Part 1 of the experiment investigated the effect of different temperatures on beetroot cell membranes (a type of plant cell). Through this experiment, the process of diffusion and osmosis was in action. Various temperatures ranging from low temperatures to high temperatures such as -5?C, 5?C, 30?C, 50?C and 80?C were used to investigate the temperature effects on beetroot cell membranes. The hypothesis predicted that the higher the temperature the darker the beetroot substance and the lower the temperature the least colour intensity represented.
However this was not the case in the beetroot cell membrane experiment. A star scale was used to show the colour intensity (Key: 1/5 stars lightest colour intensity; 5/5 stars darkest colour intensity). Results showed that the highest temperature which in this case was 80?C, was unfortunately scaled at 1/5 stars the lightest colour intensity, a result which was definitely not expected. When analysing the rest of the results, more unexpected results appeared, showing no relation to the hypothesis prediction.
Temperatures 50?C and 30?C was also scaled at 1/5 stars in colour intensity. Temperatures -5?C and 5?C were both stored in cold temperatures, -5?C was stored in a freezer while the 5?C was stored in the refrigerator. Based on the hypothesis prediction, temperature -5?C contained a colder temperature the 5?C, therefore the -5?C had to result in a more lighter colour intensity, as a result the 5?C would need to contain a darker colour intensity than -5?C because the 5?C was stored in a refrigerator, containing a temperature that is not extremely cold such as the freezer.
Information from research states that the beetroot cell membrane contains a large central vacuole containing a red pigment anthocyanin, which gives the beetroot its colour. When the beetroot cell has been disturbed or stressed such as cutting or in the case of this investigation, increasing the temperature, the beetroot’s inner vacuole releases the anthocyanin, the pigment which gives the beetroot its colour. The higher the temperature (increasing temperature) the more anthocyanin the beetroot vacuole releases, the lower the temperature (decreasing temperature) the less anthocyanin the beetroot vacuole releases.
This information supports the hypothesis prediction. However the results showed (Table 1) from temperatures 30?C to 80?C in the Part 1 investigation were not accurate results that showed evidence to support the hypothesis prediction as well as the beetroot membrane research that holds true. The inaccuracy results of three temperatures may have occurred from an error during the experiment. A possible reason to why the error had occurred during the experiment of the three temperatures (30?C, 50?C and 80?C) which came to a conclusion of inaccurate results may have been caused by the different beetroot sizes.
Some beetroot slices may have been thin and some may have been thick. This is where the error could have been solved, by all means determining a measurement for beetroot slices by cutting the beetroot slices into the required measurement to ensure that all beetroot slices were the same. A visual check of beetroot slices being the same size won’t be accurate enough and may alter inaccurate results. Consider a decent measurement of let’s just say, 20mm using a clear ruler when measuring a beetroot slice.
Another consideration is to repeat the experiment in the future to observe the results and compare the results to the old results to find any accuracy supported by the hypothesis. On the other hand, results to temperatures -5?C and 5?C were reliable and accurate results which supported the process of diffusion and osmosis in addition to the hypothesis prediction and the information researched. This experiment can relate to the real world, for instance, some plant species don’t all require the same temperature for growth.
For example, snapdragon is a type of flower which grows best in hot temperatures of 55?C. However it is very rare for plants to require such hot temperatures for best growth. Most plant species require low temperatures and a lot of water for best growth. In this case, heat can evaporate water from plants; as a result, the plant species begin a poor quality in plant growth. Part 2 Part 2 of the experiment investigated the effects on membranes of other environmental stresses using the beetroot cell membrane which was placed with each of the seven pH solutions; 2, 4, 6, 7, 8 and 10.
In this Part 2 experiment, a method was devised within the group because the experiment was investigating the stresses of pH solutions rather than the effect of different temperatures based in Part 1. The hypothesis for the Part 2 experiment predicted that is was possible for pH solution of 2 to transmit into a dark substance because it had a high concentration of acid. The pH solution 4 would have a high concentration of acid however, not as high amounts as pH 2. As a result for pH 4, the substance would turn to a lighter coloured solution from the pH 2 dark solution.
