a)    ADHD
stand for attention hyperactivity disorder and psychiatric disorder. It is
neurodevelopmental which is most common in early years and last in adulthood.
The individual with ADHD cannot control his/her behaviour, they find it
difficult to stay focused for a long period of time due to impulsivity.

pattern of hyperactivity patterns occur and may not act as other children do.
Negative behaviour may have an impact on a social scale, school wise and also academically.
According to the DSM-5 ADHD is a constant pattern of lack of attention and
impulsivity. This may hinder with the functioning and development in two or
more settings such as home, school, work, with friends, family and relatives. The
symptoms of ADHD have to be present for at least six months of age and continue
to a certain point that is consistent and have a negative impact on social and
academic activities.

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diagnosed as one of the three main types: Inattentive Type, Hyperactivity Type,
or combined type. A diagnosis is based on the symptoms that have occurred over
the past six months.


“Individuals with ADHD may be diagnosed with both
inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity, or one symptom pattern may
predominate.”  (Manual
of Mental Disorder)


Inattentive Type Symptoms:


·       Easily

·       Daydreaming

·       Careless

·       Loose

·       Fidgets

·       Forget
daily tasks

·       Does not
listen when spoken to

·       Does not
follow instructions





·       Has
difficulty waiting his/her turn

·       Interrupts

·       Always on
the go

·       Runs or

·       Not able
to stay seated

·       Fidgets

·       Talk


The main causes of ADHD has not
been yet specified but are genetically linked. Other factors are:


Use of Alcohol and substances

Premature Delivery

Low birth weight

Difficulties during pregnant

Exposed to environment (lead)



Not eating a good balanced diet,
family issues at home and not using spare time well can make symptoms worse.
Nowadays additives and preservatives are found to be one of the main problem
that is increasing by time. Children with ADHD should include these in a
minority and even individuals who do not have ADHD.


b)   The ADHD
core symptoms: hyperactivity, inattention and impulsivity are a mixture of disruptive
classroom behaviour. For students with ADHD classroom interventions should be
made and to understand the students strength and needs. ADHD effects the part
of the brain that deals with executive functioning – the ability to plan,
organise and think ahead. The challenges are one of the main problem. As
Antonio’s LSA I would give him skills on how to be more organised and use these
management strategies:


·       Antecedents and consequences
will suggest environmental changes that set up the student for success or
failure. Analysis of consequences, on the other hand, will identify
those environmental contingencies that serve to reinforce both desired and
undesired behaviour.

·       Time out breaks can be
effective in order to reduce aggression and disruptive behaviour.

Use of Locker in the morning and prepare the
required books and files for the first six lessons and after break for the last
two lessons and stick a timetable inside the locker.

Reinforce with rewards and praises.

Design a colour coded timetable.

Using subject related dividers, so when it comes
to filing it will be easier to identify the subject.

Showing the student how to organise his/her
materials and supervise regularly as he/she becomes independent, slowly I would
fade the organisational checks.

In the classroom it is best for
him to find seating away from distractions such as doors and windows although
every lesson is held in different classrooms. Using a traffic light poster can
help the student to be contained and help him to be more focused and
concentrate during lessons.









lights means no talking

means low level talking allowed

indicates open talking



More strategies that I would use
to keep Antonio focused are:

·       Asking
questions to engage the student and the learning outcome.

·       Stretch
breaks to stay on task.

·       Clear and
concise instructions

·       Discuss
with the teacher in order to give the student, an active role in the classroom
such as classroom assistant or helper.

Using a timer can also help the
student to know how much time remains to finish the lesson. Using hands on
material, can help Antonio to concentrate more and to follow the explanation in
class. Consequently, I would use visuals and concise the material for the
student. Chunk classwork have to be manageable and when a task is completed a
reward is given in order to encourage him to do the next task.



Concentration of the student

Short attention span

Conflict with peers


UDL- Universal Design for
learning is a research based framework that addresses learner diversity at the
beginning of the design or planning effort. Educators should find ways to access
resources so learners are given the opportunity to take charge of their
engagement in learning.


As Antonio’s LSA I would suggest
that subject teachers know about his condition and by working together as a
team, it will definitely help him to improve his behaviour and using strategies
that both the learning support assistant and the teacher follow together.




Lesson Plan: Konsonanti Qamrin u

Date: 20th November

Subject: Maltese

Grade Level: Year 8 Level 5-6-7

Objective: To identify the
differences between “Il-Konsonanti Qamrin u Xemxin”. To place the article in
front of different words.

Material Used: PowerPoint

Duration: 40 minutes

Learning Outcome:


Activity 1:

The student is going to follow
the teachers explanation same as peers. The teacher is going to show the
students a PowerPoint, which can be a useful resource to make it easier for the
students to follow the explanation and understand better.





