CHAPTERONE1. Introduction of the StudyThis Chapter dealswith the back ground of the study, problem statement, objective, researchquestions, scope of the study, the significance of the study, description ofthe study area and organization of the study on assessing challenges of goodgovernance in  selected public  institutions in Afar regional state the caseof dullessa worda . 1.1Back ground of the studyGovernance matters in accelerating development andin reducing poverty in most countries of the world.

 Advocates have linked the advancement of avariety of issues to improved governance. Since early 1980s, it has emerged asa popular agenda of development literature and appeared in the discussion aboutsocial organization (Aminuzzaman, 2007). Governance is complex and multi-facetedtheory that is difficult to come up with a single definition and not reachedclear-cut agreement as to its meaning among scholars. However, purely speaking,governance is the process of decision-making and the process by which decisionsare implemented or not implemented (Ramakant, 2008). Governance plays key rolein achieving economic and social development, strengthening Public institutionsby mobilizing human and capital resources.According Chrristine (2005), governments need tomeet many challenges, both simple and complex, relating to service delivery. Governanceis widely understood, when used with regard to government or the public sector,to refer to the institutional underpinnings of public authority and decisionmaking. In this way, governance encompasses the institutions, systems, rules ofthe game and other factors that determine how political and economicinteractions are structured and how decisions are made and resources allocated(UNDP, 1997).

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Since the end of the 1980, the issue of goodgovernance is dominating the interactional discussion about development andinternational assistance to Africa. It was also created a big agenda that ishow good governance is functioning by linking public administration betweenpolitical decisions and the people governed. However, during the Cold War,there was other issue, that is mandatory to functioning public administration.Therefore, importances of good governance have not given. What has rather givenpriority was the Structural Adjustment program (Imran, 2009). However, thestructural Adjustment programs since the 1980s have never changed the lives ofthe people in developing countries especially in Africa. Further to this mostcountries in sub-Saharan Africa are trying to achieve the millenniumdevelopment goals (MDGS) accepted the importance of good governance andstriving to achieve it. However, there are Challenges that resist theachievement of the MDGs such as resource limitations, weak institutionalstructures and inadequate capacities of the key actors, primarily theGovernment (Mekolo, 2005) .

 Ethiopia also similar to any other Africancountry has faced a number of challenges in democratization and building goodgovernance. In order to tackle the gaps identified the government developed amulti sectoral national capacity building strategy which advocates theprinciples of decentralization, regional autonomy, accountability, transparencyand efficiency to enhance popular participation and to promote good governance.But if this is do not implementing fighting fit, governance becomes obstacle toeconomic, social, and political development and this also leads to collapse ofa nation state (Graham, 2003). Holding this idea Sustainable development,social cohesion and environmental management are dependent on governance andefficient public sector management. Hence, good governance is representative ofsuccessful public sector reform programs that promotes equity and sustainabledevelopment (Mezgebe, 2007).Good governance promotes accountability,transparency, participation, efficiency, effectiveness, equitability and ruleof law in public institutions at all levels.

It also allows for sound andefficient management of human, natural, economic, and financial resources forequitable and sustainable development. Moreover, under good governance, thereare clear decision making procedures at the level of public authorities, civilsociety participation in decision-making processes, and the ability to enforcerights and obligations through legal mechanisms (Berhanu, 2003). For many years Ethiopia was remained under thephilosophies of unitary governments. Until the down fall of the military regime(1991) many public service institutions lacked their visionary and publicorganizations operated under very poor conditions for many years.

In 1991 thatthe country has departed from the old historical system of governance when thegovernment existing by now organized the country in to decentralized federalgovernment system to ensure good governance in public and private institutions.In this regard, the current government of Ethiopia(EPRDF) has committed it to eradicate poverty by introducing proven economicstrategies in racing bike with good governance. As part of Growth andTransformation Plan (GTP), the government planned and has been striving torealize and strengthen the implementation of good governance and to address thebottlenecks in its implementation processes among other measures. However, thegovernment is still facing many challenges in the effort to put the principlesof good governance in practice. Therefore, thisstudy will assesses the challenges of good governance in selected public sectorof afar regional state, dullessa woreda.1.

