CHAPTER
ONE

1. Introduction of the Study

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This Chapter deals
with the back ground of the study, problem statement, objective, research
questions, scope of the study, the significance of the study, description of
the study area and organization of the study on assessing challenges of good
governance in  selected public  institutions in Afar regional state the case
of dullessa worda .

1.1Back ground of the study

Governance matters in accelerating development and
in reducing poverty in most countries of the world.  Advocates have linked the advancement of a
variety of issues to improved governance. Since early 1980s, it has emerged as
a popular agenda of development literature and appeared in the discussion about
social organization (Aminuzzaman, 2007). Governance is complex and multi-faceted
theory that is difficult to come up with a single definition and not reached
clear-cut agreement as to its meaning among scholars. However, purely speaking,
governance is the process of decision-making and the process by which decisions
are implemented or not implemented (Ramakant, 2008). Governance plays key role
in achieving economic and social development, strengthening Public institutions
by mobilizing human and capital resources.

According Chrristine (2005), governments need to
meet many challenges, both simple and complex, relating to service delivery. Governance
is widely understood, when used with regard to government or the public sector,
to refer to the institutional underpinnings of public authority and decision
making. In this way, governance encompasses the institutions, systems, rules of
the game and other factors that determine how political and economic
interactions are structured and how decisions are made and resources allocated
(UNDP, 1997).

Since the end of the 1980, the issue of good
governance is dominating the interactional discussion about development and
international assistance to Africa. It was also created a big agenda that is
how good governance is functioning by linking public administration between
political decisions and the people governed. However, during the Cold War,
there was other issue, that is mandatory to functioning public administration.
Therefore, importances of good governance have not given. What has rather given
priority was the Structural Adjustment program (Imran, 2009). However, the
structural Adjustment programs since the 1980s have never changed the lives of
the people in developing countries especially in Africa. Further to this most
countries in sub-Saharan Africa are trying to achieve the millennium
development goals (MDGS) accepted the importance of good governance and
striving to achieve it. However, there are Challenges that resist the
achievement of the MDGs such as resource limitations, weak institutional
structures and inadequate capacities of the key actors, primarily the
Government (Mekolo, 2005) .

 Ethiopia also similar to any other African
country has faced a number of challenges in democratization and building good
governance. In order to tackle the gaps identified the government developed a
multi sectoral national capacity building strategy which advocates the
principles of decentralization, regional autonomy, accountability, transparency
and efficiency to enhance popular participation and to promote good governance.
But if this is do not implementing fighting fit, governance becomes obstacle to
economic, social, and political development and this also leads to collapse of
a nation state (Graham et.al, 2003). Holding this idea Sustainable development,
social cohesion and environmental management are dependent on governance and
efficient public sector management. Hence, good governance is representative of
successful public sector reform programs that promotes equity and sustainable
development (Mezgebe, 2007).

Good governance promotes accountability,
transparency, participation, efficiency, effectiveness, equitability and rule
of law in public institutions at all levels. It also allows for sound and
efficient management of human, natural, economic, and financial resources for
equitable and sustainable development. Moreover, under good governance, there
are clear decision making procedures at the level of public authorities, civil
society participation in decision-making processes, and the ability to enforce
rights and obligations through legal mechanisms (Berhanu, 2003).

For many years Ethiopia was remained under the
philosophies of unitary governments. Until the down fall of the military regime
(1991) many public service institutions lacked their visionary and public
organizations operated under very poor conditions for many years. In 1991 that
the country has departed from the old historical system of governance when the
government existing by now organized the country in to decentralized federal
government system to ensure good governance in public and private institutions.

In this regard, the current government of Ethiopia
(EPRDF) has committed it to eradicate poverty by introducing proven economic
strategies in racing bike with good governance. As part of Growth and
Transformation Plan (GTP), the government planned and has been striving to
realize and strengthen the implementation of good governance and to address the
bottlenecks in its implementation processes among other measures. However, the
government is still facing many challenges in the effort to put the principles
of good governance in practice.

Therefore, this
study will assesses the challenges of good governance in selected public sector
of afar regional state, dullessa woreda.

1.2 Description of the study area

Dullessa woreda is found in the Afar Region state, Ethiopia.
It is Part of the Administrative
Zone 3 (Adoptli)
and originates at distance of about 203 kilometers south west of Addis Ababa
and 462 kilometers south of the capital city afar, samara. The woreda is
delimited on the south by Awash Fantale,
on the west by the Argobba
special woreda,
on the north by the Administrative
Zone 5,
and to the east by the Awash River which
separates it from Amibara.
The woreda is subdivided into 12 Keble. 

