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Fictional characters Of Greek Mythology Essay, Research Paper

3 Destinies

Destinies ( fat ) , in Greek mythology, three goddesses who controlled human life ; besides

called the Moerae or Moirai. They were: Clotho, who spun the web of life ;

Lachesis, who measured its length ; and Atropos, who cut it. The Roman Destinies

were the Parcae ; the Germanic Fates were the NORNS.


Adonis, in Greek mythology, beautiful young person loved by APHRODITE and

PERSEPHONE. When he was killed by a Sus scrofa, both goddesses claimed him.

ZEUS decreed that he pass half the twelvemonth above the land with Aphrodite, the

other half in the underworld with Persephone. His decease and Resurrection,

symbolic of the seasonal rhythm, were celebrated at the festival Adonia.


Andromeda, in Greek myth, princess of Ethiopia ; girl of Cepheus and

Cassiopeia. POSEIDON, angered by her female parent & # 8217 ; s claim that her beauty outshone

that of the Nereids, sent a sea monster that could be appeased merely by her

forfeit. She was rescued by PERSEUS, who slew the monster and married her.

Andromeda and her parents became configurations.


Apollo, in Greek mythology, one of the most of import OLYMPIAN Gods ; boy of

ZEUS and Leto, twin brother of ARTEMIS. He was concerned with prognostication,

medical specialty ( he was the male parent of ASCLEPIUS ) , music and poesy ( he was besides the

male parent of ORPHEUS and the frequenter of the MUSES ) , and the pastoral humanistic disciplines. A moral

God of high civilisation, he was associated with jurisprudence, doctrine, and the humanistic disciplines. He

was widely known as a God of visible radiation, Phoebus Apollo ; after the fifth cent. B.C. he

was frequently identified with the Sun God HELIOS. Apollo & # 8217 ; s prophets had great authorization ;

his main shrine was at DELPHI, where he was chiefly a God of purification. In art

he was portrayed as the flawlessness of young person and beauty. The most famed

statue of him is the Apollo Belvedere, a marble transcript of the original Greek bronze,

now in the Vatican in Rome.


Ares ( ar? ez? ) ( ar? ez ) , in Greek mythology, OLYMPIAN God of war ; boy of ZEUS

and HERA. The Romans identified him with MARS.


Ariadne ( ar? e-ad? Ne ) , in Greek mythology, Cretan princess ; girl of MINOS

and Pasiphae. With her aid THESEUS killed the MINOTAUR and escaped from

the Labyrinth. He left with her but deserted her at Naxos. There she married

DIONYSUS, who is said to hold set her nuptial Crown among the stars.


Artemis ( ar? te-mis ) , in Greek mythology, goddess of the Hunt. She was the

girl of ZEUS and Leto and the duplicate sister of APOLLO. Artemis is associated

with celibacy, matrimony, kids, wildlife, and, as a complement to the Sun God

Apollo, with the Moon. The Romans identified her with DIANA.


Atalanta ( at? e-lan? Te ) , in Greek mythology, fleet huntress who joined the

Calydonian Sus scrofa Hunt ( see MELEAGER ) . She demanded that each of her suers

race her, the victor to be rewarded with matrimony, the also-rans to decease. Hippomenes

eventually won her by dropping three aureate apples that she stopped to recover.


Athena ( e-the? Ne ) or Pallas Athena, in Greek mythology, one of the most of import

OLYMPIAN divinities, sprung from the brow of ZEUS. She was the goddess of

war and peace, a frequenter of humanistic disciplines and trades, a defender of metropoliss ( notably Athens ) ,

and the goddess of wisdom. Her most of import temple was the PARTHENON and

her primary festival the Panathenaea. A virgin goddess, Athena is represented in

art as a baronial figure, armored, and exerting her aegis, the auspices. The

Romans identified her with MINERVA.


Atlas ( at? lupus erythematosuss ) , in Greek mythology, a TITAN. After the licking of the Titans by the

Olympian, he was condemned to keep the sky upon his shoulders for all



Cerberus ( s? R? beres ) , in Greek mythology, many-headed Canis familiaris with a mane and a

tail of serpents ; defender of HADES. One of the 12 labours of HERCULES was to

gaining control him.