2 Description of the study areaDullessa woreda is found in the Afar Region state, Ethiopia.It is Part of the AdministrativeZone 3 (Adoptli)and originates at distance of about 203 kilometers south west of Addis Ababaand 462 kilometers south of the capital city afar, samara. The woreda isdelimited on the south by Awash Fantale,on the west by the Argobbaspecial woreda,on the north by the AdministrativeZone 5,and to the east by the Awash River whichseparates it from Amibara.

The woreda is subdivided into 12 Keble.  Based on CentralStatistical Agency ofEthiopia (CSA, 2007), this woreda has a sum population of 20,687, of whom11,202 are men and 9,485 women; with an area of 1,476.85 square kilometers,Dulessa has a population density of 14.01. While 1,190 or 5.75% are urbaninhabitants, a further 8,003 or 38.69% are pastoralists.

A total of 3,823households were counted in this woreda, which results in an average of 5.4persons to a household, and 3,880 housing units. 93.87% of the population saidthey were Muslim,4.53% were Protestants,and 1.18% was OrthodoxChristians(

et    Figure1.  Afar regional state map                                                                                                                                 Afar                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Study area                                   Sources (https: //www.odi.

org/resources/docs/2043).  1.3Statement of the problem  Ensuring goodgovernance in the world has facing many challenges, both simple and complex ineconomic, political, social and technological challenges (Erridge, 1998). Thesechallenges are forcing government institutions to look at new ways of improvingthe public sector, including undertaking various reforms (Bhuiyan, 2011).

Accordingto Lufunyo (2013), public sector institutions throughout the world haveundergone various reforms since the end of World War II, because People aroundthe world are demanding good governance for the advancement of their life.Good governance in Africa has become a holistic modelclosely linked with constitutionalism, democracy and the rule of law andimplying the separation of powers and independence of the judiciary (Mangu,2005). According to the African governance report (2005), the major challengesinclude lack of sufficient awareness about human rights among the public, thelimited democratic culture and experience in the country, limited participationof citizens in governance, lack of adequate and appropriate policies and lawsin some areas and capacity limitations of law enforcement and governance organsof the government. Effective governance in the public sector encourages betterdecision making and the efficient use of resources by tackling corruption,better service delivery and strengthens accountability for the stewardship ofthose resources (IFAC, 2013). But implementing the effective governance indeveloping country becomes a challenge.

Ethiopia as one of the African countries trying toachieve the millennium development goals accepted the importance of goodgovernance and striving to achieve it. However, Ethiopia like any other Africancountry has faced a number of challenges for building democratization and good governancein public sector.  Thosechallenges are lacks of accountability, transparency, responsiveness,inefficiency, ineffectiveness, corruptions, poor control of public funds.Asclearly stated in the Ethiopia’s guiding strategic framework for the five yearperiod 2005/06- 2009/10 commonly known as a Plan for Accelerated and SustainedDevelopment to End Poverty (PASDEP), programs aimed at strengthening thedemocratization processes are being taken step by step in the form of CivilService Reform, Justice system Reform, Improved Democratic Governance, andDecentralization which resulted significant achievements in the last few years(MoFED, 2006).In general, though the current government of FDREhas taken important measures such as to promote good governance public sectorby adopting constitution with multi party government system, but ensuring goodgovernance on the ground could be a serious problem and complex challenge yet. Basedon the state governance survey conducted by the Economic Commission for Africafor 28 countries (2004), Ethiopia’s performance in all indices of measuringgood governance has fallen below the sample average which is 53%. According toShimelis (2005), while the sample index of Ethiopia is 36% and the same trendpersists in the country governance profile by subsequent governance survey of economiccommission for Africa (ECA, 2005). This clearly, according to the documents,shows good governance in Ethiopia is not satisfactory even as far as Africanstandards concerned.

This is mainly because of various constraints in theprocess of putting the indicators of good governance in public sector.  Study has been conducted on challenges of goodgovernance implementation and factor affecting its full realization inEthiopia. For instance, the thesis that is done by Tagesse Mathewos (2015), on Assessmentof the Challenges and Prospects of Good Governance in public institutions:  He used managers of the institutions as sampleframe for collecting data from the institution. However, taking only managersfor sample size to get the real situation is difficult; because they themselvesmay part of the challenge. In my research I will use service users and civilservants as sample frame.

Further these also the ground for this research is no any other prior assessment conducted in Dulessa Woreda. According the Woreda report (2016), public sectorefficiency and service delivery of institutions are not achieved their targetedgoal due to the absence of good governance.  Therefore, thisstudy will deal with the challenges of good governance in afar regional state, Dullessaworeda. Hence, the researcher will interested to fill the gaps on assessingchallenges of good governance in selected public institutions and to forward possiblesuggestions for the purpose of assisting design policy strategies in the studyarea. 1.

