CLONING

What is cloning?

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Cloning is producing an identical copy of an organism, cell or a tissue. Organism cloning can happen both naturally and artificially. Natural cloning can be seen in organisms such as plants, algae, fungi bacteria. These natural cloning can occur with asexual reproduction. Asexual reproduction mean’s that the offspring is made from a single parent and they share identical genes. Natural cloning can also happen in humans with identical twins. There are 3 types of cloning. 1 These are called Molecular Cloning, Therapeutic Cloning, Organism Cloning. Molecular cloning is interested in duplicating DNA molecules, not the whole DNA. Therapeutic Cloning focuses on human embryos and STEM cells. Organism Cloning is about making a whole organism. It is also known as Reproductive Cloning.

How is Reproductive Cloning Done?

There are 2 paths to make an identical copy of an organism artificially. These are called “Artificial Embryo Twinning” and “Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer” 2

1.     Artificial Embryo Twinning is a procedure based on natural identical twins. Identical Twins are genetically the same because individuals come from the same fertilized egg. This process is almost the same but identical twins grow inside of the mother, in this case the embryo is separated and after the embryo divide and grow for a little time, the embryos are put into different carriers. When they are done developing they are exactly the same because they come from the same fertilized egg but they have different carriers.

 

2.      Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer is a different approach from embryo twinning. First of all, in organisms there two kinds of cells: somatic and sex cells. Somatic cells are body cells and they are used in this process. After the researchers isolate somatic cells from the organism, they remove the nucleus of the egg cell which contains all the DNA and they replace the nucleus from somatic cell. This means that there were no sexual production but the egg cell acts as if it was sexually produced. Then it is placed into a surrogate mother and developed. This method also produces identical organisms because of the somatic cells that they used.

What is the difference of cloning and natural production?

The difference is mainly lies on the way it produces the offspring. In natural way, embryo has 2 sets of chromosomes and they are both from another parent, one from the sperm and the other one from the egg. This means that we are not identical to our parents, but we have some parts of their genes. On the other hand, Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer can also produce a new healthy offspring, but the chromosome from egg cell is removed and replaced with the two sets of chromosome the single parent already have and this makes the offspring exactly the same as the parent and this is a really controversial topic.

THE HISTORY OF CLONING

We have a lot of experiment about cloning but there are some important research. The ones which are the most important of them;

1885 – The Sea Urchin Experiment (Hans Adolf Eduard Driesch)

The first experiment of cloning was in 1885. The experiment made Hans Adolf Eduard Driesch and it was about First-ever proof of artificial embryo twinning. The sea urchin is a simple organism that is utilitarian for studying occurrence. Driesch displayed that simply shaking two-celled sea urchin embryos, it was possible to distinguish the cells. One distinguishes, each cell grew into a complete sea urchin.

1952 – First Successful Nuclear Transfer (Robert Briggs and Thomas King)

Briggs and King injected an early tadpole embryo into an enucleated frog egg. The subsequent cell developed into a tadpole. The researchers created numerous ordinary tadpole clones utilizing cores from early developing lives. Most significantly, this experiment displayed that nuclear transfer was a sustainable biological research technique. It conjointly bolstered two earlier observations. To begin with, the core coordinates cell development and, eventually, a life form’s advancement. Second, embryonic cells right on time being developed square measure higher for natural research than cells at later stages.

1975 – First Mammalian Embryo Produced by Nuclear Transfer (J. Derek Bromhall)

Mammalian egg cells square measure abundant smaller than those of frogs or salamanders, so that they square measure tougher to govern. Utilizing a glass pipet as somewhat straw, Bromhall exchanged the core from a rabbit developing life cell into relate enucleated rabbit ovum. He thought of the procedure successful once a conceptus, or advanced embryo, developed when a handful of days.

This examination demonstrated that class fetuses may be made by atomic exchange. to show that the fetuses may keep creating, Bromhall would have needed to position them into a mother rabbit’s female inward conceptive organ. He ne’er did this experiment.

