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Transfection is a process that introduces foreign nucleic acids into cells to bring forth genetically modified cells. There are three chief classs of transfection methods, Biological, Chemical and Physical. In this study the chemical and physical transfection methods will be compared i.e. Physical- Liposome, Calcium Phosphate and Physical- Electroporation. The ground why the biological method was non carried out is that this method is potentially risky to laboratory forces.

The chief intent of transfection is to analyze the map of cistrons or cistron merchandises, by heightening or suppressing specific cistron look in cells, and to bring forth recombinant proteins in mammalian cells i.e. cistron therapy presenting a cistron of involvement into cells to bring around a disease or better symptoms. ( Tae Kyung 2010 ) .The transfected cistron can either be stably tranfected or can transiently transfected. Transeunt transfection is where the cistron is expressed for a short period of clip and is non introduced in the genome ; this is chiefly used for fast analysis of cistrons and for little graduated table protein production. Stable transfection on the other manus is a changeless look of the cistron whereby the cistron is integrated into the genome ; this is long term, consistent and has a good defined cistron look. This is used for big scale production, drug find and cistron therapy. ( Adtogen 2007 )

Chemical transfection methods: Lipofectamine and Calcium Phosphate:

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Chemical transfection methods are the most widely used methods were the first to be used to present foreign cistrons into mammalian cells. Chemical methods normally use cationic polymer Ca phosphate, cationic lipoid and cationic amino acid. This works on the footing of positively charged chemicals make composites with negatively charged nucleic acids i.e. the Deoxyribonucleic acid.These positively charged composites are attracted to the negatively charged cell membrane. It is still unknown as to how the composites pass the cell membrane, endocytosis and phagocytosis are believed in be involved in the procedure. The tranfected Deoxyribonucleic acid must be bringing to the karyon to be expressed and this once more is unknown.

Physical Transfection methods: Electroporation:

This method is comparatively new this includes direct micro injection, biolistic atom bringing, electroporation, and laser-based transfection. In this study electroporation is the physical method to be used. This involves short electrical pulsations that disturbs the cell membranes and do holes in the membrane which the Deoxyribonucleic acid can go through through. This is a really speedy and easy method. Electroporation is the most normally used method for transfection of mammalian cells.

The intent of GFP ( Green fluorescent protein ) is that this protein is a marker ; this enables one to find if the cistron of involvement has been tranfected. The protein glows green under UV visible radiation. GFP has many different utilizations i.e.

Quantify the look degree of a mark protein

Determine mark proteins solubility

Discover which domains of a protein are soluble

Evaluate how a protein interacts with other proteins ( protein – protein interaction )

Uncover the consequence a little molecule on the proteins turn uping ( Lol Alomos 2009 )

Methods and Materials: Refer to readying books


Table 1: Concentration selected for ampicillin G418.


Concentration Selected

Ampicillin G418


The above tabular array shows the concentration selected of ampicillin G418 of the choice of tranfected cells. This was selected out of a assortment of different concentration runing from 100-1000 ug/ml ( kill curve ) of Ampicillin G418 and carried out over 14 yearss.

Table 2. Concentration of GFP and Insulin GFP

Concentration of GFP

Concentration GFP Insulin

0.25 I?g/ul

0.07 I?g/ul

The above tabular array shows the concentration of GFP ( control ) and GFP Insulin, this is of import to cognize when transporting out different dilutions of assorted transfection methods. The concentration values were converted from ug to ul as seen in table 3 and tabular array.

Table 3: Lipofectamine Data consequences.

Dilution Ratio

Deoxyribonucleic acid: Lipofectamine

Viability of CHO cells ( % )

Transfection efficiency ( % )

Degree of look ( % )


95 %

15 %

10 % high degree, 5 % low degree


90 %

10 %

5 % high degree. 5 % low degree


85 %

10 %

5 % high degree, 5 % low degree

The above tabular array indicates the dilution ratios, Viability of CHO cells, transfection efficiency and the degree of look of this.

Table 4: Calcium Phosphate informations consequences:

Dilution no.

Measure of GFP

Viability of CHO cells ( % )

Transfection efficiency ( % )

Degree of look ( % )



80 %

0 %

0 %



75 %

0 %

0 %



80 %

0 %

0 %

Table 5: Electroporation informations consequences:

Cell Viability ( % )

Transfection efficiency ( % )

Degree of look ( % )


5 %

0 %

0 %


100 %

0 %

0 %

The above tabular array indicates the measure of GFP added to the assorted dilutions, the viability of CHO cells, the transfection efficiency and the degree of look.


The insulin plasmid and GFP which were already genetically modified was inserted into a vector i.e. E.coli, the GFP and the insulin were already inserted into the plasmid at this phase. This is carried out to let the plasmid to turn and retroflex. The E.coli merely houses the plasmid. The remotion of the plasmid from the E.coli bacterial cells is carried out utilizing a spin column, this technique involves centrifugating the E.coli bacterial cell down legion times and flinging the supernatant until the insulin plasmid/GFP is left. The plasmid is so measured to find the size, the plasmids concentration is besides determined utilizing a spectrometer as seen in table 2.The plasmid when contained in the vector was gown on Principen to get opposition to this for the choice of tranfected cells from the non tranfected cells further down the line. The concentration of the Principen i.e. G418 to be used was determined utilizing a “ putting to death curve ” . This was carried out over 14 yearss utilizing assorted concentrations runing from 100-1000 mg/ml of G418, twenty-four hours 0-7 and twenty-four hours 7-14 the cells were observed for viability/shape and general wellness utilizing a microscope and the minimal concentration of G418 was determined as stated in table 1.