Based on Central
Statistical Agency of
Ethiopia (CSA, 2007), this woreda has a sum population of 20,687, of whom
11,202 are men and 9,485 women; with an area of 1,476.85 square kilometers,
Dulessa has a population density of 14.01. While 1,190 or 5.75% are urban
inhabitants, a further 8,003 or 38.69% are pastoralists. A total of 3,823
households were counted in this woreda, which results in an average of 5.4
persons to a household, and 3,880 housing units. 93.87% of the population said
they were Muslim,
4.53% were Protestants,
and 1.18% was Orthodox
Christians
(http://www.csa.gov.et

 

 

 

Figure1.  Afar regional state map

                                                                                                                                
Afar

  
                                                                                                                                      

                                                                               
                                                     

                                                                                                                                        

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     

                                                                                                                                       

                                                                                                                                      

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Study area

 

 

                                 Sources (https: //www.odi.org/resources/docs/2043).

 

 

1.3
Statement of the problem

 Ensuring good
governance in the world has facing many challenges, both simple and complex in
economic, political, social and technological challenges (Erridge, 1998). These
challenges are forcing government institutions to look at new ways of improving
the public sector, including undertaking various reforms (Bhuiyan, 2011). According
to Lufunyo (2013), public sector institutions throughout the world have
undergone various reforms since the end of World War II, because People around
the world are demanding good governance for the advancement of their life.

Good governance in Africa has become a holistic model
closely linked with constitutionalism, democracy and the rule of law and
implying the separation of powers and independence of the judiciary (Mangu,
2005). According to the African governance report (2005), the major challenges
include lack of sufficient awareness about human rights among the public, the
limited democratic culture and experience in the country, limited participation
of citizens in governance, lack of adequate and appropriate policies and laws
in some areas and capacity limitations of law enforcement and governance organs
of the government. Effective governance in the public sector encourages better
decision making and the efficient use of resources by tackling corruption,
better service delivery and strengthens accountability for the stewardship of
those resources (IFAC, 2013). But implementing the effective governance in
developing country becomes a challenge.

Ethiopia as one of the African countries trying to
achieve the millennium development goals accepted the importance of good
governance and striving to achieve it. However, Ethiopia like any other African
country has faced a number of challenges for building democratization and good governance
in public sector.  Those
challenges are lacks of accountability, transparency, responsiveness,
inefficiency, ineffectiveness, corruptions, poor control of public funds.
As
clearly stated in the Ethiopia’s guiding strategic framework for the five year
period 2005/06- 2009/10 commonly known as a Plan for Accelerated and Sustained
Development to End Poverty (PASDEP), programs aimed at strengthening the
democratization processes are being taken step by step in the form of Civil
Service Reform, Justice system Reform, Improved Democratic Governance, and
Decentralization which resulted significant achievements in the last few years
(MoFED, 2006).

In general, though the current government of FDRE
has taken important measures such as to promote good governance public sector
by adopting constitution with multi party government system, but ensuring good
governance on the ground could be a serious problem and complex challenge yet. Based
on the state governance survey conducted by the Economic Commission for Africa
for 28 countries (2004), Ethiopia’s performance in all indices of measuring
good governance has fallen below the sample average which is 53%. According to
Shimelis (2005), while the sample index of Ethiopia is 36% and the same trend
persists in the country governance profile by subsequent governance survey of economic
commission for Africa (ECA, 2005). This clearly, according to the documents,
shows good governance in Ethiopia is not satisfactory even as far as African
standards concerned. This is mainly because of various constraints in the
process of putting the indicators of good governance in public sector.

 Study has been conducted on challenges of good
governance implementation and factor affecting its full realization in
Ethiopia. For instance, the thesis that is done by Tagesse Mathewos (2015), on Assessment
of the Challenges and Prospects of Good Governance in public institutions:  He used managers of the institutions as sample
frame for collecting data from the institution. However, taking only managers
for sample size to get the real situation is difficult; because they themselves
may part of the challenge. In my research I will use service users and civil
servants as sample frame. Further these also the ground for this research is no any other prior assessment conducted in Dulessa Woreda.

