a) ADHDstand for attention hyperactivity disorder and psychiatric disorder. It isneurodevelopmental which is most common in early years and last in adulthood.The individual with ADHD cannot control his/her behaviour, they find itdifficult to stay focused for a long period of time due to impulsivity. Persistentpattern of hyperactivity patterns occur and may not act as other children do.Negative behaviour may have an impact on a social scale, school wise and also academically.
According to the DSM-5 ADHD is a constant pattern of lack of attention andimpulsivity. This may hinder with the functioning and development in two ormore settings such as home, school, work, with friends, family and relatives. Thesymptoms of ADHD have to be present for at least six months of age and continueto a certain point that is consistent and have a negative impact on social andacademic activities.
ADHD isdiagnosed as one of the three main types: Inattentive Type, Hyperactivity Type,or combined type. A diagnosis is based on the symptoms that have occurred overthe past six months. “Individuals with ADHD may be diagnosed with bothinattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity, or one symptom pattern maypredominate.” (Manualof Mental Disorder) PredominantlyInattentive Type Symptoms: · EasilyDistracted· Daydreaming· CarelessMistakes· LooseThings· Fidgets· Forgetdaily tasks· Does notlisten when spoken to· Does notfollow instructions Hyperactivity/ImpulsiveType:· Hasdifficulty waiting his/her turn · Interrupts· Always onthe go· Runs orclimbs· Not ableto stay seated· Fidgets· Talkexcessively The main causes of ADHD has notbeen yet specified but are genetically linked. Other factors are: · Use of Alcohol and substances· Premature Delivery· Low birth weight· Difficulties during pregnant· Exposed to environment (lead)· Inheritance Not eating a good balanced diet,family issues at home and not using spare time well can make symptoms worse.Nowadays additives and preservatives are found to be one of the main problemthat is increasing by time. Children with ADHD should include these in aminority and even individuals who do not have ADHD. b) The ADHDcore symptoms: hyperactivity, inattention and impulsivity are a mixture of disruptiveclassroom behaviour.
For students with ADHD classroom interventions should bemade and to understand the students strength and needs. ADHD effects the partof the brain that deals with executive functioning – the ability to plan,organise and think ahead. The challenges are one of the main problem. AsAntonio’s LSA I would give him skills on how to be more organised and use thesemanagement strategies: · Antecedents and consequenceswill suggest environmental changes that set up the student for success orfailure.
Analysis of consequences, on the other hand, will identifythose environmental contingencies that serve to reinforce both desired andundesired behaviour.· Time out breaks can beeffective in order to reduce aggression and disruptive behaviour.· Use of Locker in the morning and prepare therequired books and files for the first six lessons and after break for the lasttwo lessons and stick a timetable inside the locker.
· Reinforce with rewards and praises.· Design a colour coded timetable. · Using subject related dividers, so when it comesto filing it will be easier to identify the subject.· Showing the student how to organise his/hermaterials and supervise regularly as he/she becomes independent, slowly I wouldfade the organisational checks.
In the classroom it is best forhim to find seating away from distractions such as doors and windows althoughevery lesson is held in different classrooms. Using a traffic light poster canhelp the student to be contained and help him to be more focused andconcentrate during lessons. Redlights means no talkingOrangemeans low level talking allowedGreenindicates open talking More strategies that I would useto keep Antonio focused are:· Askingquestions to engage the student and the learning outcome.· Stretchbreaks to stay on task.· Clear andconcise instructions· Discusswith the teacher in order to give the student, an active role in the classroomsuch as classroom assistant or helper. Using a timer can also help thestudent to know how much time remains to finish the lesson. Using hands onmaterial, can help Antonio to concentrate more and to follow the explanation inclass. Consequently, I would use visuals and concise the material for thestudent.
Chunk classwork have to be manageable and when a task is completed areward is given in order to encourage him to do the next task. Challenges: · Concentration of the student· Short attention span· Conflict with peers UDL- Universal Design forlearning is a research based framework that addresses learner diversity at thebeginning of the design or planning effort. Educators should find ways to accessresources so learners are given the opportunity to take charge of theirengagement in learning. As Antonio’s LSA I would suggestthat subject teachers know about his condition and by working together as ateam, it will definitely help him to improve his behaviour and using strategiesthat both the learning support assistant and the teacher follow together. Lesson Plan: Konsonanti Qamrin uXemxinDate: 20th November2017Subject: MalteseGrade Level: Year 8 Level 5-6-7Objective: To identify thedifferences between “Il-Konsonanti Qamrin u Xemxin”. To place the article infront of different words.
