Last updated: June 18, 2019
Topic: HealthDisease
Sample donated:

AIDS is the concluding stage of HIV infection. HIV virus causes to progressive serious harm to immune system.A Infections late spread worldwide. So HIV infection and AIDS are widely distributed via international travellers and their sexual activities and drug wonts. Although infection is preventable and it is transmitted quickly via sexual intercourse, needle and syringe-sharing in field of medical usage of blood, blood constituents, variety meats or tissue exchange and from an septic female parent to her kids and besides dispersed via perpendicular transmittal to newborn babe at bringing and via chest milk. Virus is non spread through insouciant contact air, nutrient and H2O or through mosquitoes. There is no vaccinum for disease. Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome referred as AIDS.HIV is besides caused by exposure to assorted organic structure fluids of an septic individual through sexual contact or endovenous drug usage. HIV infected individuals develop AIDS after several old ages subsequently about 9 old ages. Although incurable some success has been used in take downing the rapid development from HIV to AIDS. AIDS impaired immune system that gives protection against several infections. The immune system is no individual thing and it is complex and no organic structure of scientific discipline yet to the full explains how it all plants. Microbes cause infection such as bacteriums, viruses or Fungis. We are surrounded by 1000000s of them every twenty-four hours ; we ca n’t see them through our eyes. Virus chiefly targets the T-cells, those which have a receptor called a CD4 receptor. The viral attaches onto above receptor can take to the interior of the cell. Finally have a virus which similar visual aspect and acts as a CD4 T-cell.

HIV ( Human Immune Deficiency Virus )

HIV is a specific type of virus ( ex post facto virus ) that causes AIDS. It combats earnestly the immune system. The immune system gives organic structure ability to contend infections. HIV finds and in conclusion kills a type of white blood cell ( T cells or CD4 cells ) that the immune system must hold to contend disease. Infected HIV individual is referred to as HIV positive. But HIV positive individual looks healthy for a long clip after first going infected. HIV-1 ( human immunodeficiency virus ) chiefly causes to this and HIV-2 causes a similar unwellness.


AIDS ( Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome )

Concluding phase of HIV infection is AIDS, Which take long period for a patient with HIV even without proper intervention to accomplish this stage. Having AIDS means that the virus has damaged powerful immune system to the point at which the organic structure has a hard clip battling infections such as diarrhoea or cold. No remedy. Finally, the virus kills or impairs cells in the immune systems. Peoples who infected AIDS can decease from diseases that are normally non unsafe for people with healthy immune systems.

Beginning of HIV

Beginning of HIV is specialized type of Pan troglodytess. This virus most likely transmits to worlds when worlds hunted Pan troglodytess for nutrient and came into get in touch with their septic blood. The virus easy dispersed across Africa and subsequently into other countries of the universe. Now the figure of those populating with HIV patients continues to travel up, although more easy. However, the figure of those freshly infected was lowered from 1996 ( 3.5 million ) to 2008 ( 2.3 million ) , due to farther frequent intervention with antiretroviral drugs ( ART ) .

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!

order now

figure of people populating with HIV

Global epidemic and regional forms

AIDS was foremost recognized in 1981.In Sub-saharan Africa 64 % of all people who infected HIV is unrecorded. In South Africa exist for tierce of AIDS deceases worldwide. Since 2002, the rapid additions have been seen in East Asia ( 50 % ) , mostly to the epidemic taking topographic point in China, Central Asia, Eastern Europe, Ukraine, Latvia and Russia. In Vietnam, Thailand, Cambodia, Nepal and Myanmar states are propagated good now. In India, it is about 5.1 million individuals are presently infected.So now Asia is home to 60 % of the universe ‘s population. HIV infection in states is profound as it affects the most economically productive and rich ages and is besides gnawing the wellness and economic progresss made in the last few decennaries. Less than 5 % of patients in developing states are able to utilize antiretroviral drugs. High-risk of sexual is besides increasing in many states. The epidemic in some states is altering. Heterosexual transmittal is become the chief path with racial and cultural minorities stand foring an increasing fraction.

