Last updated: August 21, 2019
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1. Introduction to castles & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; ..3 1. Introduction to castles…………………………………………..3
2. Palaces of England & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; … .5 2. Palaces of England…………………………………………… … .5
a ) Dover & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; … 5 a ) Dover…………………………………………………… … 5
B ) Warwick & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; ..6 B ) Warwick…………………………………………………..6
degree Celsius ) Leeds & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; … 8 degree Celsius ) Leeds…………………………………………………… … 8
3. Medieval besieging & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; 10 3. Medieval siege…………………………………………………10
4. Palaces with shades & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; … ..12 4. Palaces with ghosts………………………………………… … ..12
Introduction TO CASTLES INTRODUCTION TO CASTLES
Britain is strewn with ruins of palaces, debris from the centuries of her being. Palaces are touchable relics of a singular yesteryear, a drawn-out heritage etched in rock, every bit good as with the blood and perspiration of those who built, labored, fought, and died in their shadow. Ruins stir up in us a profound consciousness of those past lives. Palaces have a eternity that is amazing. That they have endured centuries of warfare and the effects of conditions is a testimony to the creativeness and power of their medieval proprietors. How many of us will hold such durable success? Britain is strewn with ruins of palaces, debris from the centuries of her being. Palaces are touchable relics of a singular yesteryear, a drawn-out heritage etched in rock, every bit good as with the blood and perspiration of those who built, labored, fought, and died in their shadow. Ruins stir up in us a profound consciousness of those past lives. Palaces have a eternity that is amazing. That they have endured centuries of warfare and the effects of conditions is a testimony to the creativeness and power of their medieval proprietors. How many of us will hold such durable success?
As with gardens palaces have had countless books written about them citing design, manners, ages and so on. I think that one or two notes are helpful in separating the assorted types and the logical development. The palaces that we use as our criterion are those built between the 11th and 16th centuries in Great Britain and Northern Europe. The English palace whose design was imported from Normandy following the Norman invasion of 1066 was basically defensive. The Normans had to keep down a combatant conquered people and their manner was to construct a web of palaces. William the Conqueror has a ring established around London, including Rochester, Windsor and Berkampstead. These in concurrence with the Tower of London – the White Tower so – acted as a screen around the capital. As with gardens palaces have had countless books written about them citing design, manners, ages and so on. I think that one or two notes are helpful in separating the assorted types and the logical development. The palaces that we use as our criterion are those built between the 11th and 16th centuries in Great Britain and Northern Europe. The English palace whose design was imported from Normandy following the Norman invasion of 1066 was basically defensive. The Normans had to keep down a combatant conquered people and their manner was to construct a web of palaces. William the Conqueror has a ring established around London, including Rochester, Windsor and Berkampstead. These in concurrence with the Tower of London – the White Tower so – acted as a screen around the capital.
As it was said these palaces were basically defensive, designed to protect the Norman households who were granted the land by William. They originally consisted of a hill of Earth thrown up with a tower or ‘keep ‘ on top, perchance surrounded by a palisade around the underside and in bend often surrounded by a fosse. The palisade contained the Bailey. The support was non populating quarters usually but a last line of defence in instance of onslaught and the chief life country was the Bailey where the Lord had a comfy hall and where there were houses for his soldiers and considerations and their households, stallss for the animate beings every bit good as the assorted necessary service edifices, blacksmith, farrier, armorer, etc. In the instance of sustained attack the whole countryside include villagers and their animals could be taken into the Bailey for protection and in desperate necessity the whole would be withdrawn into the support. As it was said these palaces were basically defensive, designed to protect the Norman households who were granted the land by William. They originally consisted of a hill of Earth thrown up with a tower or ‘keep ‘ on top, perchance surrounded by a palisade around the underside and in bend often surrounded by a fosse. The palisade contained the Bailey. The support was non populating quarters usually but a last line of defence in instance of onslaught and the chief life country was the Bailey where the Lord had a comfy hall and where there were houses for his soldiers and considerations and their households, stallss for the animate beings every bit good as the assorted necessary service edifices, blacksmith, farrier, armorer, etc. In the instance of sustained attack the whole countryside include villagers and their animals could be taken into the Bailey for protection and in desperate necessity the whole would be withdrawn into the support.