Activity 2:

The teacher is going to do an
activity on the interactive whiteboard where the students need to put under the
correct column the words of the paragraph underneath the correct column.
Antonio is going to have his turn and participate in this activity.



The student is going to be
given an adapted handout (as attached) for classwork in order to see if he
understood the difference between the ‘Xemxin and Qamrin’ and do the article in
front of them. If the task is done in a correct way, he
will be given a reward.



Using the UDL guidelines:

·       Engagment In Activity 1 & 2

·       Representation in Activity 1 & 2

·       Comprehension in Activity 3




























l-frott. Tinsiex idda??al l-artiklu. Immarka l-konsonati Xemxin u Qamrin billi
tikteb (X) jew (Q) ?dejn in-nomi.


xemxin huma
– d – n – r – s – t – x – ? – z

Il-konsonanti qamrin huma
b – f – ? – g – g? – h – ? – j – k – l – m – p – q – v – w












Immarka l-?axix. Tinsiex idda??al
l-artiklu. Immarka l-konsonati Xemxin u Qamrin billi tikteb (X) jew (Q) ?dejn











C) Children
with ADHD may have problems to interact with their peers caused by behavioural
issues or lack of social skills. This creates problems with peers and may
encounter peer rejections.


Antonio’s LSA, I would do a Peer Preparation Programme together with the form
teacher to educate students and be aware of the differenti abilities and
strenghts that they all have. They need to be aware that they are unique and that
different students may have different learning style.


“Children with disability with no
peer preparation programme are more rejected and less accepted that the average
child in the class” (Tanti Burlo, Soresi, Nightingale 1996)


I would include Antonio in break clubs to get to
know more students and make new friends.

Doing social skills training can help Antonio to
evaluate his behaviour and build positive peer interactions decrease the
unwanted behaviour and reinforcing positive behaviour.

I would
let Antonio to work with students that he likes or with students by whom he
thinks he is liked during group work. Forcing to work with peers that rejects
him may create greater problems.

Seek help from Guidance teachers and school
counsellors and other professionals.









As Antonio’s LSA the main competences should be
showing empathy towards him and understand his emotions when he shows a
disruptive behaviour. Patience is another competence that one should have
especially with ADHD students it is not an easy task however one should keep
calm and not hesitate otherwise one should keep calm and not hesitate otherwise
the student will be more agitated. It is important to know his character what
he likes and dislikes and what triggers his misappropriate behaviour. When the
student is not in a good mood it is important for the LSA to show compassion
towards the student as his helps him to calm down.


There are various implications which affect children
with ADHD. This can be derived both from family background issues and the child
himself. Impact is not only on the parents but also on siblings.


with ADHD may have difficulty in maintenance relationships with the people
around them”.


aspects of ADHD towards the parents are:


·       Lack of
quality time for themselves because the attention is mainly on the child and
even the relationship with the child may not be that good.

·       Outdoor/Family
chores- The parents unfortunately are scared to do outdoors activities such as
shopping, going to family parks because of random tantrums committed by the
child and the child’s behaviour which is seen abnormal to others.

·       Family
visits may not be on a regular basis because some family members may not be aware
of the child’s needs and they lack knowledge how to handle such situations that
the child does.

·       Marital
problems between the mother and father can be in crisis because a lot of energy
is spent on the child and can lead to separation due to stress with the
consequence that the child goes through emotional problems including sadness,
aggressive behaviour.

·       Children
may be rejected by their peers and be less tuned in to activities and games and
limits participation. As they grow older this problem gets worse and this
result in sadness and further social rejections.

·       Stress is
one of the main effects when it comes to parenting children who suffers from
ADHD. It can be challenging when dealing with implications of the child’s
disorder stress can lead to depression both on the parents and even on the
child itself and the family.



As an LSA of Antonio I would Recommend to parents these


·       Focusing
on the strengths of the child and not only the weaknesses. It is important that
the child utilise its strengths and not consume disappointment and failure.

·       Always
look and Give opportunities and responsibility to feel important and that they
are capable. Helping out at school and at home can reinforce it.

·       Knowing
how to find solutions and how to handle situations.

·       Showing
them that you are there for him/her and show feelings and believe in them.

·       Set a
good example and don’t give up.


of an individual with ADHD needs support in such situations where they can seek
help from professionals such as:


·       ADHD
Support group in Malta. The purpose of this group is to support parents and
gives information about the condition, public education and awareness
activities, offers courses and other services, and to encourage parents and
professionals to work together for the benefit of the child.

·       Work hand
in hand with school SMT and other professionals with the LSA, Teachers.

·       Reinforce
what is done at school

·       Quality
time is important and it has to be related to what the child likes to do if he
likes cooking doing a session together or watching a movie.