How is HIV transmitted

HIV transmits from blood, seeds, pre-seminal fluid, vaginal fluid or chest milk from an septic individual to an clean individual. HIV enter the organic structure through a vena ( E.g. Injection drug usage ) , the liner of the anus or rectum, the liner of the vagina or neck, the gap to the phallus, the oral cavity, other mucose membranes ( E.g. Eyess or interior of the olfactory organ ) , cuts and sores. Undamaged healthy tegument is a barrier to HIV. HIV can convey through septic blood or blood curdling factor and besides has a lower hazard infected blood comes in contact with a worker ‘s unfastened cut or is splashed into a worker ‘s eyes or inside their olfactory organ. Some extra organic structure fluids transmit the virus such as fluids environing the spinal cord, encephalon, bone, articulations, and fluid environing an unborn babe. HIV is found in spit and cryings of some individuals populating with HIV, but in really small sums. That is why HIV can be transmitted by through organic structure fluid. HIV has non been investigated from perspiration of HIV-infected individuals. Make contact with spit, cryings or perspiration has ne’er been cleared to ensue in transmittal of HIV. Womans can go through HIV to their unborn kid during gestation, while the baby is being delivered or in the class of breast-feeding.This is the most common manner dispersed HIV to kids.Not all adult females who infected will give it to their kids. Without medicine or suckling about one 4th ( 25 % ) of pregnant adult females with HIV will convey the HIV to their babes.

Reproduction and Mutation of HIV

HIV allows itself to be destroyed by the defence cells and this manner it enters into the defence cells of the organic structure. At the same clip the virus accompanies along the enzyme “ rearward RNA polymerase ” which change the familial molecule of the virus itself ( RNA ) into the human familial molecule ( DNA ) . The virus RNA is so built into the one of the host cell, where it can relay inactive for many old ages. While retroflexing, the virus changes the defence cells in the same manner. If the defence cell receives a signals to retroflex ( for illustration to kill HIV or other viruses or bacteriums ) , this starts the reproduction of HIV. Not merely that while retroflexing, the virus uses the above host cell for its ain intents, such as infusion its foods. Huge sum of HIVs are instantly formed to destructing the defence cells and, new HIVs in bend invades other defence cells.

Symptoms of HIV Infection

Merely one beginning of cheque whether you are infected or non is proving for HIV. You can non trust on symptoms entirely because, many people who already infected with HIV do non hold clear symptoms for many old ages. Person can demo and experience healthy but can still be infected. In fact, one one-fourth of the septic individuals in the universes do non cognize that they are infected.

Major symptom

We can place major symptoms such as, Loss of more than 10 % of organic structure weight, chronic diarrhoea, and Prolong febrility

Minor symptom

AIDS has several minor symptoms such as cough for more than a month, generalized antsy tegument roseola, painful group of blisters all over the organic structure, generalized conceited lymph secretory organ and white curd like patched on tongue/throat.

About the Immune System

Get protection against infections and other occupying being via several phases called the immune response. Immune system battles with beings or substances which invade organic structure systems. These system is built up of cells, tissues, and some variety meats that act together to last the organic structure and several cells that jointly fight and protect the organic structure from infections such as bacterial, parasitic, fungous, viral and from the turning tumour cells.

Major variety meats of the Immune System

Bone Marrow

Stem cells that derived from bone marrow translate into either mature immune cells or into precursors of cells that leave out of the bone marrow to maintain their ripening. The bone marrow synthesizes B cells, natural slayer cells, granulocytes, immature thymocytes ‘ ruddy blood cells and platelets.A


The map is to synthesise T cells. Immature thymocytes go out of the bone marrow and migrate to the Thymus secretory organ and concluding consequence is release mature T cells to blood. T cells t are of import.


A Immunologic filter of the blood is spleen that contains legion B cells, T cells, macrophages, dendritic cells, natural slayer cells and ruddy cells. It detects foreign stuffs such as antigens. Macrophages and dendritic cells passage assorted antigens to the spleen via circulatory blood. Response is started when the macrophage or dendritic cells bear the antigen to B or T cells. So in the lien, B cells work actively and produce legion antibodies.A

Lymph Nodes

The lymph nodes act as an immunologic filter for lymph. Construct up with T cells, B cells, dendritic and macrophages. Antigens are divided out of the lymph in the lymph node before come ining the lymph to the general circulation. The macrophages and dendritic cells that detect antigens to T cells or B cells and are began response.