Chaos ( ka? os? ) , in Greek mythology, the vacant, unfathomable infinite from which

everything arose. In the OLYMPIAN myth GAEA sprang from Chaos and became

the female parent of all things.


Cronus ( kro? Nes ) or Kronos, in Greek myth, the youngest Colossus ; boy of URANUS

and GAEA. He led the Titans in a rebellion against Uranus and ruled the universe. By his

sister RHEA, he fathered the great Gods? ZEUS, POSEIDON, DEMETER, HERA,

HADES, and HESTIA. Fated to be overthrown by one of his kids, he tried

unsuccessfully to destruct them. Zeus subsequently led the OLYMPIAN Gods in get the better ofing

him in a conflict, described by HESIOD, called the Titanomachy. Cronus is equated

with the Roman God SATURN.


Cybele ( sib? e-le ) , in ancient Asiatic faith, GREAT MOTHER OF THE GODS.

The main centres of her early worship were Phrygia and Lydia. In the fifth cent.

B.C. her cult spread to Greece and subsequently to Rome. She was chiefly a nature

goddess, responsible for keeping and reproducing the wild things of the Earth.

Her one-year spring festival celebrated the decease and Resurrection of her darling

Attis, a flora God.


Cyclops plural of Cyclopes ( siklo? pez ) , in Greek mythology, huge one-eyed

existences. Harmonizing to HESIOD, they were Smiths, boies of URANUS and GAEA,

who gave ZEUS the lightning bolts that helped him get the better of CRONUS. In HOMER,

they were a brutal people, one of whom ( POLYPHEMUS ) was encountered by

Odysseus in his rovings.


Daphne ( daf? Ne ) , in Greek mythology, a nymph loved by APOLLO. When she was

pursued by him, she prayed for deliverance and was transformed by GAEA into a laurel



Delphi ( d? cubic decimeter? f Y ) ( del? fy ) , town in Phocis, GREECE, near the pes of Mt. Parnassus.

It was the place of the Delphic ORACLE, the most celebrated and powerful prophet of

ancient Greece. The prophet, which originated in the worship of an earth goddess,

perchance GAEA, was the chief shrine of APOLLO. It was housed in a temple

built in the 6th cent. B.C. The oracular messages were spoken by a priestess in a

frenzied enchantment and interpreted by a priest, who normally spoke in poetry. The

prophet & # 8217 ; s influence prevailed throughout Greece until Hellenistic times. Delphi was

the meeting topographic point of the Amphictyonic League and the site of the PYTHIAN

GAMES. It was subsequently pillaged by the Romans, and the sanctuary fell into decay.


Demeter ( dime? ter ) , in Greek mythology, goddess of crop and birthrate ; girl

of CRONUS and RHEA ; female parent of PERSEPHONE by ZEUS. She and her

girl were the main figures in the ELEUSINIAN MYSTERIES, and her primary

festival was the Athenian Thesmophoria. The Romans identified her with CERES.


Dionysus ( di? e-ni? Ses ) ( dieni? Ses ) , in Greek mythology, God of birthrate and vino,

subsequently considered a frequenter of the humanistic disciplines. Probably of Thracian beginning, Dionysus was

one of the most of import Grecian Gods and the topic of profuse and contradictory

fables. He was thought to be the boy of either ZEUS and PERSEPHONE or of

Zeus and Semele. Dionysus was attended by a roistering set of SATYRS,

MAENADS, and NYMPHS. He taught worlds viniculture but was capable of

awful retaliation upon those ( e.g. , ORPHEUS and Pentheus ) who denied his

deity. His worship was characteristically bibulous and orgiastic. The main figure

in the ORPHIC MYSTERIES and other cults, Dionysus had many festivals in his

award. From the music, vocalizing, and dance of the Greater Dionysia in Athens

developed the dithyramb and, finally, Grecian play. The Romans identified him

with Liber and BACCHUS, who was more decently the vino God.


