Abraham (2011) found the conceptual framework for fall prevention.
Maslow hierarchy present 5 levels of human needs which are physiological needs,
safety needs, security needs, self esteem needs, and self-actualization needs.
Physiological needs are place at the bottom of the pyramid and need to fulfill first
before concern on the next level.  Health
care organization must have preventive guidelines such as fall prevention
programs to prevent any adverse event occur. Thus, patients must be care where
their basic needs are met and their safety can be assured by the staff.

Besides, Abraham (2011) also identified the important of Orlando
Nursing Theory-based practice which can helps nurses in achieving successful in
quality of care such as reduce in patient falls, medication error, pressure
injuries and many more. Orlando theory was developed by Ida Jean Orlando. She was
born in 1926 and become one of nursing theorists who write about the nursing
process based on her own research. In the late 1950, Orlando established her
theory through an empirical study of nursing practice. From her research, she
formulated the “purposeful nursing process “which was published in 1961. Orlando
theory goes along with the mission of organization to tackle patient safety
issues. This theory identifies and meets the patient need and emphasizes
communication between nurse and patient at specific time and place. The sequence
involves patient behavior and nurse reaction until patients need is resolved.
The nurse need to decide an appropriate action to resolved the patient need
with the cooperation from the patient. The action will be evaluated after
intervention is carried out. If the behavior of patients improves, the action
was successful, and if no change in patient behavior or getting worse, the
process continues with new intervention.

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                Orlando Nursing concept can be dividing into 5 major interrelated
concepts which are functions of professional nursing, presenting behavior, immediate
nurse reaction, nursing process discipline and improvement (Sampoornam, 2015).
Nursing thought must be finding out whether patient has immediate need for help
or not. To know that the immediate need for help, nurses must recognize first
the situations as problematic. According to Orlando theory, behavior of patient
no matter how insignificant it is, must be considered as expression of the need
of help. Patient behavior either can be verbal or non verbal.  Verbal behavior is any form of complaints,
requests, questions, refusals, comments or statement while non verbal behavior
is physiological sign such as heart rate, perspirations, urinations, motor
response and also voice behavior such as laughing, sobbing, sighing or
shouting.  These two types of patient
behavior must be alert by the staff nurse so patient needs can be fulfilled. Another
element in Orlando nursing theory is nurse immediate reaction. Patient behavior
will lead to nurse reaction. There are three sequence of nursing action or call
nurse process is first, the nurse recognizes the behavior through five sense
organs. Second, the perceptions produce automatic thought and finally the thought
produce automatic feeling and person acts. Nursing process and Orlando process
discipline are quite similar because both require cautions processes and in a
series of sequences. First step is assessment. Patient behavior initiates
assessment. Objective data are from patient’s health records and subjective
data can be perception, thought or feeling of patients. Second step is nursing
diagnosis. It is an exploration of nurse reaction with patient behavior and it
can help in identifications of patient needs. Third step was planning. Planning
phase involve writing outcome goals or objectives on nurse actions. Goal relate
to patient’s improvement in appropriate action. Fourth step involve
implementation of planned actions. Orlando process concerned with effectiveness
of action in resolve immediate patient needs. Lastly, evaluation phase is based
on objective or goal criteria. The process was nurse evaluate the effectiveness
for an action