The Cells of the defence system


T lymph cells are usually categorized into two major divisions. The T assistant division besides called the CD4+ T cell, that coordinator of immune ordinance by the secernment of specialised factors that enhance other white blood cells to contend against infections T killer/suppressor or CD8+ T cells are other sort of T cells. These cells straight destroy tumour cells, viral-infected cells and parasites and besides assist in down-regulation of immune responses. They frequently depend on the lymph nodes and lien which give activation site but they are besides in other tissues such as liver, lung, blood, and digestive and generative system.A

Natural Killer Cells

A Besides called NK cells that straight kill tumours such as melanomas, lymphomas, viral-infected cells, herpes and cytomegalovirus-infected cells. Unlike the CD8+ T cells, they destroy their marks without lymphoid variety meats.

B Cells

A B lymphocytes map is the production of antibodies response to proteins of antigens. Antibodies are proteins that bind to one specialized protein after recognitionA


Granulocytes are aggregation of three cell types recognized as neutrophils, eosinophils and basophils. These cells help to take bacteriums and parasites and engulf foreign organic structures and destruct them utilizing their potent enzymes.A


Regulate immune responses. Serve as antigen-presenting cells ( APC ) because they ingest foreign substances and transmit antigens to other cells such as T and B cells. A

Dendritic Cells

Function as antigen showing cells ( APC ) . Normally found in the structural divider of the lymphoid variety meats ( Thymus, lymph nodes and lien, blood stream and other tissues of the organic structure ) . They detect antigen or transition it to the lymphoid organs where response is started. Dendritic cells join greater proportion of HIV, and serve as reservoir of virus that is transition to CD4+ T cells during an activity.

Types of immune system

1 ) Innate ( non-adaptive )

Non adaptative unsusceptibility gives first line of immune response and relies on mechanisms that exist before infection.

2 ) Acquired ( adaptative )

Acquired unsusceptibility is the Second line of response ( if innate fails ) and besides relies on mechanisms that adapt after infection. It is regulated by T and B lymph cells.

Impaired unsusceptibility in AIDS

The immune system contending encroachers and give protection against infections and prevents malignant neoplastic disease by take downing the organic structure ‘s ain damaged or pervert cells. After HIV infections 1000s of 1000000s of assistant cells are killed. So 2-3 hebdomads within infection, the ague HIV infection can happen, which suppressed once more after 6 hebdomads, when the immune system has great responsibility in the first conflict. Kill legion HIV as are synthesized, maintaining equilibrium twelvemonth upon twelvemonth. After immune system becomes damaged and the sum of virus readily additions AIDS appear. Concluding consequence from HIV makes increasing vulnerable, to infections and tumour. The deficiency of ability of CD4+ T cells of HIV-1-infected patients to mount an efficient immune response is widely supposed to explicate the increased susceptibleness of these patients to timeserving infections. Decrease of CD4+ T cells and quality of CD4+ T cells dysfunction self-regulating of T-cell decrease. Many patients with decreased T-cell responses to remember antigens prior to significance CD4+ T-cell depletion, and among the proposed accounts for this phenomenon are gp120-mediated intervention with T-cell activation by suppression of CD4-class II histocompatibility composite ( MHC ) determiner communications, gp41-mediated suppression of protein kinase C-dependent T-cell activation, formation of gp41 cross-reactive antibodies that react with MHC category II determiners, transforming growing factor-beta ( TGF-beta ) -mediated immunosuppression, and decreased maps of antigen-present and antigen-processing cells HIV-1-infected patients. These T cell defects do non inform the oncoming of dangerous situations.Depletion of CD4+ T cells are direct consequence of HIV-1 infection that occurs because of syncytia formation. The Thymus is earnestly damaged in patients with late stage of disease and that is why that has the inability of the Thymus to synthesise new T cells contributes to T-cell decrease in patients with AIDS. Chronic suppression of virus reproduction may be owned with newer anti-HIV drugs or combinations of several drugs.

Clinical phases of HIV infection

U.S. wellness sections CDC ( Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ) , three clinical phases of the disease, but besides has three categories of Igs. Harmonizing to the Organization of HIV can merely be found with a confirmed instance of HIV-positive trial.

