After crucial role of employment and decent work for all was recognized by the world leaders at the 2005 World Summit, the concept of promoting sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all was adopted as the 8th Sustainable Development Goal. Such a focus was necessary for the reduction of poverty, the rise in labour productivity and the improvement of the access to financial services. Due to this special focus on the employment and decent work, there has been remarkable changes in terms of growth rate of GDP per capita worldwide and per worker. The average annual growth rate of real GDP per capita worldwide has accelerated 0.7 per cent between 2010 and 2015 compared to 2005-2009. Moreover, in the least developed countries, the per capita growth rate increased 1.0 per cent in 2010-2015. However, representing a negative development for the global economy, labour productivity globally has decelerated from 2.9 per cent to 1.9 per cent in 2009-2016. Labour rights basically require states to implement and enforce laws which mainly organize and discipline the work conditions as well as the conduct of private actors with a collective voice. ILO Declaration on fundamental principles and rights at work was adopted in 1998 which commits member states to respect and promote principles and rights of the workers. The governing body of ILO has identified several conventions as fundamental principles and rights at work some of which are freedom of association, the elimination of forced labour, child labour as well as of all forms discrimination.
Since labour rights provide crucial facilities to the workers such as equality, safety and healthiness, application and conservation of them constitutes an importance. These primary rights were expressed in the Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work 1998 of ILO. International Labour Organization (ILO), a specialized agency of UN, has made a lot of effort upon the issue such as holding annual International Labour Conferences where resolutions aiming to achieve full employment and raise the standards of living are adopted. Labour Statistics Convention, 1985 was adopted at the 71st ILC session and had the main aim of adopting proposals regarding to Statistics of Wages and Hours of Work, 1993 (No.63). Gathering detailed statistics of wage distribution and working hours and creating a database was the most effective proposal of this convention. The United Nations General Assembly adopted the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development with seventeen goals and one hundred sixty-nine targets including promotion of full and productive employment since such a focus is crucial for the reduction of poverty. Moreover, UN prepared a report of the Secretary General on the response of the UN system to the theme of full employment and decent work for all as requested by the GA resolution 63/230 and developed networking and learning events at the 5th World Urban Forum which all had the aim of raising awareness to the critical role of full employment and decent work for all, including social protection mechanisms, in poverty elimination.
With the help of ILO and its actions taken in Thailand, Thailand’s labour productivity rate has improved by 5.96% in September 2017, compared to the previous year which had a growth of 3.42% according to CEIC. Since Thailand’s population reached 65.93 million people in December 2018, Thai government has taken serious action in cooperation with ILO to prevent further unemployment problems. At the World Summit for Social Development, 1995 Thailand, one of the participating countries, made a commitment “promoting the goal of full employment as a basic priority of economic and social policies, and to enabling all men and women to attain secure and sustainable livelihoods through freely chosen productive employment and work” which is known as Commitment 3. Since ILO was required to assist countries to fulfil their commitments, ILO handled a CEPR (Country Employment Policy Review) in 1998/99 which was also backed with the ratification of the ILO’s Employment Policy Convention, 1964 (No.12), and the country’s rapid employment growth. The CEPR, whose technical work was implemented by the ILO East Asia Multidisciplinary Advisory Team (ILO/EASMAT) in Bangkok, had the aim of achieving decent work for all in terms of social protection of workers, job creation, equality and fair income.
Accurate implementation of labour rights and growth of full and productive employment will be achieved with the countries’ own economic policies such as macroeconomic, industrial and trade policies which influences economic growth. Governments should design effective economic policies which will create more job opportunities for the unemployed people while implementing labour rights in an accurate way by providing safety, equality and fair income. Microfinance, which is related with World Bank and IFC (International Finance Cooperation), aims to make unemployed or low-income individuals build their own jobs by giving them small loans of money and providing them economic opportunities, therefore, promoting Microfinance is an effective way to create job facilities. Since well-educated workers find jobs more effortlessly, education policy which encourages skilled workers, is the key solution upon the issue. Moreover, labour market policies should be developed in order to provide safe and fair working conditions and ensure labour rights. In order to ensure all workers an unemployment insurance which will fulfil their financial needs, governments should benefit from a continuous government monitoring of employed and unemployed people.