Abnormal behavior is classified into several major theories. The major theories related to abnormal behavior describes the various characteristics of abnormal behavior. There are specific behavioral issues as they relate to abnormal behavior and behavior patterns.
The V Axes diagnosis is the indebt classification system used to classify abnormal behavior. This system also serves as the guidelines in the treatment of abnormal behavior. Abnormal behavior can be treated and controlled with the assistance of proper treatment and detection.
There are many definitions that pertain to abnormal behavior.Most definitions describe abnormal behavior as any behavior deem contrary to normal behavior. The most common criterion for defining abnormality, however, is mal-adaptive behavior. There are two aspects of maladaptive behavior: Maladaptive to one’s self – inability to reach goals, to adapt to the demands of life and Maladaptive to society – interferes, disrupts social group functioning (Clarkin). Each culture has its own established set of social, intellectual, adaptive, and emotional norms and any behavior that deviates from these normal are considered to be abnormal behavior.There are several theories of personality: psychodynamic, behavioral-cognitive, social-cultural, and humanistic are some of the theories that are use to aid in defining and the treating of abnormal behavior (Clarkin).
Each theory of personality holds an idea or definition of what is abnormal. These theories although they differ in their approach to abnormal behavior focus on a particular aspect of this behavior in order to define their theoretical approach to this behavior. In all theories of abnormal behavior, psychological disorders are classified according to the symptoms involved. Psychologists have adopted their heories and their approach to abnormal behavior using various schools of thought and these approaches differ on from another. Psychodynamic Theory is one of the oldest theories in psychology in which patients are treated are viewed within a model of illness that attempts to identify something that may be lacking.
Each individual is perceived to be made up from a dynamic that begins in early childhood and continually progresses throughout life. Psychodynamic Theory is based on the premise that human behavior and relationships are shaped by conscious and unconscious influences (Clarkin).Psychodynamic psychotherapy is classically indicated in the treatment of unresolved conflicts in early life, as might be found in non-psychotic and personality disorders, but to date there is a lack of convincing evidence concerning its superiority over other forms of treatment. Cognitive-behavioral theories are best conceptualized as a general category of theories, or a set of related theories, which have evolved from the theoretical writings, clinical experiences, and empirical studies of behavioral and cognitively oriented psychologists (Slavin).There is no single definition of cognitive-behavioral theory.
The individual theories are tied together by common assumptions, techniques and research strategies, but maintain a diversity of views about the role cognitions play in behavior change (Slavin). The hyphenated term “cognitive-behavioral” reflects the importance of both behavioral and cognitive approaches to understanding and helping human beings. The hyphen brings together behavioral and cognitive theoretical views, each with its own theoretical assumptions and intervention strategies.Cognitive-behavioral interventions target both cognitive and behavioral problems using a full integration of cognitive and behavioral strategies.
Cognitive-behavioral research is based on observed changes in behavior and cognition with methodological rigor (Slavin). Cognitive-behavioral theories provide great flexibility in treatment targets and interventions, sharing a fundamental emphasis on the importance of cognitive workings and private events as mediators of behavior change.Behavioral assessment, operating in the “triple response mode”, provides a conceptual model of the functional relationships between thoughts, behaviors, and feelings and provides the necessary background for clinicians and researchers to implement and evaluate intervention strategies (Slavin). Cognitive-behavioral theories and counseling interventions are currently highly influential.
There are many different cognitive-behavioral intervention techniques and the number is likely to grow as the theories continue to be developed and tested for effectiveness with a variety of psychological problems.The social/cultural theory has sound educational purposes. The primary focus is learning through socialization. Through these communities of learning, students participate together to construct and connect new knowledge. The group actively works to make sense of the world and how it relates to solving complex problems and authentic situations.
According to the social/cultural theory, knowledge was best constructed when learners collaborates together (Ratner). Students support one another and encourage new ways to form, construct and reflect on new material.Lave refers to this as the “community of practice”. Social interactions and participation of group members play a key role in developing knowledge. Similar to the constructivist theory, the situated perspective relies on students’ prior knowledge and past experiences to play an integral role in the construction of new knowledge (Ratner).
The cooperative group dynamic allows the sharing and collaboration of knowledge to help make connections with new material. There exists a standard notation for DSM-IV diagnosis for use by all psychologists in the West, and primarily the United States.This notation functions as the language by which the fine institution of psychology communicates with the insurance companies. For many patients, this sort of diagnosis is the red tape itself. The standard form of a DSM-IV diagnosis exists in five parts, or axes. Each axis represents the condition of an aspect of the patient’s mental health. Although it is considered unethical to over-diagnose or under-diagnose a patient, psychologists who feel a patient is on the border of a certain illness will often use a certain notation to show which diagnosis may be recommended in the future.
