Bilingualism is defined as The ability of a
person to
speak two language.s

Bilingualism is becoming more and more common in the modern era. Nearly half of the world’s population,
including 18% of U.S. citizens, grows up bilingually. At the
start of 20th century it was considered that if we learn two languages
simultaneously in early life, it can affect cognitive functions and educational
performance and can cause confusion. It is the matter of concern for both
educators and parents.

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 In recent years many U.S. states have passed laws outlawing
bilingual education in schools. These laws are partly based on the idea that
students will have a stronger identity with the school, the culture, and the
society
if they speak only English, and partly based on that speaking two languages may interfere
with cognitive development and function

Early research in
the field of psychology showed
that, bilingual
children performed more slowly and sluggishly language in processing, and their verbal
scores were very low as
compared to monolingual.

More current research has showed that, although
bilingual children may in some cases
learn language slower than do monolingual children, both do not significantly differ in the
final depth of language learning and understanding, nor do they
generally confuse the two languages.In fact,
participants who speak two languages have been found to have better
cognitive functioning, cognitive flexibility, and analytic skills in comparison
to monolinguals has also found that learning a
second language produces changes in the area of the brain in the left
hemisphere that is involved in language,
such that this area is denser and contains more neurons. Furthermore, the
increased density is stronger in those individuals who are most proficient in their second language and who learned the second
language earlier. Thus, rather than slowing language
development, learning a second language seems to increase cognitive abilities.