Material Used: PowerPointDuration: 40 minutesLearning Outcome: Activity 1: The student is going to followthe teachers explanation same as peers. The teacher is going to show thestudents a PowerPoint, which can be a useful resource to make it easier for thestudents to follow the explanation and understand better. Activity 2:The teacher is going to do anactivity on the interactive whiteboard where the students need to put under thecorrect column the words of the paragraph underneath the correct column.Antonio is going to have his turn and participate in this activity. Activity3:The student is going to begiven an adapted handout (as attached) for classwork in order to see if heunderstood the difference between the ‘Xemxin and Qamrin’ and do the article infront of them. If the task is done in a correct way, hewill be given a reward. Using the UDL guidelines:· Engagment In Activity 1 & 2· Representation in Activity 1 & 2· Comprehension in Activity 3 Immarkal-frott.
Tinsiex idda??al l-artiklu. Immarka l-konsonati Xemxin u Qamrin billitikteb (X) jew (Q) ?dejn in-nomi. Il-konsonantixemxin huma?– d – n – r – s – t – x – ? – zIl-konsonanti qamrin humab – f – ? – g – g? – h – ? – j – k – l – m – p – q – v – w Immarka l-?axix. Tinsiex idda??all-artiklu. Immarka l-konsonati Xemxin u Qamrin billi tikteb (X) jew (Q) ?dejnin-nomi. C) Childrenwith ADHD may have problems to interact with their peers caused by behaviouralissues or lack of social skills. This creates problems with peers and mayencounter peer rejections. AsAntonio’s LSA, I would do a Peer Preparation Programme together with the formteacher to educate students and be aware of the differenti abilities andstrenghts that they all have.
They need to be aware that they are unique and thatdifferent students may have different learning style. “Children with disability with nopeer preparation programme are more rejected and less accepted that the averagechild in the class” (Tanti Burlo, Soresi, Nightingale 1996) · I would include Antonio in break clubs to get toknow more students and make new friends.· Doing social skills training can help Antonio toevaluate his behaviour and build positive peer interactions decrease theunwanted behaviour and reinforcing positive behaviour.I wouldlet Antonio to work with students that he likes or with students by whom hethinks he is liked during group work. Forcing to work with peers that rejectshim may create greater problems.
· Seek help from Guidance teachers and schoolcounsellors and other professionals. D) As Antonio’s LSA the main competences should beshowing empathy towards him and understand his emotions when he shows adisruptive behaviour. Patience is another competence that one should haveespecially with ADHD students it is not an easy task however one should keepcalm and not hesitate otherwise one should keep calm and not hesitate otherwisethe student will be more agitated. It is important to know his character whathe likes and dislikes and what triggers his misappropriate behaviour. When thestudent is not in a good mood it is important for the LSA to show compassiontowards the student as his helps him to calm down.
E) There are various implications which affect childrenwith ADHD. This can be derived both from family background issues and the childhimself. Impact is not only on the parents but also on siblings.
“Adultswith ADHD may have difficulty in maintenance relationships with the peoplearound them”. Negativelyaspects of ADHD towards the parents are: · Lack ofquality time for themselves because the attention is mainly on the child andeven the relationship with the child may not be that good.· Outdoor/Familychores- The parents unfortunately are scared to do outdoors activities such asshopping, going to family parks because of random tantrums committed by thechild and the child’s behaviour which is seen abnormal to others.· Familyvisits may not be on a regular basis because some family members may not be awareof the child’s needs and they lack knowledge how to handle such situations thatthe child does.· Maritalproblems between the mother and father can be in crisis because a lot of energyis spent on the child and can lead to separation due to stress with theconsequence that the child goes through emotional problems including sadness,aggressive behaviour.· Childrenmay be rejected by their peers and be less tuned in to activities and games andlimits participation.
As they grow older this problem gets worse and thisresult in sadness and further social rejections.· Stress isone of the main effects when it comes to parenting children who suffers fromADHD. It can be challenging when dealing with implications of the child’sdisorder stress can lead to depression both on the parents and even on thechild itself and the family. F) As an LSA of Antonio I would Recommend to parents thesetools: · Focusingon the strengths of the child and not only the weaknesses. It is important thatthe child utilise its strengths and not consume disappointment and failure.· Alwayslook and Give opportunities and responsibility to feel important and that theyare capable.
Helping out at school and at home can reinforce it.· Knowinghow to find solutions and how to handle situations.· Showingthem that you are there for him/her and show feelings and believe in them.· Set agood example and don’t give up. Parentsof an individual with ADHD needs support in such situations where they can seekhelp from professionals such as: · ADHDSupport group in Malta. The purpose of this group is to support parents andgives information about the condition, public education and awarenessactivities, offers courses and other services, and to encourage parents andprofessionals to work together for the benefit of the child.· Work handin hand with school SMT and other professionals with the LSA, Teachers.· Reinforcewhat is done at school · Qualitytime is important and it has to be related to what the child likes to do if helikes cooking doing a session together or watching a movie.