This reappraisal article explains the basic theory and working of the Whispering Gallery Mode ( WGM ) rule and types of WGM resonating chambers. The assorted fiction methods of torodial form microdisk resonating chamber with comparative pros and cons and country of application of the same are besides described. Finally, fiction with focussed ion beam is recommended the best method with valid grounds.
Optical resonating chambers can incarcerate and storage light energy. They include going moving ridge pits based on entire internal contemplation ( TIR ) , Febry Perot Interferometer formed by two parallel mirrors, and Bragg pits based on distributed Bragg contemplation ( DBR ) . Optical Micro resonating chambers based on TIR has sensitiveness to environing environment, can recognize little manners volumes and internal field strength which leads to strong yoke between atoms and optical field, so they have basic applications in optoelectronics engineerings such as pit quantum electrodynamics ( QED ) experiments, temperature and force per unit area detection, bio-chemical detection, add/drop multiplexers, spacial shift and quantum information processing.
Dielectric microdisk resonating chambers offers a great advantage in obtaining fake emanation in little volume since the plants on Whispering gallery manners ( WGM ) , which are really confined resonances with maximal strength near the disc border. The public presentation of WGM resonating chamber is chiefly depends on the surface raggedness of walls of disc. Microdisk with low surface raggedness walls will bring forth less scattering losingss. The surface coating of the wall depends on the fiction method of it. In this article assorted method of fiction are described and finally found that focussed ion beam method followed by station emphasis alleviating procedure is the most suited.
Theory of WGM: –
This rule is extremely used in the field of optics. Whispering-gallery manner resonances in optics correspond to caparison of visible radiation in round orbits like sphere or disc. A When visible radiation moving ridge is supplied to circular way at peculiar interface some of it will be reflected and some will be transmitted. However, in the instance of glass sphere the transmittal of visible radiation is really less which could easy negligible, which causes entire internal contemplation in round orbit. The light moving ridge travels along zig-zag waies around the orbit as shown in below figure. Since the visible radiation will do many 1000000s of circulations of the domain before being transferred to other terminal. This means that merely certain wavelengths of visible radiation can ‘fit ‘ around the border of the domain. The distinct frequence wavelengths depend on the index of refraction and radius of domain.
Figure: – Working rule of Whispering Gallery Mode. [ 1 ]
The best practical illustration of whispering gallery manner is the dome of St Paul ‘s Cathedral, London, it has the funny belongings that if two people stand at opposite sides of the gallery, at a distance of 42 metres, and one susurrations into the wall of the dome, so the other individual can hear what is being said. The ground for this unusual consequence is that the sound bounces along the wall of the gallery with really small loss, and so can be heard at a great distance. And it does non work if you speak at increased amplitude of noise because it circulates in gallery multiple times and assorted up and non heard decently. On base of this gallery in St Paul ‘s Cathedral this phenomena is known as a “ Murmuring Gallery Mode ” .
The round orbit for moving ridge contemplation could be obtain by different geometries in WGM resonating chambers, e.g. Sphere, Cylinder, Ringing on disc, Toroid
Figure: – WGM resonating chamber geometries. [ 2 ]
Among all these shapes the high Q factor can be observed in the sphere form because of the exceeding smoothness ( low dispersing loss ) of the dielectric boundary that forms the rustle gallery. However, such micro-resonators are non easy fabricated in big Numberss, nor can they be integrated with other optical elements or electronics. These jobs can be eliminated by a late developed wafer-based toroidal form resonating chamber capable of ultra-high-Q public presentation.
Working Principle: –
The working of WGM resonating chamber is described by a light moving ridge that circumnavigates near the surface of microdisk and returns back upon itself in stage. It is done by evanescent matching between microdisk and light usher like optical fibre or beckon usher, which is driven in bend by a optical maser at wavelength I» . Resonance is achieved by tuning the optical maser to a specific wavelength I»r for which the microsphere perimeter is an integer multiple of orbital wavelengths. This closing relation forces the resonance wavelength to alter for the slightest alteration in microsphere radius, R, or orbital refractile index of the domain, n, harmonizing to a?†I»r /I»r = a?†R/R + a?†n/n. This relationship provides the feeling rule of temperature, force per unit area or bio feeling application. The tapering fibre non merely serves to drive the resonance but besides leads to a agency for observing the wavelength displacement. As the optical maser wavelength is tuned through I»r, power is extracted from the fibre, doing a dip in the visible radiation transmitted to the sensor as shown in below figure.
