In this essay we are to compare and contrast communism and fascism. The two are alike in some ways but they were never meant to be alike therefore they are very different from each other. Communism is a theoretical economic system of a political movement based on common ownership and the means of production. Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels were both socialists who believed that communism was desirable for a system of government because it implies the full realization of freedom. They believed that with communism, people could do anything they wanted and nobody would be oppressed.
Socialism and communism were often used interchangeably in the late 18th century. Still both Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels realized that socialism was a stage leading up to communism. There were still class differences in socialism and they believed that communism would be the last stage of society with no class differences, freedom for everyone, and no government. A lot of people in Russia were very pleased with this thinking, accepting it and hoping that soon their country would become communist. They believed that if there was freedom for them and at the same time no government or class differences, they could all live in agreement.
Fascism was the authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. It was the system of government that exercised a dictatorship of the extreme right. It combined the elements of totalitarian, nationalism, militarism, and anti-Communism. It was opposed to socialism, liberalism, democracy and individualism. Basically, fascism was that the government had all authority, they governed and controlled every single person in the country. Fascist state had control over all aspects of political, social, cultural, and economic life. As you can see, Fascism was the complete opposite of ommunism. While communism is the ideology that there should be freedom for all people and no government or class differences, the ideology of fascism was that the government had complete control over all people and their lives. In the beginning many people accepted these two ideas as good ideas. For communism, many people thought it was a great idea because it was meant to give them complete freedom with no government ruling over them or no class differences. For fascism, it gained a lot of political support from different people like businesses, farmers, and even the poor because they were promised work and bread.
However later on most people rejected these two ideas. There were many criticisms of communism especially during the time Trotsky was ruling the Soviet Union. Many people agreed with the communist principles such as freedom for the people and no government, but the communist policies were different and the people were opposed to these policies. One example was violating the human rights in Communist states. Even though communism promised freedom for people there were restrictions on freedom of speech. Stalin even violated human rights by executing and killing people.
For Fascism, the people of the middle class in Italy were worried and scared. There were many economical, political and cultural pressures especially since it was right before the war, which meant the people were suffering from postwar depression. But Mussolini used their fears concerning the survival of capitalism and there were lots of feelings of national shame and humiliation. So in the end Communism and Fascism are alike in some ways, but they were never meant to be alike. Communism and fascism are very, very different from each other.