Agricultural
residue biomass is highly recommended as clean and renewable sources of energy
that increases the possibility of replacing the consumption of conventional
energy fossil fuels. The objectives of this review report is to evaluate the processes
how briquettes are produced from agricultural wastes/residues and To compare
the intensity of greenhouse gas emission using briquettes of agricultural
wastes/residues with other forms of energy sources especially fossil fuels.
Thus agricultural residue biomass energy available for climate change
mitigation by reducing the amount of greenhouse gases emission from using
fossil fuels and the pollutions resulting from the high accumulation of these
agricultural residues as wastes. The quality of briquettes
from agricultural residues/wastes in its energy value and its application in
the involvements in GHGs emission as well as in climate mitigation is manly
depends on the type and physicochemical characteristics of the residue used.

 

 

 

Keywords:
biomass,
agricultural residue, greenhouse gas, emission, briquette,

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

                         Production, reduction

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.   
Introduction

1.1.       
Background

Energy
demand is growing quickly, mostly as a result of population increase and
increasing industrial activities. This has led to an increase in prices of
major energy sources, such as fossil fuels (Wolfram et al., 2012). Use of fossil fuels reasons air pollution, which,
over time, escalates climate change effects as emissions of greenhouse gases and
other pollutants increases (Zanchi et al.,
2013).

Most
of the developing countries yield high quantities of agricultural by_productses
however they are utilized inefficiently that resulting widespread pollution to
the environment. The major of these products are rice husk, coffee husk, coir
pith, jute sticks, bagasse, groundnut shells, mustard stalks and cotton stalks (Grover,

Biomasses
are naturally available domestic energy source is seen as the most promising energy
alternative to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions (Bain, 2004).

 

 

 

1.2.       
Objective
of the review

The
objectives of the review report are;

Ø  To
evaluate the processes how briquettes are produced from agricultural
wastes/residues.

Ø  To
compare the intensity of greenhouse gas emission using briquettes of agricultural
wastes/residues with other forms of energy sources especially fossil fuels.

 

2.   
Literature
review

2.1.       
Concepts
of Biomass Energy

World
population growth and, as a result, its increase in energy demand, together
with growing global consciousness about the scarcity of the earth’s natural
resources, has turned the attention of researchers into alternative  renewable energy sources. Traditional energy
sources are characterized as exhaustible and some of them, especially fossil
fuels, have substantial impacts on the natural environment and are the main
culprit of climate change. As a global solution, renewable energies play a key
and unique role, since they are obtained from natural, regenerative sources that
do not deplete; and they also cause minimal to no environmental problems, such
as climate change, radioactive waste, acid rain and air pollution. The sources
of renewable energy that have reached full commercial maturity are: solar,
wind, tides and waves, rivers, geothermal energy, organic waste and energy stored
biomass (Okure et al, 2006).

2.2.       
 Production of agricultural residue biomass
briquettes

 

2.3.       
Briquettes
in climate change

The
rise in energy demand and the corresponding rise in greenhouse gas (GHG)
emissions are causing climate change (Kerdsuwan et al, 2011).Figure 1 illustrates CO2 emissions by region from 1990
to 2030. CO2 emission levels are estimated to increase drastically for some
regions of the world within 40 years. One key approach to addressing climate
change is to replace fossil fuels with renewable energy for electricity
production. Carbon emissions from renewable energy power plants are much lower
than in fossil fuel production plants. Thus, reliance on fossil fuels to
fulfill our energy demand without conservation efforts or increases in renewable
energies will eventually lead to catastrophic global impacts. The development
of non-fossil fuel energy sources is essential to reducing GHG, avoiding fossil
fuel resource depletion, and coping with fluctuating fossil fuel prices (Talebian-Kiakalaieh
et al, 2013 and Santori et al, 2012).  CO2 emissions can be substantially reduced if
biomass replaces fossil fuels to generate power. Indeed, unlike fossil fuels,
burning renewable biomass is considered neutral in GHG emissions (Ibrahim,
2016).

 

Figure 1. World CO2
emission levels by region between 1990 and 2030 ((Energy Information
Administration (EIA), 2009).

The
applicability of biomass materials as a source of renewable energy has a great
role for diminishing the effects of climate change. The emission of greenhouse
gases into the environment results a gradual increase in the earth’s
atmospheric temperature because the gases tricks heat from the sun. One of the
greenhouse gases that cause global warming is carbon monoxide. This is released
from the combustion of fuels. The atmospheric concentration of this oxide is increasing;
depend on the consumption of fossil fuels. The combustion of fossil fuels
(coal, petroleum and natural gas) releases large amounts greenhouse gas.
Considering the impact of fossil fuels, it is important to seek ways of
controlling this GHG emission through sustainable methods that would not
negatively impact technological advancement. Unlike fossil fuels, agricultural
residue biomass is not stored up for long. The combustion of thus residue biomass
also releases carbon (IV) oxide, which is estimated as the net carbon (IV)
oxide taken up during the biomass photosynthesis. In essence, the combustion of
biomass is CO2 neutral, as no extra CO2 is given off. Biomass represents an
abundant carbon neutral renewable resource for the production of bioenergy and biomaterials,
and its enhanced use would address several societal needs (Ragauskas et al, 2006).

Combustion
of briquettes in rural and urban contexts has less carbon content of CO2eq, which
is a reduction by 80% compared to the combustion of firewood using an
unimproved stove. However, it is double the size of the footprint of firewood
combustion using an improved stove, such as Envirofit, Maendeleo, Kuni Chache,
and Okoa. Briquettes produced from raw materials that would otherwise have no
other use such as bagasse, coffee, and maize residues or sawdust – provide a
more sustainable alternative to unimproved firewood and charcoal (GVEP, 2010).

                                   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3.   
Conclusion

The
quality of briquettes from agricultural residues/wastes in its energy value and
its application in the involvements in GHGs emission as well as in climate
mitigation is manly depends on the type and physicochemical characteristics of
the residue used.

Agricultural
residue briquette can mitigate greenhouse gas emission through minimizing
old-style firewood and charcoal. Since agricultural waste biomass is
traditionally disposed of or burnt on site, which creates unnecessary CO2 and
methane emissions, The briquette production will have positive environmental
impacts since the energy content in the waste is being utilized and because of
more efficient combustion, which induces less GHG emissions.