Figure: – Phase displacement in WGM for feeling application [ 7 ]
In above figure solid line shows dip in strength of visible radiation at normal I»r wavelength, and dotted line shows change in dip wavelength, which is shown by a?†I»r in figure. By ciphering the value of a?†I»r the detection could be measured.
Fabrication Methods: –
The public presentation of the WGM resonating chambers depends on the method of fiction. To obtain a maximal efficiency of the resonating chamber it should has good disk shape, smooth boundary, perpendicular side walls and low raggedness of the walls of the disc to cut down optical sprinkling losingss and low surface recombination speed to increase internal quantum efficiency.The method of fiction varies harmonizing to the form of the resonating chambers. This reappraisal concentrates specifically on Toroid Shape microdisk resonating chamber. Following are the assorted methods fiction of it.
Photolithography and Dry etching
This is a traditional method of fiction on WGM resonating chambers. It is most normally used method worldwide because of relaxation of fiction. The fiction is done in two phases ; foremost silicon wafers coated with certain thickness of SiO2 is painted with photoresistant ( PR ) after that mask form is transferred to PR over silicon oxide with standard photolithography ; and in 2nd measure PR form is transferred to silica bed with Reactive ion beam etching ( RIE ) ; silicon under the silicadisk acquire etched with isotropous Si etching to organize mushroom-like toroid form micro resonating chambers.
The procedures of fiction experiments were as follows:
AZ1400 Photoresist is painted on construction.
Photolithograph including exposal and development.
Etching of SiO2 bed with reactive ion beam etching ( RIE ) with Ar + CHF3 gas mixture to reassign open PR figure to SiO2 bed. The ratio of Ar/ CHF3 mixture is 1:2 and etching is done at 3 ten 10-2 Pa force per unit area with 40 mas ion beam, 500 electron volt ion energy, 280- V acceleration scope and 48- ma neutralisation current with etch rate of 25 nm/ min.
Etching of Si under SiO2 microdisk. This is done by organizing silicon micropillars. This will organize a disc like construction. Optical microresonators fabricated with this etching method could be easy controlled with high preciseness and small pollution.
Removal of residuary PR.
Figure: – SEM exposure of a 60-I?m-diameter circle microdisk resonating chamber. [ 3 ]
WGM resonating chamber fabricated by this method has a achieve geometry control and high Q factor. But it has major drawback that the side walls of resonating chamber has really low surface coating. The ground for hapless surface quality is dry etching by Reactive ion etching ( RIE ) .
Photolithography and Wet etching
The stairss of fiction procedure for this method is about same as first method except the difference in method of etching used to selectively etch substrate bed. In this method two measure of chemical moisture etching is used alternatively of dry etching. In the first etching is done isotropous manner to organize an undercut beneath the photoresist mask. And in the 2nd method the undercut is selectively engraved organizing a pedestal underneath the microdisk. Following are the stairss of fiction ;
First the sample is grown on GaAs substrate. The bed construction consist of 1000 nm Al0.68Ga0.32As and 265 nm GaAs.
Photo resist is applied and round form is defined by lithography.
Then GaAs bed is etched by isotropic etching to organize an undercut beneath the PR mask by utilizing a mixture of HBr: H2O2: Water with the ratio 4:1:25.
Finally, Al0.68Ga0.32As bed is selectively etched by utilizing dilute hydrofluoric acid ( HF ) organizing a toroid form underneath the GaAs disc.
