By the 1960s-1970s out of central and south America the dependency
theory immerged but it was part of a larger movement that asked a lot of
questions about international relations at the time, one of these questions was
why are so many countries in the world not developing, and the traditional
answer was that they are not pursuing the right economic policies or their
governments are authoritarian and corrupt. But dependency theorists wanted to
know if that was all, they began to argue that countries are not developing
because the international system actually preventing them to, this
international system was exploitative and characterized by the dominant of some
countries over others. It can be described as an Assembly of different theories
including world system, historical structure and neo-Marxist theory which are components
of the dependency theory.

 

            The dependency
theorist first argued about the presence of different kinds of states, and each
one preform a different function in world economy. The richest; Center of core
countries to the poorest; periphery of the periphery. And what the argue that
there is an international division of labor between all these countries, The
argument is that the core countries dominate in terms of industry tech, countries
that have all research technology and capital intensive industries meanwhile the
countries in the periphery  are
characterized by resource extraction economies, agriculture production and
providing cheap labor. As a result the structure of the world economy is that
any poorer country serve’s the richer ones. Second argument is that there is a class
distinction, which means that each of these type of countries have a clear
divide between the large working class and small rich class and this is the
same in each different countries, what they argue that these political economic
elites cooperate with each other to insure that they stay in power and increase
their wealth maintain the system the way it is. Third argument is that all the
structure of the world exist in a wider global system which is characterized by
Global capitalism; and in this system liberal economic theory dominate, trade
and finance theories which of course all serve the interest of the core
countries. In addition Multinational corporations and banks in this system are instruments
for rich people in the core countries, international institutions like the World
Bank, international monetary fund, education system and even global media also
were structures that serves the most powerful countries and the richest people of
the world.

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            As a result this
entire system; the international division of labor, class distinction and
global capitalism, all serve the interest of the wealthy they don’t serve the
interest of developing countries, they do not promote development or equal
opportunity instead this system promotes dominance and exploitation. And so
from the dependency theory perspective the states could not develop in this
kind of system which is designed to prevent them from developing, which made
the dependency theorist call this underdevelopment. So the system promotes
under development of countries around the world and this is why we are not
seeing countries develop in the way that traditional economic theory describes.
This theory can explain to us why there is so much poverty and inequality in
world politics, which can be explained by the same argument made in the 1970s,
that the international system actually prevents countries from developing.

 

            The structures of
underdevelopment countries was not entirely ignored, it remains true that
indeed for Parsons, the empirical development of the Third World was very much
a secondary matter. And according to Gunder Frank
a German-American economic historian and sociologist who promoted dependency,
modernization theory was empirically invalid, theoretically inadequate and
politically ineffective. Economic development and cultural change of an
underdeveloped country through the promotion and rise of the middle classes has
not occurred because it is physically impossible for it to occur given the
structure of the system attack is against the acculturation or diffusionist
perspective, which seems to suggest that if development fails to occur, it is
because within the Third World there are obstacles to diffusion. He denies that
development can be introduced into such societies, and suggests that it is not
poverty that has prevented underdeveloped societies investing in their own
future but the net outflow of capital to the West. In short, the Third World
has subsidized the development of the First.

            The third world
was and still a study case of many socialists and economists, who have been
trying to make suggestions for development regard and regardless to the
internal and external effects. Some of them may blame the internal reasons and
reach to the level of social life in certain countries. But the Modernization
theory have not been effective to the third world because it didn’t take under
considerations the population, living arrangements, labor, technological
development, diversity and even rationality that different society may have. As
for the dependency theory it it applies it-self naturally with the existence of
the capitalist ideas among not just developed
countries but also between the rich elites of the developing countries. Which prevented the implication of Modernization theory, because it is a
vicious circle of developing countries investing in developing countries under
the idea of helping while taking advantage of any resources a country could
have. Which will make the developing countries employ these resources in these
investment and stay at the same place or even retreat. As for the Palestinian
situation which is part of the third world, alongside with that is the deprivation
of our own resources, so it is a closed case for now. Developing Palestine
needs the resources, the independency, choosing the right economic system to
follow and many other supporting systems.