4 The General objective & researchquestions of the study 1.4 .1 General objective Theoverall objective of the study is to assess challenges of good governance on selectedpublic sectors in Afar regional state, Dullessa woreda.1.

4.2The Specific ObjectivesWithin the general objective the study thefollowing specific objectives are put forwarded in related. 1.To find out the existing challenges during the implementation of goodgovernance public institutions in the study.2.

Assess the awareness of public officialsand civil servants towards good governance in the study area.3. To explore the principles of goodgovernances implementation in the public institutions.4. To investigate the consequences of lack ofgood governance on service user (recipients).

 1.4.3. ResearchQuestions  Under the framework of the general andspecific objectives set for undertaking the research, the study will have thefollowing research questions.  1. What are the challenges faced during theimplementation of the good governance in public institutions in the study area?2. How do public officials and civil servantsperceive good governance? 3.

To what extent the principles of goodgovernance implementation are applied in the public institutions?4. What are theconsequences for lack of good governance over public service?1.5 Significance of the studyThe study benefits primarily for dullessa woredapublic institutions because it enables public institutions to identify thebasic factors that hinder the prevalence of good governance in theirinstitutions and acts as lesson drawing from the previous implementation fortaking corrective actions.

This study is also gives some insight how goodgovernance plays a critical roles in the day today activities of theinstitutions. In addition, this study can be used asan input for who can conduct further research on similar areas by identifyinggaps on challenges face during implementationgood governance public institutions in the study area.1.6 scope of the studyThis study will conduct in afar regional, state zonethree dullessa woreda for the purpose of assessing the challenges of goodgovernance in five selected public institutions: worda administration office,finance &economy development office, capacity building office, Water & sewerage officeand health office. The study will try to assess the challenges of good governancebased on five core principle of good governance in public sector (accountability,transparency, participation, rule of law and efficiency and effectiveness),because of resources and time it is difficult to include all principles of goodgovernance .This will with the intention that their experiences provide goodrepresentation of the whole situation in the woreda. And to recommend possiblesolutions for the future in order to ensured good governance in publicinstitutions/sectors.

1.7 limitation of the studyThe study will include only 5 public institutionsout of the 20 institutions found in the woreda.  This indicates that the study will conductwith a few public institutions in the study area, thus the study may not get reachsample size. So obtaining small number of sample size may could the limitationof the study area. Because of financial deficiency the study will uses onlyfive principle of good governance, these become the study limited to someselected principles of good governance.

1.8organization of the study Thestudy will organize in five chapters. Chapter one deals with background of thestudy, a statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions,significance of the study, the scope of the study and description of the studyarea. The second chapter presents a review of literature that discusses some earlierand recent theoretical, empirical and conceptual frame work literatures relatedto good governance in public institutions and the historical backgroundchallenges of good governance in public sectors.

Chapter three providesresearch methodologies, types and source of data, target population, samplingdesign and sampling techniques, data collection and methods of data analysis. Thefourth chapter provides the result and associate discussions obtained from thequestionnaire, focus group discussion held, key informants interview andobservation of the study area. The last chapter provides summary, conclusions,and recommendations of the study.1.9 Definitions of key termsGovernance:is the process of decision making and the process by which decisions are implementedor not implemented (Ramakant, 2008).Good governance:is a way of governing based on transparent, participatory accountability,effective, efficient& inclusive and follow rule of law (UNDP, 2006). Public sector: according UN (2006)public sector governance defines it is regimes of law, Rules judicial decisionsand administrative practice that constrain prescribe and enable the provisionof publicly supported goods and services.

1.9.10 ConclusionsIn the first section of the study the statement of theproblem is clearly identified, which was the problem of, inefficient andineffective implementation of good governance in public institutions in thestudy area.

Taking those problems as a benchmark, the objective of the studywas also clearly identified which is assessing challenges of good governance inpublic institutions in the study area .Finally the in depth review ofliteratures related to the objective of the study will be conduct, themethodological approaches followed during the study will also brieflydiscusses, next  the analysis of the datacollected from respondents is discuses and lastly summary conclusion andrecommendations will put on the problems indicated the in the finding/ result/of  the study.