This trend would carry on to the last pH solution which is pH 10, predicted in the hypothesis accordingly that it would result the lightest solution of all other pH solutions because it has a higher concentration of alkali. The pH solution of 7 was an additional solution, distilled water was used as pH 7 because the solution was neutral which meant that it was neither acidic nor alkali. The results of Part 2 were accurate based on the predictions stated in the Part 2 hypothesis. The expected results also supported evidence of the structure of the membrane.
Based on the Part 1 and Part 2 experiment, the structure of the membrane also known as the plasma membrane, is the out barrier of a cell which controls the movement of molecules across the membrane requiring energy. This transportation of some molecules inside and outside of the cell membrane is supported by the actions of diffusion and osmosis. First of all, the structure of the cell membrane is composed of two layers called the phospholipid bilayer. This bilayer consists of hydrophilic end which attracts water and a hydropholic end, which repels water. Within the phospholipid bilayer lays cholesterol and carbohydrates.
Different proteins are also located within the lipid molecules which do various things for the cells. For instance, they receive a signal from the outside world (environment) to transport nutrients for different lipids, carbohydrates and proteins in and wastes out. There could have been many factors which could have caused the cell membrane to breakdown. * The lower the pH, which contained more acid may have damaged the proteins which control materials that enter and leave the cell * The beetroot slices were not accurate, therefore did not provide any accurate results.
The design of the experiment may have also been improved by comparing results with other groups and if accurate based on the hypothesis, take note of how they composed their experiment so that improvements can be made for the Part 2 experiment. Another improvement that could be conducted is to repeat the experiment in the future and compare the past results with the new results to observe any accuracy or some sort of colour chart should have been used to determine the colour intensity of results based on the hypothesis prediction. Fish are known to live in the aquatic sea, some fish species requires certain pH levels to function properly.
The lower the pH level (for example pH 2) the more acidic it becomes, the more higher pH level (for example pH 10) the more alkali. For instance, the Brook trout live in a pH level of as low as 5. This level of pH can damage the growth of fish and poison the fish eggs, which unfortunately may decrease the population of fish in the world. The importance of experiments which investigate effects of temperature on cell membranes (part 1) and effect on membranes of other environmental stresses (pH levels in Part 2) are relevant in investigating and aid decision-making for instance the wastes into waterways.
Water requires a pH of 7, this pH level in neutral, which means it does not have neither acid nor alkaline. According to the http://www. bankstown. nsw. gov. au/Monitoring-Programs/default. aspx ‘Extreme acid or alkaline water can indicate spills and are lethal to some aquatic animals. ’ This is fatal to the living plant species, animal species and human beings fish and/or swim in waterways might be affected by temperatures and pH levels. A pH level of 7 is the required solution for water ways containing neither acid nor alkaline, only neutral.
However due to chemical spills from industrial systems, the pH level lowers to a more acid pH solution. This sort of factor cannot be tolerated by water ways because this can affect the fish species and plant species that live in the water ways. A great way to improve water ways is to monitor its pH levels and temperature. Living fish species tend to live in cool temperature waters, however due to global warming; increasingly hot temperatures have raised killing fish species. This dead fish species can then also affect its population as well as contaminating the water ways.
The pH levels of water ways can also affect the water ways. Many water ways in Australia have already been contaminated with chemical spills, dead fish species and plant species. Public awareness about the risk factors of swimming or fishing from water ways should be introduced, this way people are able to understand the dos and don’ts before fishing or swimming in water ways. As illustrated in the discussion above, the errors of the Part 1 and improvements on Part 2 experiment should be conducted again in the future to compare past results and observe any accuracy based on the hypothesis.
Cell membranes is the most vital barrier of the cell and without the cell membrane barrier, the functioning of the cell may possibly become fatal. It is in this investigation that we now understand the effects of temperature and certain pH levels on beetroot cell membranes and are able to relate the factors that affect the beetroot membrane to the real world. This can aid decision making to the improvements of Australian water ways that today are affected by the factors of temperatures and pH levels.