According the Woreda report (2016), public sector
efficiency and service delivery of institutions are not achieved their targeted
goal due to the absence of good governance.  Therefore, this
study will deal with the challenges of good governance in afar regional state, Dullessa
woreda. Hence, the researcher will interested to fill the gaps on assessing
challenges of good governance in selected public institutions and to forward possible
suggestions for the purpose of assisting design policy strategies in the study
area.

1.4 The General objective & research
questions of the study

1.4 .1 General objective

The
overall objective of the study is to assess challenges of good governance on selected
public sectors in Afar regional state, Dullessa woreda.

1.4.2The Specific Objectives

Within the general objective the study the
following specific objectives are put forwarded in related.

1.
To find out the existing challenges during the implementation of good
governance public institutions in the study.

2. Assess the awareness of public officials
and civil servants towards good governance in the study area.

3. To explore the principles of good
governances implementation in the public institutions.

4. To investigate the consequences of lack of
good governance on service user (recipients).

 1.4.3. Research
Questions

 Under the framework of the general and
specific objectives set for undertaking the research, the study will have the
following research questions. 

1. What are the challenges faced during the
implementation of the good governance in public institutions in the study area?

2. How do public officials and civil servants
perceive good governance?

3. To what extent the principles of good
governance implementation are applied in the public institutions?

4. What are the
consequences for lack of good governance over public service?

1.5 Significance of the study

The study benefits primarily for dullessa woreda
public institutions because it enables public institutions to identify the
basic factors that hinder the prevalence of good governance in their
institutions and acts as lesson drawing from the previous implementation for
taking corrective actions. This study is also gives some insight how good
governance plays a critical roles in the day today activities of the
institutions. In addition, this study can be used as
an input for who can conduct further research on similar areas by identifying
gaps on challenges face during implementation
good governance public institutions in the study area.

1.6 scope of the study

This study will conduct in afar regional, state zone
three dullessa woreda for the purpose of assessing the challenges of good
governance in five selected public institutions: worda administration office,
finance &economy development office, capacity building office, Water & sewerage office
and health office. The study will try to assess the challenges of good governance
based on five core principle of good governance in public sector (accountability,
transparency, participation, rule of law and efficiency and effectiveness),
because of resources and time it is difficult to include all principles of good
governance .This will with the intention that their experiences provide good
representation of the whole situation in the woreda. And to recommend possible
solutions for the future in order to ensured good governance in public
institutions/sectors.

1.7 limitation of the study

The study will include only 5 public institutions
out of the 20 institutions found in the woreda.  This indicates that the study will conduct
with a few public institutions in the study area, thus the study may not get reach
sample size. So obtaining small number of sample size may could the limitation
of the study area. Because of financial deficiency the study will uses only
five principle of good governance, these become the study limited to some
selected principles of good governance.

1.8
organization of the study

The
study will organize in five chapters. Chapter one deals with background of the
study, a statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions,
significance of the study, the scope of the study and description of the study
area. The second chapter presents a review of literature that discusses some earlier
and recent theoretical, empirical and conceptual frame work literatures related
to good governance in public institutions and the historical background
challenges of good governance in public sectors. Chapter three provides
research methodologies, types and source of data, target population, sampling
design and sampling techniques, data collection and methods of data analysis. The
fourth chapter provides the result and associate discussions obtained from the
questionnaire, focus group discussion held, key informants interview and
observation of the study area. The last chapter provides summary, conclusions,
and recommendations of the study.

1.9 Definitions of key terms

Governance:
is the process of decision making and the process by which decisions are implemented
or not implemented (Ramakant, 2008).

Good governance:
is a way of governing based on transparent, participatory accountability,
effective, efficient& inclusive and follow rule of law (UNDP, 2006).

 Public sector: according UN (2006)
public sector governance defines it is regimes of law, Rules judicial decisions
and administrative practice that constrain prescribe and enable the provision
of publicly supported goods and services.

1.9.10 Conclusions

In the first section of the study the statement of the
problem is clearly identified, which was the problem of, inefficient and
ineffective implementation of good governance in public institutions in the
study area. Taking those problems as a benchmark, the objective of the study
was also clearly identified which is assessing challenges of good governance in
public institutions in the study area .Finally the in depth review of
literatures related to the objective of the study will be conduct, the
methodological approaches followed during the study will also briefly
discusses, next  the analysis of the data
collected from respondents is discuses and lastly summary conclusion and
recommendations will put on the problems indicated the in the finding/ result/
of  the study.