Echo, in Greek mythology, mountain NYMPH. She incurred HERA & # 8217 ; s wrath with her

yak and, as penalty, could merely reiterate the last words said by others. In

unanswered love for NARCISSUS, she pined off until her voice entirely remained.


Eos ( e? os? ) , in Greek mythology, goddess of morning. Daughter of Hyperion and

Thea, she was the sister of the Sun God HELIOS, and the female parent of the air currents.

The Romans called her Aurora.


Eros ( er? os? ) , in Greek mythology, God of love in all its manifestations. Harmonizing

to some fables, he was one of the oldest of the Gods, born from CHAOS but

bodying harmoniousness. In most narratives he was the boy of APHRODITE and ARES

and was represented as a winged young person armed with bow and pointers. In Roman

myth, under the name Cupid or Amor, he was the bare baby boy and comrade



Furies ( fy? R? vitamin E ) or Erinyes ( erin? e-ez ) , in Greek mythology, goddesses of

retribution. Born from the blood of URANUS, they punished wrongs committed

against blood relations irrespective of the motive, as in the instance of ORESTES.

Named Megaera, Tisiphone, and Alecto, they were normally represented as hags

with chiropterans & # 8217 ; wings, Canis familiariss & # 8217 ; caputs, and serpents for hair.


Gaea ( je? vitamin E ) , in Greek mythology, the Earth ; girl of CHAOS, female parent and married woman

of both URANUS ( the sky ) and Pontus ( the sea ) . She was mother, by Uranus, of

the CYCLOPES, the TITANS, and others, and, by Pontus, of five sea divinities. She

helped do the overthrow of Uranus by the Titans and was worshiped as the

cardinal goddess, the female parent of all things.


giant ( Jemaah Islamiyah? ent ) , in mythology, manlike being of great size and strength ; a brutish

power of nature, missing the stature of Gods and the civilisation of humanity. In

many civilizations, e.g. , Greek, Scandinavian, and Native American, giants were

believed to be the first race of people that inhabited the Earth.

Great Mother of the Supreme beings

Great Mother of the Gods, in ancient Middle Eastern faith ( and subsequently in Greece,

Rome, and W Asia ) , mother goddess, the great symbol of the Earth & # 8217 ; s birthrate. As

the originative force in nature she was worshiped under many names, including

ASTARTE ( Syria ) , CERES ( Rome ) , CYBELE ( Phrygia ) , DEMETER ( Greece ) ,

ISHTAR ( Babylon ) , and ISIS ( Egypt ) . The ulterior signifiers of her cult involved the

worship of a male divinity ( her boy or lover, e.g. , ADONIS, OSIRIS ) , whose decease

and Resurrection symbolized the regenerative power of the Earth.


Hades ( ha? dez ) , in Greek mythology. 1 The swayer of the underworld, normally

called PLUTO. 2 The universe of the dead, ruled by Pluto and PERSEPHONE.

Guarded by CERBERUS, it was either belowground or in the far West, and was

separated from the land of the life by five rivers. One of these was the STYX,

across which the dead were ferried. Three Judgess decided the destiny of psyches ;

heroes went to the ELYSIAN FIELDS, sinners to TARTARUS.


Hecate ( hek? e-te ) , in Greek mythology, goddess of shades and witchery. An

attender of PERSEPHONE, she was a spirit of black thaumaturgy, able to raise up

dreams and the liquors of the dead. She haunted cemeteries and hamlets.


Helios ( he? le-os? ) ( he? Leo ) , in Greek mythology, the Sun God ; boy of the TITANS

Hyperion and Theia ; male parent of PHAETHON. Each forenoon he left a castle in the

E and crossed the sky in a aureate chariot, so returned along the river

Oceanus. He was a national God in Rhodes, where a COLOSSUS represented

him. In Rome, he was known as Sol and was an of import God.