Originally because of the urgency needed to acquire them erected these constructions were of wood but, as they were vulnerable to fire, rather shortly the King insisted that they be built of rock. One of the first of these was the White Tower in the centre of the Tower of London. These more significant edifices shortly became place to the Lord and his considerations. It is an maxim of military design that each betterment in design creates its ain devastation as the aggressor shortly learns to get the better of the latest engineering. Thus castle edifice became a ne’er stoping plan of updating to make defensive protection. The support had its ain drape wall with watchtowers. These were originally built square but it was shortly found that it was easy for an aggressor to utilize the square form to protect himself against guardians and besides undermine the corners of the tower. A corner would be undermined and the whole country filled with wooden props to back up it. Then pigskins filled with oil and fat would be placed in the pit and enkindled. As the fires destroyed the props so the tower crumbled. An illustration of this can be seen at Rochester where the undermining of one square corner tower is rather clear before it was rebuilt as unit of ammunition tower.

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Castle edifice grew apace and it became necessary to protect the original drape wall with its ain wall culminating in palaces like the Tower of London where there are several homocentric rings. England became more settled and by the center of the 15th century in Southern and Middle England except for the King and powerful barons the smaller landholder had found that a more peaceable state made the castle unneeded. He had had found the palace drafty, cold and uncomfortable and created ‘fortified manor house ‘ . This still had strong walls for defence but besides had larger Windowss and more doors while the inside was of wood, instead than rock, to do the whole heater and a less confrontational design. From so on we get the development of the ‘stately place ‘ and palace without any defensive capablenesss and from these in bend produced the great Tudor sign of the zodiacs of which Hatfield House and Penshurst Place are typical and in which defence has no portion. Peace was now assumed and the history of English palace edifice reached its terminal.

In the North of England it was non so easy and until the reign of Henry VIII there were still border onslaughts. The palaces remained strong and good defended until good into the 16th century. Thus for 100s of old ages the Duke of Northumberland remained influential as much because of the soldiers he could rally as his personality.

CASTLES OF ENGLAND

Capital of delaware

Location
: Kent

When William the Conqueror defeated Harold II at Hastings he headed towards Dover where the Angle-Saxons had already raised a burh. William improved this munition by raising a motte-and-bailey. Dover Castle has the most monolithic tower in Britain, an about 100-foot regular hexahedron with walls from 17 to 21 pess thick. In 1216 the palace was besieged by Louis, boy of the Gallic male monarch but saved when Louis returned to France.

Overlooking Dover Harbour, the shortest sea-route to the Continent it barred the manner of anybody seeking to occupy England. Early in the nineteenth century Napoleon stood face-to-face on the drops of Calais and through his telescope surveyed Dover. With the British naval forces commanding the seas and the steep drops beneath the palace he decided against an invasion of England, instantly turned unit of ammunition and invaded Russia alternatively. Hitler followed the same form and once more after contemplating the job decided to occupy Russia alternatively. Beneath the palace are the secret wartime transitions where the emptying of Dunkirk and the Channel sea conflict was controlled.

Warwick Castle

Location
: Richard neville State

Warwick Castle was founded in 1068 and was rebuilt and updated a figure of times. Today it combines castle ruins, mostly of the 14th century with one of the finest great houses in England. Two little projecting towers, which day of the month to the late 15th century are said to hold built as heavy weapon platforms. Warwick Castle rises like a precipice above the River Avon. On this natural drop William I founded a motte palace in 1068, on lands seized from a nearby Saxon convent. A wooden tower built on the motte was obviously still there in the reign of Henry II, by which clip a polygonal shell enclosure had been raised round the motte top. Lone fragments of the shell enclosure now remain, incorporated in the rebuilt shell, which is of much later day of the month.