Figure: – a ) Top-view and B ) tilt-view scanning electron microscope images of a GaAs disc on top of an AlGaAs base. The diskdiameter is 627 nanometer and the disc thickness is 265 nanometer. [ 4 ]
The advantages of this fiction method comparison to first method are ;
less fiction cost because machinery required for this method is less dearly-won
This method facilitates mass production
It creates less surface harm comparison to dry etching method
Along with these advantages it has few major drawbacks which make them doubtable for broad application like ; etching clip is really long, isotropic etching may over etch AlGaAs bed, and commanding wet etching is really hard.
Photolithography, Chemical etching and Selective oxidization
In this method of fiction the microdisk is obtained by lift- off technique followed by chemical etching and selective oxidization of aluminum- rich base. The stairss of fiction are as follows ;
First sample is grown by molecular beam epitaxy on a GaAs substrate with the buffer bed of Al0.95Ga0.05As. This active stuff consists of three beds which are 240 nm thick bed of GaAs, 20 nm midst Al 0.2 Ga 0.8 As and 20 nm thick GaAs.
After that 300 nanometers thick bed of Si3N4 is deposited
The fiction is performed by negatron beam lithography, a lift-off of a 10 nm Ni mask followed by a reactive ion etching. Which signifier round disc with size changing from 3 to 4.8 Aµm by measure of 0.2 Aµm. For lift of technique PMMA is used as a sacrificial bed.
Then the sample is etched by isotropous chemical etching with bichromate based solution. After perpendicular etching of 1.8 Aµm the diameter of disc is reduced by 1 Aµm.
After that the sample is instantly rinsed with de-ionized H2O before being introduced into a humid oxidization furnace.
The aluminum-rich base is selectively oxidized at 400 A°C for 90 min under H2O vapour carried out by the N2 gas at a flow rate of 1 cubic decimeter /h.
Finally, the Ni/Si3N4 mask is removed with a diluted HNO3 solution followed by a well-diluted Hydrofluoric solution.
Below figure shows assorted stairss of fiction and a side position of 4Aµm diameter microdisk obtained by scanning negatron microscope ( SEM ) .
Figure: – Procedure description and SEM image. [ 5 ]
Advantages of this procedure comparison to chemically etched microdisks are as follows ;
The size of AlOx base is every bit big as microdisk diameter so it supply a hardiness to construction, while in AlGaAs disc, the base has really little sidelong size
Thermal warming of resonating chamber is really low because AlOxis better heat music director than air.
This method can bring forth really little size microdisk ( & lt ; 0.5 Aµm diameter ) Which is non possible in instance of normal selective etching because of the unrealistic base size ( & lt ; 50 nanometer ) is required
Focused ion beam machining and Chemical etching
In this method fiction is done by focused-ion beam ( FIB ) followed by wet-chemical etching. The chief advantage of this method is that it fabricates microdisks with walls of first-class quality and any size. The fiction process stairss are as follows ;
First epitaxial beds grown on a n-type ( 001 ) which consists of beds of Si-doped InP substrate lower cladding bed, undoped 300 nm InGaAsP wave guide bed, followed by a1.9 Aµm thick Zn-doped top p-type cladding bed.
Disk form is formed by utilizing conventional lift-off technique and negatron beam vaporization. And so sample is alloyed in organizing gas for 30s at 420 C.
Focused ion beam milling is done by Ga+ ions utilizing FIB to take the field around the microdisk by obtaining several pillars. The milling is done with an emanation current of 20nA and 30 keV for about 5 min.
Polishing milling is done on same machine to obtain pillers with really smooth walls. It is done with an emanation current of 1nA and 30 keV for about 6 min.
Finally wet chemical etching is done utilizing H2O and HCL to selectively take InP stuff and form disc construction of InGaAs contact bed.
Figure: – Outline of the procedure. a ) Metallization of contacts and liftoff ; B ) focused ion beam milling of discs ; degree Celsiuss ) smoothing procedure with FIB ensuing in perpendicular and really smooth walls ; vitamin D ) InP selective etching [ 6 ]
Application of Toroidel Microdisk Resonators: –
The WGM rule has a broad application in Fieldss of photonics, quantum electrodynamics ( QED ) , atom optics and telecommunication. The form of WGM resonating chamber varies harmonizing to the application. The toroidal form resonating chamber is by and large used in temperature and force per unit area detection, bio detection, submerged dross measuring.