1996 – Dolly: First Mammal Created by Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer

In this landmark experiment, Wilmut and mythologist created a lamb by transferring the nucleus from an adult sheep’s mammary gland cell into an enucleated egg. ne’er before had a vertebrate been cloned from an adult vegetative cell. What was the massive deal?

Every cell’s nucleus contains an entire set of genetic data. However, whereas embryonic cells arable to activate any sequence, differentiated adult cells have to pack up the genes that they do not want for his or her specific functions. Once a grown-up organelle is utilized as a giver, its hereditary information ought to be reset to an embryonic state. regularly, the resetting strategy is inadequate, and furthermore the incipient organisms neglect to create.

Of 277 makes an endeavor, just a single made an incipient organism that was conveyed to term in a surpassing mother. This prestigious sheep, named Dolly, brought natural research into the spotlight. Her landing began discussions concerning the ramifications of natural research, transportation debates over human investigation and physical cell inquire about into the overall population eye.

1997 – First Primate Created by Embryonic Cell Nuclear Transfer (Li Meng, John Ely, Richard Stouffer, Don Wolf)

Primates square measure sensible models for discovering human issue. organic {research} indistinguishable primates would diminish the hereditary variety of research creatures, thus the measure of creatures need in investigation examines.

Like past natural research tests, Wolf’s group of researchers amalgamated beginning time embryonic cells with enucleated monkey egg cells utilizing somewhat unconditioned reflex.The ensuing embryos were then established into surrogate mothers. Out of twenty-nine cloned incipient organisms, 2 monkeys were conceived. One was a female named Neti, and furthermore the option was a male named Ditto.

This test demonstrated that primates, people’s most elevated relatives, is cloned.

2013 – Human Embryonic Stem Cells Created by Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer (Shoukhrat Mitalipov and Colleagues)

Overcoming decades of technical challenges, Mitalipov and colleagues were the primary to use a cell nuclear transfer to form an individual’s embryo that might be used as a supply of embryonic stem cells. The resulting substantial cell lines were particular to the patient they originated from, a child with an uncommon genetic condition.

In this experiment, researchers took a somatic cell from the patient and united it with a given ovum. Key to the achievement of the examination were adjustments to the way of life fluid amid which the method was done and to the arrangement of electrical heartbeats acclimated fortify the egg to begin isolating.

Following the organic research disceptation of 2004– 2005, amid which South Korean researchers erroneously guaranteed to possess utilized a cell atomic exchange to frame embryonic substantial cell lines, mainstream researchers requested rich more grounded confirmation that the strategy had truly been certain fire.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Cloning

There are a lot of research on this topic about whether cloning is attainable in the near future and the outcome of these researches are fascinating but there are definitely some questions to be talked over.

First of all there is no doubt that the health industry would benefit from these developments in cloning. If people could get access to brand new tissues or organs, they would be much healthier and the life quality of the people would be much higher. For example think about someone using the dialyze machine for the rest of their life every week of the year, they would benefit from a new kidney and save so much of their time.

Another use of cloning is infertile couples. 3 They can use cloning to help them have children without having a problem. This means that having a child with specified attributes can also be seen in the near future but this is another really controversial topic.

On the other hand, there are some big concerns about cloning and its use in the world, first of which is obvious, the technology and science aren’t capable of cloning successfully yet. This also brings a lot of uncertainty to the table and these researches need to be as transparent with the public as it can so the public trust on the cloning issue doesn’t get broken.

Another disadvantage for the cloning is the gene diversity problem. The whole concept of evolution is gene diversity, if any creature has made it this far on the earth, it is because of gene diversity and the possibilities it brings to the species on the earth. Cloning is a process that end up with the same gene order over and over again so it reduce the diversity of the species and this is not a positive step for evolution. 4

Other than that, there is the religious standpoint of the whole cloning issue. People don’t like the fact that there is some scientists that can control the way they are, the way their children is going to be, they think it as people “Playing Gods” 5

As of yet, scientists don’t really have enough data to successfully clone another creature but eventually there will be a point in the future that they are going to be successful in cloning and before that, people need to talk about some ethical topics.