Hera ( hir? vitamin E ) , in Greek mythology, queen of OLYMPIAN Gods ; girls of

CRONUS and RHEA ; married woman and sister of ZEUS ; female parent of ARES and

HEPHAESTUS. A covetous married woman, she plagued Zeus, his kept womans, and his

offspring, e.g. , HERCULES. Hera was powerful and widely worshiped as the

& lt ;< p>protectress of adult females, matrimony, and childbearing. The Romans identified her with


Heracless, Herculess

Heracless, Heracles or Herakles, most popular Grecian hero, celebrated for strength and

bravery. The boy of Alcmene and ZEUS, he was hated by HERA, who sent

snakes to his cradle ; he strangled them. Subsequently Hera drove Hercules mad and he

swerve his married woman and kids. He sought purification at the tribunal of King Eurystheus,

who set him 12 mighty labours: killing the Nemean king of beasts and HYDRA ; driving off the

Stymphalian birds ; cleaning the Augean stallss ; capturing the Cerynean hind,

Cretan bull, female horses of Diomed, Erymanthian Sus scrofa, cowss of Geryon, and

CERBERUS ; and securing the girdle of Hippolyte and the aureate apples of the

Atlantidess. He was subsequently involved in the Calydonian Hunt ( see MELEAGER ) and

the Argonaut expedition ( see JASON ) . At his decease he rose to OLYMPUS, where

he was reconciled with Hera and married HEBE. Represented as a powerful adult male

with king of beasts & # 8217 ; s tegument and nine, he was widely worshiped. He is the hero of dramas by



Hermes ( hur? mez ) , in Greek mythology, boy of ZEUS and Maia ; courier of the

Gods and music director of psyches to HADES. He was besides the God of travellers, of fortune,

music, fluency, commercialism, immature work forces, darnels, and stealers. He was said to

hold invented the lyre and flute. The exuberant Hermaea festival was celebrated in

his award. Hermes was represented with winged chapeaus and sandals, transporting the

CADUCEUS. He is equated with the Roman MERCURY.


Hestia ( Hes? te-e ) , in Greek mythology, goddess of the fireplace ; girl of

CRONUS and RHEA. Widely worshiped, she was a sort divinity who represented

personal and communal security and felicity. The Romans identified her with



Meleager ( melea? jer ) , hero of Greek mythology. At his birth a prognostication said that

he would decease when a certain log in the fire burned. His female parent hid the log, and

Meleager grew to be a celebrated warrior. When ARTEMIS sent a immense Sus scrofa to

harry his land, Meleager led a set of heroes, including CASTOR AND

POLLUX, THESEUS, and JASON, in the Calydonian Hunt, and killed the Sus scrofa.

Meleager gave its fur to the huntress ATALANTA, and when his uncles tried to

take it he killed them. In retaliation his female parent burned the concealed log, and Meleager



Midas ( mi? diethylstilbestrols ) , in Greek mythology, male monarch of Phrygia. Because he befriended

SILENUS, DIONYSUS granted him the power to turn everything he touched into

gold. When even his nutrient became gold, he washed off his power in the

Pactolus River.


Minos ( mi? Nes ) ( mi? nos, ? Nes ) , in Greek mythology, male monarch of CRETE, boy of ZEUS

and Europa. The wealthiest swayer in the Mediterranean country, he was presumptively

an existent antediluvian Cretan male monarch for whom the MINOAN CIVILIZATION is named. In

fable, he was the hubby of Pasiphae and the male parent of Androgeus, Glaucus,



Narcissus, in Greek mythology, beautiful young person who refused all love, including

ECHO & # 8217 ; s. As penalty for his indifference, he was made to fall in love with his

ain image in a pool, whereupon he pined off, and turned into a flower.


nymph ( nimf ) , in Greek mythology, female deity, immortal or durable,

associated with assorted natural objects or topographic points. Some represented specific

vicinities, e.g. , the acheloids of the River Achelous ; others were identified with

more general physiographic characteristics, e.g. , oreads with mountains, water nymphs with

organic structures of fresh H2O, Nereids with the Mediterranean, oceanids with the ocean,

wood nymphs with trees ; and some were associated with a map of nature, e.g. ,

hamadryads, who lived and died with a peculiar tree. Nymphs were regarded as

immature, beautiful, musical, and amative.


