine killed many American citizens and left the rest of the public in shock.George W. Bush (2001-2009)Domestic PolicyEducation- Implemented the no child left behind policy, Also worked to implement standardized testing into school system.Taxes- Created a federal tax cut for all taxpayers lowering the rate on income taxes.Social Security- Wanted to strengthen and reform the social security and medicare programs. He also wanted to improve the treatment of women through social security.Hurricane Katrina- Criticized for the way he handled the disaster associated with hurricane Katrina.Sarbanes-Oxley Act- Created to regulate the accounting industry after the Enron and Worldcom scandals.Foreign PolicySeptember 11, 2001- Created the department of homeland security because of the attacks. This intern created the TSA changing the way security is handled today.War on Terror- Under his presidency he ended the Al-Qaeda network, and established a free election in 2004. Later invaded iraq to search for weapons of mass destruction.