Ethics of Cloning

Ethical issues always come up when cloning is being talked about. For example, first ever mammal cloning was the sheep, Dolly and when the researchers told the world that they achieved some of the greatest advancement that has ever been done in the history, there was an outrage. The media and the US Government was really upset and they shut down the funding for the researches about cloning. Why exactly that such an advancement in technology and science was treated this differently then any other breakthrough? Answer is simple, ethics of the issue.

If we look on the subject in utilitarianism, which means that if it is beneficial for the utilitarianist, he or she supports it. We can see that cloning benefits humanity with new opportunities even if it means that some people might get upset about the way new organs being made but it is a new organ without a donor after all. The STEM cells can be used as a way to benefit all people in the world and it would be a way to get the world a lot healthier.

Another perspective is the virtue ethics. Virtue ethics examine the situation more morally than utilitarianism. Whether cloning is virtuous or not is debatable because the virtue of the people change a lot in the timeline they live in and the cloning is a really sensitive subject. Many people think that giving a dying person another chance to live is morally acceptable but other people think that this actions can’t take place because there is only one god to control humans lives.

Right ethics focuses on the rights of the people and if cloning was attainable right now, how many people could use cloning for their benefits? Is it safe to assume that only the rich could get a hand in the technology? What is the point of having a scientific breakthrough if only the top %1 could benefit from it? All the people in the world should have an equal right to use cloning and from right ethics perspective it is not yet possible.

From duty ethics standpoint, the cloning is really controversial. What is the human duty in life? Should we try to live longer and better or just live as it is and try not to worry about death? There is no clear-cut answers to these questions and the ethics of these issues are really hard to explain.

Another one of the ethical standpoints is religion. Religions mainly believe in a god that created the human kind and cloning stand a little bit threatening against these religions. If another normal human is capable of creating new species or creating newborns there is no doubt that the religion from various parts all over world will deny and get in the way of these technological developments and with the involvement of the religion, the politics will get in the way just like the Dolly experiment.

Furthermore on the cloning mammals and humans is that this procedure can be abused. This technology can be used to get rid of less attractive genes and this can cause to a lot of people feeling second class and this is not ethical. 6

As of now, we can’t really comprehend how human clones will act or will there even be a clone human to make experiments with, but one can be certain that a lot of people will be against them and won’t recognize them as a human being and this can lead to discrimination against clones.

Another ethical dilemma is extinct animals, with cloning we can save them from extinction, it is a real possibility but should we? Is the life cycle on earth our job to protect and even some people might say that the god thinks that they should be extinct and this is also a really controversial ethical problem.

Line Drawing Technique

Problem: Cloning is the process of producing genetically identical tissues, organs or organisms. This process can lead to some scientific breakthroughs but also be used badly and raise some ethical questions while getting used. As of yet there is a lot of ethical and legal problems with cloning but it is a really interesting subject and should be talked about.

Positive Paradigm: Cloning will be the best medical treatment for various health issues.

Negative Paradigm: Cloning is going to affect humanity badly because of religious and legal issues surrounding it and won’t be available to successfully treat diseases.

Hypothetical Examples:

1.     Cloning will lead to humans living longer and longer but going to cause some religious wars.

2.     Cloning will lead to humans getting significantly similar in gene pool and this will cause a lot of diseases among them.

3.     Cloning is going to help a lot of people in need and make them live a happy life.

4.     A power-hungry leader will use cloning for his/her bad intentions.

5.     Cloning will never be attainable with governments embargo and humans won’t be able to achieve cloning.

6.     Cloning will be a success but there will be a huge legal battle and the people in need won’t get a change to use cloning for their health issues.

7.     Cloning will be a huge success but only the rich people in the world will have access to it.

8.     Some couples are going to have a baby with the help of cloning.

 

 

 

 

 

 

As cloning is a work in progress, we can only speculate when we say that cloning will help a lot of people or bring more diseases to humanity, but if we can keep the researches going, soon there will be more opportunities for humans to capitalize on and keep the human kind stronger and better.