Olympic ( o-lim? pe-en ) , in Greek myth, one of the 12 Gods who ruled the existence

from their place on Mt. Olympus. Led by ZEUS, they were: HERA, his sister and

married woman ; POSEIDON and PLUTO ( HADES ) , his brothers ; HESTIA, his sister ; and his


ARTEMIS. Similar to worlds in visual aspect and character, the Olympians are

known to us chiefly from the plants of HOMER and HESIOD.


prophet ( ? r? e-kel ) , in Greek faith, priest or priestess who imparted a God & # 8217 ; s

response to a human inquirer ; besides the response itself and the shrine. Methods

of divination included reading of dreams, observation of marks, and

reading of the actions of beguiled individuals. Among the celebrated prophets were

those of ZEUS at Dodona and of APOLLO at DELPHI.


Orpheus ( or? fees, or? fy? s ) ( or? fe-es ) ( or? fees, or? fy? s ) , in Greek mythology,

Thracian instrumentalist ; boy of the MUSE Calliope by APOLLO or by Oeagrus, a male monarch

of Thrace. He is said to hold played the lyre so attractively that he charmed the

animals, trees, and rivers. He married the nymph Eurydice, and when she died he

descended to HADES to seek for her. He was allowed to return with her on

status that he non look back at her, but he disobeyed and lost her forever. Grief-

stricken, he wandered for old ages. In one fable, he worshiped Apollo above

DIONYSUS, who caused the Thracians to rupture him to pieces. Orpheus was

celebrated in the ORPHIC MYSTERIES.


Pan ( pan ) , in Greek mythology, pastoral God of birthrate ; worshiped chiefly in

ARCADIA. He was depicted as a merry, ugly adult male with a caprine animal & # 8217 ; s horns, ears, and

legs. All his myths trade with his amative personal businesss. He came to be associated with

the Grecian DIONYSUS and the Roman FAUNUS, both birthrate Gods.


Pandora, in Greek mythology, first adult female on Earth. ZEUS ordered her creative activity as

retribution on adult male and his helper, PROMETHEUS, to whose brother

Epimetheus he sent her. Zeus gave her a box that he forbade her to open. She

disobeyed and allow out all the universe & # 8217 ; s immoralities. Merely hope remained in the box.


Despoina ( persef? east northeast ) or Proserpine ( prosur? pene ) , in Greek and Roman

mythology, goddess of birthrate, queen of the underworld ; girl of ZEUS and

Demeter. She was abducted by PLUTO, who held her prisoner in HADES.

Demeter persuaded the Gods to allow her return to earth for eight months a twelvemonth. Her

narrative, celebrated in the ELEUSINIAN MYSTERIES, symbolized the vegetative

rhythm. When she left the Earth, life withered ; when she returned, it blossomed



Perseus ( pur? se-es ) , in Greek mythology, boy of ZEUS and Danae. Told by an

prophet that Perseus would kill him, his gramps Acrisius set him and Danae

afloat in a thorax, from which they were rescued by King Polydectes. Later, seeing

Perseus as an obstruction to his love for Danae, the male monarch sent him to bring the caput

of the GORGON Medusa. The Gods aided Perseus, and he slew Medusa. Fling

from the other Gorgons, Perseus was refused assistance by ATLAS, who was turned into

a rock mountain by Medusa & # 8217 ; s caput. On his manner place, Perseus rescued

ANDROMEDA and married her. Later, while viing in a discus competition,

Perseus by chance killed Acrisius, therefore carry throughing the prognostication.


Phaedra ( fU? dre ) , in Greek mythology, girl of MINOS and PasiphaU, married woman of

THESEUS. When her stepson, Hippolytus, rejected her love, she accused him of

colza, so hanged herself. The fable was dramatized by EURIPIDES, SENECA,



Phaethon ( fa? e-thon? ) ( fa? ethen ) or Phaeton ( fa? eten ) , in Greek myth, boy of

HELIOS. He lost control of his male parent & # 8217 ; s aureate chariot, which in falling dried the

Libyan Desert. ZEUS avoided the existence & # 8217 ; s devastation merely by killing Phaethon.