Late in the 14th century, by which clip some extra edifices such as the great hall and residential blocks had been put up in the Bailey, the palace passed to Earl Beauchamp who initiated a fresh programme of plants. These were well what can be seen today. They included reconstituting the great hall and a scope of other edifices on the south-east, a water-gate, and on the West front a high and stalwart defensive drape taking from a gatehouse to a really tall polygonal tower, known as Guy ‘s Tower, which is 39.4 meters tall. The gatehouse is a singular edifice: a brace of towers above the room access transition, which had portcullises and murder-holes. Projecting from the east side of the gatehouse is a tall rectangular constructing taking to another tower.

This latter tower is 45.2 metres tall and capped by a double system of crenelations with machicolation all unit of ammunition below the crenelations. It is called Caesar ‘s Tower. The three chief floors in the tower are each domed, and have stone hearths.

The palace is completed by drape walling and farther, much smaller,

flanking towers. The wall at the West leads up the motte to the restored shell enclosure and down once more due souths to the south scope. The whole is therefore a strongly defended enclosure
Leeds Castle

Location
: Kent

Leeds Castle, acclaimed as the most romantic palace in England, is located in south-east England, built on two next island in the river Len.

Leeds Castle was originally a manor of the Saxon royal household perchance every bit early as the reign of Ethelbert IV ( 856-860 ) . The first palace was an earthwork enclosure whose wooden palisade was converted to lapidate and provided with two towers along the margin. This is now vanished. Traces of arches in a vault thought to be Norman were found at the beginning of this century.

Around 1119 Robert Crevecoeur started to construct a rock palace on the site, set uping his keep where the Gloriette now is. Stephen, Count of Blois, and his cousin the Empress Matilda contested the Crown of England. In 1139 Matilda invaded England with the aid of his brother Robert, Earl of Gloucester, who held Leeds palace, but Kent was loyal to king Stephen and following a short besieging he took control of the palace.

The palace came into the ownership of Edward I ( 1278 ) . He rebuilt much of the palace as it stood at the beginning of his reign, and enlarged it, supplying an outer rock drape round the border of the larger island, with cylindrical open-backed flanking towers and a square-plan water-gate on the south-east. The gatehouse at the south-west, a individual tower pierced by an arched transition was improved. Later on, King Edward, the Confessor granted the manor to the powerful house of Godwin.

Henry VIII, the most celebrated of all the proprietors of Leeds Castles, expended big amounts in enlarging and fancifying the whole scope of

edifices. At the same clip, he carefully retained the defences of the palace for he frequently had cause to fear invasion from either France or the Spanish. The male monarch entrusted the work of change to his great friend Sir Henry Guidford.

Leeds has been invariably inhabited and rebuilt since so. Most of the palace today is the consequence of the nineteenth-century Reconstruction and add-on. In 1926 Leeds was bought by the Hon. Mrs. Wilson-Filmer, known as Lady Baillie. Immediately she began the Restoration of the palace that took her over 30 old ages to go forth it as it stands today.

MEDIEVAL SIEGE

There are many myths and legends environing castle besiegings. Knights in reflecting armour siting up to the palace, making manus to manus combat. Or possibly 100s of guards streaming out of the palaces to run into their enemy. None of this is true, except in faery narratives and films.

Most of the clip, the assailing force would direct a courier to the Godhead of the palace and give notice of their purposes to assail. This notice allowed the palace to give up. Sometimes the Godhead surrendered, but most frequently the palace was restocked and made ready for the besieging. They would restock themselves with nutrient, supplies and drink, and add work forces to the fort.

There were three ways to take a palace. The first is non to assail the palace at all – merely avoid the palace wholly and prehend the lands around it. The 2nd is direct assault, or puting besieging to the palace. The last is beleaguering.

Here is an history of a besieging. Stone throwing catapults attack the towers and walls every twenty-four hours. The walls of the palaces would hopefully be breached, and towers damaged. The enemy erects wooden towers called campaniles, taller than the castle towers, to hide and enable bow work forces to hit pointers down into the palace. While this is traveling on, mineworkers would be burrowing under the walls and towers of the palace in readying to fall in them.