Consider this situation: A patient reports feeling “blue” for about a year and half. The DSM-IV states that in order to diagnose the patient with dysthymic disorder, there must be a “depressed mood for most of the day, for more days than not, as indicated either by subjective account or observation by others, for at least two years. ” Since the patient reported the condition for six months less than required, the psychologist cannot diagnose dysthymic disorder. Instead, the psychologist will report “311 DepressiveDisorder Not Otherwise Specified, R/O Dysthemia. ” This notation calls for a ruling out of dysthemia in a future diagnosis (Brown). Confusedly, psychologists use the rule out notation to also remove a disorder from consideration. Global Assessment of Functioning is for reporting the clinician’s judgment of the individual’s overall level of functioning and carrying out activities of daily living (Brown). This information is useful in planning treatment and measuring its impact, and in predicting outcome.
The Global Assessment of Functioning Scale is a 100-point scale that measures a patients overall level of psychological, social, and occupational functioning on a hypothetical continuum (Brown). The GAF Report decision tree is designed to guide clinicians through a methodical and comprehensive consideration of all aspects of a patients symptoms and functioning to determine a patients GAF rating in less than 3 minutes. The GAF Report addresses the growing need for accuracy and reliability in determining and reporting on GAF ratings by ensuring all aspects of a patients functioning are considered.Use the “current” or “past week” rating to indicate current management needs, the “at discharge” rating to document progress and quality of care, and the “highest level in past year” rating as a target for termination of treatment (Brown). The GAF scale is particularly useful for managed care-driven diagnostic evaluations to determine eligibility for treatment and disability benefits and to delineate the level of care required for patients. On completion of the GAF Report questions, a 10-point range is automatically determined.Then, using the sliding rating scale, you can quickly indicate the specific GAF rating within this 10-point range, using clinical judgment and hypothetical comparison with other patients in the range (Brown).
Explanation screens provide clarification of specific questions throughout the assessment. The report, which summarizes a patient’s result, can be produced immediately after an assessment . Global Assessment of Functioning Scale Consider psychological, social, and occupational functioning on a hypothetical continuum of mental health-illness. Mental health professionals classify mental disorders with by category.The use of labels allows communication between clinicians. Labels are valuable for statistical purposes in research, and for bridging the gap between research and treatment. Categories contribute to planning of treatment programs and facilities.
The use of classification has not gone without controversy for several reasons. Labels of mental illness carry social stigma (Brown). The current diagnostic categories are imperfect since mental disorders rarely conform to exactly one label and may overlap. A different system of dimensional classification has been presented as an alternative.This is based on dimensions of pathology, for example, a person would have several ratings of severity scales such as depression, anxiety, and obsessions (Brown). Abnormal behavior can be treated and controlled with the assistance of proper treatment and detection.
Although most treatment may slightly vary depending on which region of the world you seek treatment in or even which psychologist you visit. Depending on what disorder that you may be diagnosed with and the severity of the disorder determines whether the treatment that you will receive will be aggressive or not in order to combat the disorder.There are several preferred treatments that are viewed as appropriate treatment in the overall fight against behavior disorder. Many researchers argue that the most successful treatment is directly related to early detection. Educating the person suffering from these behavior disorders has been proven also to be one of the most successful tools in aiding the recovery of behavior disorder.
Depending on how abnormal behavior is viewed determines the approach in the treatment of the disorder. When the behavior is viewed as a morale issue than confinement is most often the remedy for this behavior.Confinement can be anything such as prison or mental hospital in order to separate the patient from society. Due to lack of general funding for state hospitals many people that are confined are confined to prisons or jails in which the institutions have inadequate facilities to properly treat these types of issues. Depending on the type of institution these types of disorders often go undetected therefore causing major problems for the confining institution and for the person suffering from these types of disorders. These situations often results in the person becoming a problem for the institution and results in recidivism.
When these types of behavior problems are viewed as biological the method of treatment differs greatly. The most important thing for psychologist to do is the proper classification of the disorder. After determining the proper classification of the disorder and determination of the biological cause of the disorder then the type of treatment can be established. Although most disorders can be effectively treated by medication mental disorders due to an imbalance in body fluids are treated by prescribed special diets and other physical treatments. There are three primary forms of biological treatment today.
The three primary forms are electroconvulsive therapy, psychosurgery, and medications. Another form of therapy that many psychologist view as important tool for them is talk therapy in which sometimes is called group therapy in which have proven to be successful in many cases. Abnormal behavior is classified into several major theories. The major theories related to abnormal behavior describes the various characteristics of abnormal behavior. There are specific behavioral issues as they relate to abnormal behavior and behavior patterns. The V Axes diagnosis is the indebt classification system used to classify abnormal behavior.This system also serves as the guidelines in the treatment of abnormal behavior. Abnormal behavior can be treated and controlled with the assistance of proper treatment and detection.
Abnormal behavior depending on the region of the world that one resides has different classification systems as well as different treatment methods. Although this type of behavior is still not fully understood by researchers vast advancements have been made and continual research has proven to be making major strides in the prevention and treatment of these disorders.