McShane & Glinow (2008) have proposed attribution process, a different perceptual activity, helps us interpret the world around us. The attribution process involved deciding whether an observed behavior or event is caused largely by internal or by external factors. The perceptual process of deciding whether an observed behavior or event is largely caused by internal or external factors. As Luthans (2008) said, attribution refers simply to how people explain the cause of another’s or their own behavior.
There are two general types of attributions that people make: dispositional attributions, which ascribe a person’s behavior to internal factors such as personality traits, motivation, or ability, and situational attributions, which attribute a person’s behavior to external factors such as equipment or social influence from others. Mullins indicates that attribution is the process by which people interpret the perceived causes of behavior. The initiator or attribution theory is generally recognized as Heider, who suggests that behavior is determined by a combination of perceived internal forces and external forces.
Attribution theory is intended to help a person understand the causes of human behaviour, be it their own or someone else’s. The basis of attribution theory is that people want to know the reasons for the actions that they and others take; they want to attribute causes to behaviours they see rather than assuming that these behaviours are random. This allows people to assume some feeling of control over their own behaviours and over situations. Slocum ; Hellriegel said that the attribution process refers to the ways in which people come to understand the causes of their own and other ‘behaviours.
They have the basic criteria in making attributions which is distinctiveness, consensus and consistency. Distinctiveness- Isn’t the situation is occurring in difference behaviors in difference situation. Consensus- Is that displays by most of people in the same situation. Consistency- Is associated with an enduring personality or motivational characteristic over time. Fundamentals attribution error Is happen when people observe and then judge the negative actions of other or means tendency to attribute the behavior of other people more internal than to external factors or other people who is fail in their work they will blame other people.
They won’t blame other people. This also can explain as people will blame other people behavior such as personal factors. This error is most visible when people explain the behavior of others. For example, if students go to class late, lecturer will think the students over slept or lazy more than external external factors such as traffic jam or vehicles is break. They have few examples to reduce errors effect which is depend the situation isn’t it most of the people behave the same way when put in the same situation.
If yes, then the situation is more likely to be caused of the behavior. Looking the situation more clearly when you think what kind of the person. For examples, you go to a restaurant to take lunch , you found the waitress is taking rude to you, you will think she is a bad waitress but didn’t know actually the waitress is a nice and friendly person but today she boy friend left her go for another girl and the girl is her best friend. At the same time she lost her boy friend and her best friend. So we cannot think what kind of the people is based on the situation you know.
Self-Serving bias Self-serving bias is describe pattern of people in which praise or blame depend on whether success or failure was achieved and is occurs when people attribute their success to internal or personal factors and bad luck. Self-serving bias can occur at school and workplace. For example in school when the students can good result in the exam they will say “I’m a good student and I study hard”. But when they fail in the exam they will blame the lecturer and say the lecturer is not good don’t know how to teach or say the lecturer does not like them so give them fail.
Whereas at the workplace when the employees have a serious accident because of occupational but then employer say the accidents is the employees own actions and do not take any responsibility on the accidents’. If the student does well on the test, he or she is more likely to believe that his or her own ability and/or effort (things under the student’s control) were the reasons for success. However, if he or she receives a poor grade on the test, the blame will fall on external factors such as luck, difficulty of the task, or uncooperative others.
For example he or she might claim that the professor made up an unfair test or the student could claim that the lighting in the room was too dim so the student couldn’t focus. The difference in perceptions between professor Aderson and his class. Fundamentals attribution error – the students blame the professor Anderson because the assignment mark is low and out of the expectations so they are not satisfying the result. They blame the professor give them low marks and thought the professor didn’t like them, treat them unfairly.
They did not think why they assignment graded such a low mark or them dint follow the instructions and requirement asked by the professor. And the other side, the professor thinks that he marked his students fairly. He thinks that they will get low marks because they always do their jobs last minutes and dints do much research for the assignment. To prove the professor dint treat the students unfair, they can compare the assignments with other groups. Self-serving bias- student blame professor because they get low mark.
If they get a good mark they won’t appreciate the professor. If they get a high marks, they think that is they deserve because they put in effort, do research, find information, so they think that they should get high marks for the assignment. They attribute their own successes to internal factors while putting the blame for failures on external factors.
1. Campbell ; Sedikides,1999. Self-serving Bias. Available from:http://www. psychwiki. com/wiki/Self-serving_bias[Accessed date: 2 march 2011] 2. Luthans, Fred, 2008. Organisational Behaviour 11th. McGraw-Hill 3. McShane, Steven L. and Glinon, Mary Ann von, 2008. Organisational Behaviour, 2nd ed. McGraw-Hill. 4. Mullins, J. Laurie, 2005. Management and organizational behavior. 7th ed. Prentice Hall. 5. Smith ; Miller, 1983. Available from:http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Fundamental attribution error [Accessed date: 2 march 2011] 6. http://ezinearticles. com/? Fundamental-Attribution_Error—Basic-Explanation-With-Some-Examples&id328220 [Accessed date: 2 march 2011] 7. Http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Self-serving_bias. [Accessed date: 2 march 2011]