A recent research work done by Vahala. et Al: [ 9 ] on toroidal resonating chamber shows that it could be used as Micro mechanical oscillator. This method works on a micro-mechanical oscillation that can happen within these constructions and which is driven by radiation force per unit area. High go arounding optical power within the toroidal rustle gallery leads to radiation force per unit area caused by go arounding photons in pit will bring on distortion of the toroidal construction and alter the diameter the silicon oxide construction. This, in bend, modifies the optical way length for the resonating manner, altering its resonating frequence. This resonating displacement either lowers or raises the conjugate optical pump power, depending upon the suspiration of the detuning of pump frequence relation to the micro pit resonating frequence. When pump optical maser is detuned to the high frequence of optical manner, the stage relationship between optical force per unit area and microdisk distortion consequences in net power transportation from optical pump to mechanical manner. Interaction of the vibrating resonating chamber with photons inside the pit consequences in creative activity of photons down shifted or up shifted in energy from original photons by the RF frequence of the quiver. This dynamic unfolds consequence in regenerative oscillation of the toroidal micromechanical construction at radio-frequency rates. These micro-mechanical oscillations, in bend, modulate the optical power of the incident pump moving ridge. This transition provides a convenient agency by which the oscillations can be studied.
All the fiction method mentioned supra has its ain advantages and disadvantages. Besides microdisk resonating chamber fabricated by each method is used for specific application. For illustration application like radiation-pressure goaded micro-mechanical oscillator where high Q factor is required is fabricated by utilizing either method figure [ 3 ] or [ 4 ] . And application with low truth could be achieved by utilizing method figure [ 1 ] or [ 2 ] with mean surface coating of the side walls of resonating chamber.
After analyzing all above described methods with regard to cost of fabrication, clip of fiction, handiness of equipment, relaxation of fiction and concluding quality of the merchandise, method [ 4 ] fiction with focussed ion beam and moisture etching could be the most dependable 1. Because of the undermentioned advantages:
This technique offers superior flexibleness because of its direct write capableness, means it allows arrangement of devices anyplace in the sample.
There is no demand for a resist and no dry etching measure, and one can easy change bing devices which is really hard with resist based methods.
This method could bring forth construction with less than 50 nanometers because ion beam is focused in a topographic point about 10 nanometers.
The surface coating of side walls obtained by this method is really good which is really of import to cut down the sprinkling losingss. Below figure shows a comparing of resonating chamber fabricated with wet chemical etching and with FIB.
Figure: – Left: with wet chemical etching ; Right: with FIB smoothing [ 6 ]
From the figure it we clearly see that FIB allows a smooth disc with minimized photon sprinkling.
The lone trouble faced in this method is induced crystal harm by Ga+ ions and as per Barea et Al: [ 6 ] it is of import to turn to this issue and farther research is required to better the public presentation of resonating chamber. To take this trouble Schrauwen et Al: [ 8 ] has described a assorted methods like tempering and usage of nonvolatilizable etch bed. In thermic tempering method construction is heated above 800 oC and so cooled to alleviate the harm by polishing the crystal construction of stuff. However, such high temperatures are non compatible with low runing point. Therefore an alternate attack of using nonvolatilizable etch bed of I on Si. This bed will protect Si from the contact ions. After completing the procedure it can be easy removed by endorsing it at 300 C temperature. This yields structures with comparatively low optical loss.
In reappraisal article assorted methods of fiction of dielectric Toroidal Microdisk Resonator are studied. After comparative survey of all method it is found that fiction with Focused Ion Beam ( FIB ) is best alternate, because of its superior flexibleness, highly good surface coating and it can bring forth microdisk with any size. So, this technique is proven to be really efficient and dependable for fiction of dielectric Toroidal Microdisk Resonator.