Cognitive development can be defined as the growing of our cognition in understanding the universe around us. This growing can be developed bit by bit. in other words. it is seen as a uninterrupted procedure by roll uping more information. Another manner of developing cognitively is through a series of phases which involves some kind of revolution from one period to another in one’s life-time. Jean Piaget. a cognitive developmentalist believed that worlds go through a series of phases in life in order to make their full cognitive ability. In this essay. we would briefly speak about Piaget’s Stage Theory and its unfavorable judgments.
Piaget divided his theory into four different phases of development. The first 1 is known as the sensorimotor phase which is applied to babies for about the first two old ages of their lives. At this phase. babies discover the universe chiefly by their senses and actions. One of the chief constructs Piaget penned is object permanency. This is the cognition of the being of objects even when we can non straight feel it. Piaget suggested that babes lack this construct through his survey ; A non B undertaking. In this survey. the experimenter hides a plaything under Box A so the babe would seek for it under Box A.
This process was repeated and finally in forepart of the babe. the experimenter hid the plaything under Box B. The babe searched for it under Box A alternatively of B even though they saw the experimenter hid it under Box B. Therefore. this survey shows that the babe lacked the construct of object permanency. They are known to be in a province of solipsism. besides known as the failure to distinguish between themselves and the milieus. Based on observation conducted on his ain kids ( 1952 ) . Piaget divided this phase into six different bomber phases. However. Piaget’s claims on object permanency have been criticized.
Baillargeon et Al. ( 1985 ) found in their research that infants every bit immature as three-and-a-half months have developed the ability of object permanency. This was backed up by Bower & A ; Wishart ( 1972 ) whereby they discovered that even after the visible radiations were switched away. the babes continued to seek for the object shown. Hence. they do possess the ability of object permanency. The 2nd phase is the preoperational phase which occurs when the kid is aged 2 to 7. On this phase. the kid solves jobs by utilizing symbols and develops the accomplishment for linguistic communications.
Harmonizing to Piaget. the kid is egoistic which means he sees the universe from his point of view but non others. The solution to this is to use operational intelligence. The procedure of work outing jobs by utilizing logic. Another construct which Piaget is concerned with is preservation. It is the understanding that any measure remains the same even if physical alterations is made to the objects keeping the medium. In add-on to these constructs. centration. besides defined as the focal point on a individual facet of a job at a clip. Piaget provinces that at this phase. the kid fails to decenter.
Conversely. Borke and Hughes ( 1975 ) found beliing grounds against Piaget’s on his survey of the three mountains task. They used the same elements of the undertaking and discovered that kids had no job with placing the positions of the others when the undertaking is shown in a meaningful context. Hence. from the consequence obtained. Hughes found that the kids did non expose any features of being egoistic. Furthermore. Gelman ( 1979 ) found in his survey that four twelvemonth olds altered their accounts of things to acquire their message across clearer to a blindfolded hearer.
If Piaget’s construct of egoism was right so. this shouldn’t have happened. In add-on. Flavell suggested an option to this issue by coining the Level 1 and Level 2 perspective-taking abilities. In Level 1. one thinks about sing objects but non the different positions that can be seen of the objects while in Level 2. one is able to conceive of the positions of the objects from different angles. Flavell concluded that it is non mandatory that kids think others portion the same position as themselves but they do fight to conceive of what others can see.
Therefore. this shows that Piaget’s claim on egoism could be right or incorrect. Furthermore. in Donaldson’s Children’s Minds ( 1978 ) . she argued that kids misunderstood the inquiries which Piaget asked while carry oning the surveies. This was the ground why Piaget obtained the consequences in his surveies affecting the construct of preservation particularly. Donaldson stated that Piaget’s undertakings had no meaningful context for the kids to understand. hence they answered what they thought the experimenter expected of them. This claim was supported by Rose & A ; Blank ( 1974 ) where they found kids frequently succeeded in the preservation undertaking.
Further research was done by Samuel & A ; Bryant ( 1978 ) who used preservation of figure. liquid measure and substance and obtained similar decision with Rose & A ; Blank’s. Donaldson besides stated that kids were accidentally forced to bring forth the incorrect reply against their ain logical judgement. One of the accounts is that the same inquiry was asked repeatedly before and after transmutations presented to them and this in bend caused the kids to believe that their original reply was incorrect. Therefore. the thought of kids presuming the fact that world alterations harmonizing to visual aspect could be wrong.
In add-on. Piaget may hold underestimated a child’s cognitive ability because based on Mitchell & A ; Robinson’s ( 1992 ) survey ; they demonstrated that kids from the age of 4 could turn up the correct reply to a solution by call offing out the options. This procedure is besides known as illation by riddance. The kids were presented with a set of sketch characters. three of which were well-known. They were asked to place a superhero which was unknown. The research workers discovered that bulk of the kids selected the unknown character without uncertainty.
Another illustration of a child’s ability is their capableness with syllogisms which consists of logical jobs accompanied by a general regulation that enables people to make a statement. Dias and Harris ( 1990 ) stated a general regulation that all fish live in trees and Tiddles is a fish. so it is logical to presume that Tiddles live in trees. After showing this to the kids. they insisted that Tiddles lives in the H2O alternatively. However. after the experimenters presented them with another regulation. they were ready to utilize the regulation to do illations.
Therefore. these groundss show that Piaget may hold underestimated the abilities of younger kids. Subsequently is the phase of concrete operation which happens to kids around the age of 7 to 12. Now the kid is able to work out their jobs in a logical mode but the job has to be either existent or concrete. The concluding phase ; formal operations which takes topographic point when the kid turns 12 and go on into their maturity. In this phase. one would be able to work out jobs consistently and logically even if the job is a conjectural state of affairs.
Wason and Johnson-Laird showed that most intelligent grownups do non carry through Piaget’s ideal cognitively developed individual through choice undertaking. This claim is proved in Cheng and Holyoak’s ( 1985 ) survey where the consequences strongly show that bulk of the participants does non expose the logical thinking of an grownup in the phase of formal operations. In other words. this experiment is a clear indicant that the formal operations phase does non be. One of the critics of Piaget’s Stage Theory in general is John Flavell ( 1982 ) who claimed that Piaget did non specify the cognitive procedures clearly.
Furthermore. Braine and Rumain ( 1983 ) who conducted an analysis on the contents and the construction of the theory found that Piaget’s theory could be flawed. These are merely the few critics of Piaget’s Stage Theory. Therefore. the theory is invariably being questioned due to its impact in the field of cognitive psychological science. After saying the basic facts of the theory every bit good as giving some illustrations of the critics of Piaget’s constructs and thoughts. we are now able to acquire an overview of the argument. Overall. there are groundss which propose some of the constructs to be reviewed once more and possibly even rejected.
However. from the researches conducted on Piaget’s theory every bit good as the impact of it. alternate theories were penned down. For illustration. Vygotsky’s theory which takes on a more societal based position of depicting the cognitive development. In decision. Piaget’s theory have been applied in assorted establishments particularly education but it is besides being criticized by many in the field. hence. it is merely just to reason that Piaget’s theory may necessitate to be modified in order to make a more accurate theory to explicate the manner we understand the universe.