Stage A 3-6 hebdomads after infection in patients with acute HIV infection, 50 % -70 % of the flu-like symptoms of roseola, febrility, sore pharynx, musculus hurting, conceited lymph nodes, sore concerns and sickness and other symptoms. In any clinical hold more ailments, although some continued Lymphadenopathie shoulder, back or cervix. Clinical incubation period can last many old ages.

Phase B Prior to step C ( AIDS ) besides weaken the immune system symptoms of disease. These symptoms are frequently accompanied by a general impairment of wellness. Besides continuance ( one month or more ) of the symptoms, such as febrility, dark workout suits and weight loss, and many other infections, such as Candida infections, oral cavity and pharynx, or viral diseases, as with a rose.

Phase C. It is the prostration of the immune system. Pattern of AIDS disease is unmistakable, although symptoms can change. A assortment of infections and malignant neoplastic disease is common, such as the gorge and a particular signifier of pneumonia ( Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia ) , is a common fungous infection of the viruses ( such as CMV retinitis redness, retinal ) , infections parasitic ( toxoplasmosis, ensuing in encephalon abscess ) , a rare signifier of malignant neoplastic disease ( such as Kaposisarkom, Lymphdrusensarkom, encephalon tumours ) and nervous system diseases ( including HIV dementedness ) and weight loss powerful ( blowing syndrome ) .

Diagnosis of HIV infection

Disease ca n’t be diagnosed via a physical scrutiny or via disease symptoms. It is merely possible on determine of the virus or antibodies in blood or organic structure fluid. Normally the presence of antibodies is checked.

The diagnostic window

It takes some clip before sufficient sums of antibodies keep in the blood for the trial. This period of infection to cogent evidence of infection is referred as the diagnostic window. It dependents on several factors such as transmittal path, sum of transferred viruses, and immune system and besides vary with individual to individual. The diagnostic window may be decreased by an norm of 3 hebdomads with the usage of virus trial or a combination of antigen -antibody trials. Most patients taken clip between infection and diagnosing is about 3 months but it may sometime.

diagnostic window

HIV infection and anti-body reaction

The left curve shows the antibodies concentrations against the HIVs in the blood. The right line shows the HIV concentration in the septic blood.

Therapy of Aidss

Antiviral therapy

Rearward RNA polymerase inhibitors and the peptidase inhibitors are the drugs that combat virus. The rearward RNA polymerase inhibitors indirectly inhibit viral genome from going related in the Deoxyribonucleic acid of host cell, because of drugs block DNA synthesis enzyme contrary RNA polymerase. The peptidase inhibitor inhibits peptidase, an exceptional enzyme response for synthesising new viruses. Both lowered sum of virus in the blood and lymph nodes. St

Drugs for Prophylaxis in instances of AIDS

Prophylaxis is used to forestalling timeserving infections in the disease. It prevents the symptoms and non causes to bring around infection. This depends upon phase of disease.


Sexual relationship among two healthy spouses and infection do non happen. But danger of infection hazard is increased by executing another sexual contact. So faithfulness is one of cut downing method of AIDS


Even though AIDS incurable it is recommended to hold an HIV.

No unprotected sexual contacts

Merely individual sexual spouse is recommended. Several spouses ever give greater hazard.


Now a twenty-four hours ‘s younger coevals have non good experience and cognition about rubbers. That is why they face higher hazard with these foetal disease

Inoculation against cervical malignant neoplastic disease and venereal warts

Recently vaccinum is recommended for everyone even though suited is inoculation against HPV types 6, 11,16 and 18 to forestall venereal warts and cervical malignant neoplastic disease. Girls before get downing their sexual behaviours are good advisable for above vaccinum.

Inoculation against Hepatitis B

Medical staff, dialysis patients, endovenous drug nuts or person remaining a long period in a underdeveloped state those who have somewhat hazard about hepatitis B inoculation against it is advisable.

Response of treatmentA

Measure viral measure and CD4 counts are chief response of intervention. This must look into beginning of intervention and during every 3 to 6 months. Treatment decline viral sum but does n’t intend hazard is gone and merely agencies test is non powerful to observe it.