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Chichen Itza Essay, Research Paper

Chichen Itza

The destroyed ancient metropolis busying an country of 4 square stat mis ( 10 square kilometer ) in

south-central province, . It is located some 90 stat mis ( 150 kilometer ) east-northeast of and

75 stat mis ( 120 kilometer ) east-southeast of the modern metropolis of. The lone beginning of H2O

in the waterless part around the site is from Wellss ( cenotes ) formed by swallow holes in

limestone formations. Two large cenotes on the site made it a suited topographic point for the

metropolis and gave it its name, from qi ( & # 8221 ; mouths & # 8221 ; ) , Chen ( & # 8221 ; wells & # 8221 ; ) , and Itz, the name

of the Maya folk that settled at that place. Chich n Itz was designated a UNESCO in

1988.

Chich N was founded about the sixth century AD, presumptively by Maya peoples of the

Yucat n Peninsula who had occupied the part since the Pre-Classic, or Formative,

Period ( 1500 BC-AD 300 ) . The chief early edifices are in an architectural manner

known as, which shows a figure of divergencies from the manners of the southern

Lowlandss. These earliest constructions are to the South of the Main Plaza and include

the Akabtzib ( & # 8221 ; House of the Dark Writing & # 8221 ; ) , the Chichanchob ( & # 8221 ; Red House & # 8221 ; ) , the

Iglesia ( & # 8221 ; Church & # 8221 ; ) , the Casa de las Monjas ( & # 8221 ; Nunnery & # 8221 ; ) , and the observatory El

Caracol ( & # 8221 ; The Snail & # 8221 ; ) . There is grounds that, in the tenth century, after the prostration

of the Maya metropoliss of the southern Lowlandss, Chich N was invaded by aliens,

likely Maya talkers who had been strongly influenced by & # 8211 ; and possibly were

under the way of & # 8211 ; the of cardinal Mexico. These encroachers may hold been the

Itz for whom the site is named ; some governments, nevertheless, believe the Itz

arrived 200 to 300 old ages subsequently.

In any event, the encroachers were responsible for the building of such major

edifices as the Castillo ( the great pyramid ) , which rises 79 pess ( 24 meters ) above

the Main Plaza. The Castillo has four sides, each with 91 stepss and confronting a cardinal

way ; including the measure on the top platform, these combine for a sum of 365

stairss & # 8211 ; the figure of yearss in the solar twelvemonth. During the spring and autumnal

equinoxes, shadows cast by the puting Sun give the visual aspect of a serpent

rippling down the staircases. A carving of a plumy Se

rpent at the top of the

pyramid is symbolic of ( known to the Maya as Kukulc N ) , one of the major divinities

of the ancient Meso-American pantheon. Excavations within the nine-platform

pyramid revealed another, earlier construction incorporating a ruddy panther throne studded

with jade.

The ball tribunal ( for playing the game [ Mayan: pok-ta-pok ] ) , is 545 pess ( 166

meters ) long and 223 pess ( 68 meters ) broad, the largest such tribunal in the Americas.

Six sculpted alleviations run the length of the walls of the tribunal, seemingly picturing the

masters of the game keeping the cut off caput of a member of the losing squad. On

the upper platform at one terminal of the tribunal stands the Temple of the Jaguars, inside

of which is a mural screening warriors puting besieging to a small town. Standing on the

platform of the temple to the North of the tribunal, it is possible to hear a susurration

from 150 pess ( 46 meters ) off.

Other constructions include the High Priest & # 8217 ; s Grave and the Colonnade ( Thousand

Columns ) and the bordering Temple of the Warriors. Most of these edifices

likely were completed in the Early Post-Classic Period ( c. AD 900-1200 ) . In the

Late Post-Classic Period ( c. 1200-1540 ) , Chich n appears to hold been eclipsed by

the rise of the metropolis of. For a clip Chich n Itz joined and Mayap n in a political

Confederacy known as the League of Mayap N.

About 1450 the League and the political domination of Mayap n dissolved. When

the Spanish entered the state in the sixteenth century, the Maya were populating in many

little towns, but the major metropoliss, including Chich N, were mostly abandoned.

Long left to the jungle, Chich n Itz remained sacred to the Maya. Excavation

began in the nineteenth century, and the site became one of Mexico & # 8217 ; s prime

archeological zones.

A legendary tradition at Chich N was the Cult of the Cenote, affecting human

forfeit to the rain God, in which victims were thrown into the metropolis & # 8217 ; s major cenote

( at the northernmost portion of the ruin ) , along with gold and jade decorations and

other valuables. In 1904, an American who had bought the full site, began

dredging the cenote ; his find of skeletons and sacrificial objects confirmed the

fable.