To counter the excavation, anti-mining tunnels could be dug by the palace soldiers, which insured a fierce hand-to-hand conflict resistance. Inside the palace, the guards would put a pot of H2O near the palace towers and walls. When the H2O rippled, they would cognize enemy mineworkers were at work underneath them.

The barbacan is following assaulted and taken, with a loss of work forces on both sides. Then the Bailey is attacked, and more work forces killed. Animals and some supplies would be captured. The subsidiary edifices incorporating hay and grain for the palace are burned. By now, mineworkers have succeeded in fall ining a wall of the palace. The aggressors have broken through and seized the interior Bailey. More work forces on both sides would be lost in this stage of the onslaught.

By this clip, the palace guardians would hold retreated to the support. Miners would now be puting fire to the mine tunnel under the support. The

maintain. Smoke and fire are lifting into the support, and clefts looking in the midst walls. The guardians of the palace are forced to give up as the palace falls to the enemy.

The 3rd method, called siege, would necessitate the enemy to wait and hunger the palace fort into resignation. This method was preferred by an assaultive side. Some besiegings of this type would last from six months to a twelvemonth. Sometimes, the enemy would hurtle dead animate beings into the castle evidences in hopes of distributing diseases. And, sometimes the Godhead of the palace would flip dead animate beings outside his palace, to convert the enemy they had adequate supplies to transport on a besieging for months.

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Palaces WITH GHOSTS

What narrative would be complete without a haunted palace. Here is some of the palaces that are reportedly haunted in England.

Berry Pomeroy Castle, Devon
Said to be haunted by the girl of a wicked baron who, as a effect of an implemented relationship with her male parent, bore him a kid, which he strangled.

Dover Castle, Kent
Dover Castle is associated with legion shades and unusual sounds. In the King ‘s sleeping room, the lower half of a adult male has been seen walking through the room access. The ghost of a adult female dressed in a ruddy frock has been seen at the west staircase of the support. The sounds of a whining room access gap and shutting where a door used to be, but is n’t any longer, have been heard.

Featherstone Castle, Northumberland
The palace is associated with a ghostly nuptial party. Baron Featherstonehaugh had arranged for his girl to get married a relation of his pick, even though the girl was in love with person else. The marrying party left for the “ traditional Hunt ” after the nuptials, go forthing the baron behind to do agreements for the feast. When the party failed to return by midnight, the baron began to fear the worst. Siting entirely at the tabular array, he heard horses traversing the lift bridge. The door opened and the party entered. But, they made no sound and passed through furniture. The marrying party had been ambushed and killed. On the day of remembrance of the nuptials, the party can still be seen heading towards the palace. .

Lowther Castle, Cumbria
Haunted by Sir James Lowther. He was really unhappy with a prearranged matrimony, and fell in love with a husbandman ‘s girl. When she all of a sudden grew sick and died, Sir James refused to believe she was dead and left her on the bed. She was eventually moved and placed in a casket with a glass palpebra, which he set in a closet where he could look at her. She was eventually buried, and Sir James died unloved and unlamented. At his funeral his casket began to rock as it was lowered into the land. His spectral manager and ungroomed Equus caballuss can be seen being driven through the parklands of the palace.

Tower of London
In 1816, a guard saw what he described afterwards as “ a shady bear walking up the stepss in the dusk. ” He lunged at it with his bayonet, which shattered against the wall. The apparitional presence walked on unaffected and the guard, holding told his improbable narrative to others, died of daze a few yearss subsequently.

Windsor Castle, Berkshire
Queen Elizabeth I ‘s shade has been seen in the library. A immature guard shooting and killed himself and another guard on responsibility saw him afterwards.

SOURSES SOURSES

1. www.castles.org

2. www.castles-of-britain.com

3. www.castlesofengland.com

4. www.heartofeurope.com