Phrygia, ancient part, cardinal Asia Minor ( now cardinal Turkey ) . The Phrygians,

seemingly Indo-Europeans, entered ( c.1200 B.C. ) the country from the Balkans. The

land of Phrygia ( Florida. 8th? 6th cent. B.C. ) is associated in Greek fable with

MIDAS and GORDIUS. Phrygia was subsequently dominated in bend by Lydia, the Gauls,

Pergamum, and Rome.


Poseidon ( po-sid? N ) ( posi? lair ) , in Greek faith, God of the sea, defender of all

Waterss. Powerful, violent, and vengeful, he carried the trident, with which he

caused temblors. He was the hubby of Amphitrite and the male parent of many

boies, most either barbarous work forces ( e.g. , ORION ) or monsters ( e.g. , POLYPHEMUS ) . He

was besides of import as Hippios, God of Equus caballuss, and was the male parent of PEGASUS.

The Romans identified him with NEPTUNE.


Pygmalion ( pig-mal? hankering ) , in Greek mythology, male monarch of Cyprus, sculpturer of a

beautiful statue of a adult female. When he prayed to APHRODITE for a married woman like it, she

brought the statue ( Galatea ) to life, and Pygmalion married her.


Rhea ( re? vitamin E ) , in Greek mythology, a TITAN ; married woman and sister of CRONUS ; female parent of


the overthrow of Cronus. Associated with birthrate, her worship was outstanding in

CRETE. In Rome Rhea was worshiped as Magna Mater and identified with Ops.


silenus, in Greek mythology, portion bestial, portion human animal of woods and

mountains. Followings of DIONYSUS, the sileni are normally represented as elderly

SATYRS. In some fables Silenus is the oldest lecher, the boy of HERMES or

PAN, and the comrade, advisor, or coach of Dionysus.


Styx ( st? Kansas ) , in Greek mythology, sacred river in HADES crossed by the psyches of

the dead, who were ferried by Charon.


Tartarus ( tar? ter-es ) , in Greek mythology, lowest part of HADES, where the

wicked, e.g. , SISYPHUS, TANTALUS, were punished.


Theseus, Athenian hero ; boy of King Aegeus. Of his many adventures the most

celebrated was the murder of the MINOTAUR, which he accomplished with the aid of

ARIADNE, girl of King MINOS of Crete. As male monarch of Athens he instituted

several reforms, notably the federalisation of the Attic communities. In the land of

the AMAZONS he abducted Antiope, who bore him Hippolytus. When a vengeful

Amazon ground forces invaded Athens Theseus defeated it. Antiope was killed, and

Theseus subsequently married PHAEDRA. When he and his friend Piritho? s attempted to

take Persephone from HADES, they were imprisoned at that place until HERCULES

rescued Theseus. When Theseus returned to Athens he found it corrupt and

rebellious. He sailed to Skyros, where he was murdered by King Lycomedes.


Uranus ( y? r? e-nes ) , in Greek mythology, the celestial spheres, first swayer of the existence ;

boy and hubby of GAEA ; male parent of TITANS, CYCLOPS, and Hundred-handed

Ones. Uranus was castrated and dethroned by CRONUS. His blood, falling onto

Earth, produced the vindictive FURIES ; from his discarded flesh and the sea



Zeus ( omega? s ) , in Greek faith, supreme God ; boy of CRONUS, whom he succeeded,

and RHEA ; brother and hubby of HERA. After the overthrow of the TITANS,

when tonss were cast to split the existence, the underworld went to HADES, the

sea to POSEIDON, and the celestial spheres and Earth to Zeus. An amative God, he loved

goddesses, nymphs, and persons, and fathered many kids. Governing from his

tribunal on Mt. Olympus, Zeus was the symbol of power, regulation, and jurisprudence ; the rewarder

of good ; and the punisher of immorality. Besides the God of conditions ( his most celebrated

arm was the bolt of lightning ) and birthrate, he was worshiped in connexion with

about every facet of life. The Romans equated Zeus with their ain supreme