Three transfection methods were used:

Liposome mediated transfection

Calcium Phosphate mediated transfection

Electroporation mediated transfection

Lipofectamine 2000:

From the above informations in table 3, this indicates that the 1:1 ratio of plasmids to Lipofectamine 2000 proved to be the most efficient with really small cell decease as compared to the other two ratios. In fig 1 below there is really high degree of low degree transfection and there are besides high degrees of high transfection as indicated by the pointers. This is obvious as the brighter the cell glows the higher the transfection efficiency is at that place, intending the CHO cells are showing the GFP. In the 1:2 and 1:3 ratios at that place showed to be a 5 % degree of transfection of both high and low, bespeaking the higher the measure of Lipofectamine 2000 does non increase the degree of look but merely diminish the viability of the CHO cells.

Fig 2 shows the stage image from the fluorescent microscope this shows huge measure of unrecorded cells bespeaking that the lipofectamine 2000 in little measures did non impact the cells as it did in the 1:2 and 1:3 ratios as indicated in table 3

Fig 1: 1:1 GFP ( fluorescent microscope )

Low degrees of look.

High degrees of look.

The above diagram indicates the high degree of transfection i.e. CHO cells are glowing bright green significance there are showing the GFP in much big measures than the lower degree of look.

Fig 1: 1:1 Phase

The above diagram illustrates the huge measure of unrecorded cells, the CHO cells here are in good wellness, based on form and distributing efficiencies.

Calcium Phosphate:

From the above informations in table 4 this shows there was no transfection in any of the three different dilutions.

In the first and 2nd dilution at that place showed to be high degrees of cell viability and precipitate formation, although there was no mark of any transfection.

In the instance of the 3rd dilution, there was no transfection ; this was due to the Ca chloride which was non added to the plasmid DNA. This was obvious as there were no phosphate precipitates which indicate the composites between the DNA plasmid and the Ca chloride. Fig 3 below illustrates the 3rd dilution of a co-worker ‘s transfection utilizing calcium chloride ; here it is obvious there are high degrees of transfection as indicated by the bright green coloring material of the CHO cells intending there is really high degree of look of the GFP. In this 3rd dilution there is 80 % transfection efficiency – 50 % of which is high degrees of look and 30 % low degree look. Fig 4 illustrates the stage of the 3rd dilution under the microscope ; here it is clear this is high degree of cells viability as indicated in table 4.

High degrees of look.

Fig 3: GFP 3rd dilution

Low degrees of look.

Fig 3 illustrates the huge measure if transfection, arrow 1 indicates the high degree of look as the CHO cells are glowing a much brighter coloring material than arrow 2 which indicates the low degree of look.

Fig 4: GFP stage

Fig 4 illustrates the huge bulk of life cells, the cells here are wellness, and this is based on the size form and distributing efficiency of the cells.

Fig 5: Deoxyribonucleic acid Control Fig 6: Calcium Phosphate Control

Fig 5 and Fig 6 were the controls used in this experiment, fig 5 shows the CHO cells are wellness with good spreading exhibited, the CHO cells are non affect by the DNA. Fig 6 shows the CHO cells in Ca phosphate, the cells are non affect by this, there are healthy with good spreading exhibited


The above informations in table 5 shows at that place was no transfection in the sample and the bulk of the cells died due to the force of the electroporation procedure, electroporation plants on the footing of short electrical pulsations that disturbs the cell membranes and do holes in the membrane which the Deoxyribonucleic acid can go through through and this accordingly killed the cells. The control contained the DNA plasmid and media but did non travel through the procedure of electroporation and there was no transfection but the cells were integral and healthy.

Comparison of the three different transfection methods.

From the informations provided i.e. tabular arraies 4, 5, 6 it is clear that the Ca phosphate mediated transfection showed to give the highest degree of transfection and look degrees, in stating that the % viability was somewhat better in the lipofectamine transfection and in this all the three different dilutions showed to give a certain degree of transfection and look than that of Ca phosphate in which merely one of the dilutions showed to be effectual. In contrast between lipofectamine and the Ca phosphate method, a lower measure of lipofectamine showed to give the greatest transfection efficiency with the GFP remaining changeless than with the Ca phosphate in which the highest degrees of GFP showed to give the highest degree of transfection with the Ca chloride remaining changeless. In the liposome transfection, the measure of lipofectamine 2000 could be reduced even further and this may bring forth a higher degree of look as lipofectamine can be toxic to cells. The same can be said for the Ca phosphate transfection ; here the measure of GFP could be increased to further increase the degree of transfection and the looks degrees.

The electroporation showed to hold no transfection efficiency ; this was due to the electroporation setup used in which the electromotive force was far excessively high for that of mammalian cells, the setup used is typically used for procaryotes i.e. bacteriums which can prolong a much electromotive force. Ideally the electromotive force should hold been around 0.1 kVs as opposed to 2.4 kVs that were used in this transfection method.

A alteration that could be made to give a much higher degree of transfection and degrees of look would be to transport out the transfection methods in 96 good home bases with the same measure and dilutions and this finally could increase the transfection ability.


From the three methods of transfection carried out the method with the overall greatest transfection efficiency and degree of look is the Ca phosphate medicated transfection, although it merely achieved this in one dilution it expressed a high degree of the GFP. The overall intent of the assorted dilutions was to find the most optimal dilution factor which in this instance was 15ul GFP to 6ul Ca chloride.


Tae Kyung Kim and James H. Eberwine. ( 2010 ) . fection: the present and the future.A Analytical Tools for Cell Research. 397 ( 8 ) , 3167-3430.

Adtogen Biosystems. ( 2007 ) .A Transient and Stable Transfection.Available: hypertext transfer protocol: // Last accessed 06th Nov 2010.

lol Alomos. ( 2009 ) .A Green Fluorescent Protein ( GFP ) Toolbox.A Available: hypertext transfer protocol: // . Last accessed 06th Nov 2010.