Brainsick Horse Essay, Research PaperBrainsick Horse When I think back of the narratives that I have heard about howthe Native American Indians were driven from their land andforced to populate on the reserves one peculiar event comes tomy head. That event is the Battle of the Little Big Horn. It isone of the few times that the Oglala Sioux made history with thembeing the 1s who left the battleground as victors. When storiesare told, or when the media dares to fiddle with history, it isusually the American Indians who are looked upon as the bad guys.They are portrayed as barbarians who spent their clip busting wagontrains and scalping the white colonists merely for merriment. The mediahas lead us to believe that the American authorities was forced totake the land from these barbarian Indians.
We should set the blamewhere it belongs, on the U.S. Government who lied, cheated, andstole from the Oglala coercing Crazy Horse, the great war head, and many other leaders to give up their state in order to savethe lives of their people.
In the 19th century the most dominant state in thewestern fields was the Sioux Nation. This state was divided intoseven folks: Oglala & # 8217 ; s, Brule & # 8217 ; , Minneconjou, Hunkpapa, No Bow, Two Kettle, and the Blackfoot. Of these folks they had differentband. The Hunkpatila was one set of the Oglala & # 8217 ; s.
One of the greatest war heads of all times came from thisband. His name was Brainsick Horse. Crazy Horse was non given this name, on his birth day of the month inthe autumn of 1841. He was born of his male parent, Crazy Horse anOglala sanctum adult male, and his female parent a sister of a Brule & # 8217 ; warrior, Patched Tail. As the male child grew older his hair was wavy so his people gave him the moniker of Curly. He was togo by Curly until the summer of 1858, after a conflict with theArapaho & # 8217 ; s. Curly & # 8217 ; s brave charged against the Arapaho & # 8217 ; s led hisfather to give Curly the name Crazy Horse. This was the name ofhis father and of many male parents before him.
In the 1850 & # 8217 ; s, the state where the Sioux Nation lived, wasbeing invaded by the white colonists. This was upsetting for manyof the folks. They did non understand the ways of the whites.
When the Whites tore into the land with ploughs and hunted thesacred American bison merely for the fells this went against the moraleand spiritual beliefs of the Sioux. The white authorities began tobuild garrisons. In 1851, Fort Laramie was built along the NorthPlatte river in Sioux district. In 1851, the colonists began kicking of the Indians who would non let them to travel where they wanted. U.S.
Agents drew upa pact that required the Indians to give safe transition to thewhite colonists along the Oregon Trail. In return the governmentpromised annual supplies of guns, ammo, flour, sugar, java, baccy, covers, and bacon. These supplies were to be provided for 55 old ages. Ten thousand Sioux gathered at thefort to listen to the words of the white authorities and to beshowered with gifts. In add-on the pact wanted the Indians toallow all colonists to traverse their lands.
They were to split theplains into separate districts and each folk was non to crossthe boundary line of their district. The pact besides wanted no wars tobe waged on other folks. They wanted each Indian state tochoose a leader that would talk for the full state. ManyIndians did non like this pact and merely after hebdomads of briberydid the Whites eventually convert a ample group of leaders to subscribe. The Oglala & # 8217 ; s were among those who refused ( Matthiessen 6 ) . This Treaty nevertheless did non halt the problem between theIndians and the colonists.
The Indians nevertheless, did non causeviolent problem, they would possibly near a covered waggon totrade or extract gifts of nutrient. The most audacious warrior might do away with a metal pot or pan but nil violent like thebooks and films lead us to believe. The straw that broke the camels back took topographic point on August17, 1854 when the dealingss between the Indians and White persons wereshattered. Among the colonists heading West was a group of Mormonsand as they were go throughing, a few stat mis south of Fort Laramie, anIndian stole a cow. The Mormons reported this to Lieutenant HughB.
Fleming, the commanding officer of the station. Fleming demanded that theoffender, High Forehead of the Minneconjou, face charges. ChiefConquering Bear suggested that the Mormons come to his herd of ponies and pick out the best pony he had to replace the cow, which to the Sioux these ponies were their wealth. This seemed tobe a really gracious offer. Fleming would non hold and sentLieutenant John L. Grattan to convey back the warrior. WhenGrattan arrived at Conquering Bears cantonment, he was given anotheroffer. This clip they could take five ponies from five herdsamong the folks.
Grattan refused and began to open fire. This hideous act of war was non calledfor. The Mormons would hold certainly been satisfied with the poniesor the money the ponies would hold bought. The authorities justdid non desire to maintain the Indian-White relationship peaceful.Crazy Horse, so called Curly, was merely 13 when thesoldiers and the Indians fought. The Indians outnumbered the soldiers and won the conflict. Brainsick Horse finally became a leader of his people.
Intoday & # 8217 ; s society our leaders are given money and gifts but in thetimes of Crazy Horse it was about the antonym. He was expectedto unrecorded modestly, maintain merely what he needed and give off therest. After runing he would give the needy the choicest meat andkeep the wiry meat for himself.
He did nevertheless, have the honorand prestigiousness that allowed him to do the determinations for the folk. Equally good as other Sioux leaders, Crazy Horse lead his peopleinto the Powder River state. The ground for this move was toleave behind the ways of the white adult male and go on populating theways of the Sioux.
The white adult male had brought to their countrysickness, spirits and damaging life styles much different from thelifestyles of the Sioux. In 1865, U.S. functionaries wanted to obtain land from theIndians.
They offered many different payoffs, such as gifts andliquor, to the Indians who lived around the garrisons. They were really good at doing the sell of land seem impermanent and they convincedmany that what the right thing to make was sell. The land theywanted was entree land into the Powder River state. Thegovernment did non hold the fortune they needed in obtaining theland with money or payoff. So in the summer of 1865 they sentmore than two thousand soldiers from Fort Laramie into the PowderRiver state. In 1866 the authorities, cognizing that the land they wantedwas deserving much more, offered the Sioux 15 thousand dollarsannually for entree into Powder River state. The Indians didallow Whites to utilize the Bozeman Trail merely as they allowedimmigrants to utilize the Holy Road. The U.
S. Government had an duty to protect its citizens but non to arouse a crisis.They did make a crisis when they established garrisons in the heartof Oglala district. After suppressing the Confederates the U.S.
Army was full of optimism and wanted urgently to hold an allout war to kill off the Sioux. Although the Indians wereallowing the Whites to utilize the Bozeman Trail, the authorities wasnot satisfied. They wanted the legal right to utilize the trail. E.
B.Taylor, a authorities agent at one of the Indian Offices, tricked some of the Indian Leaders into traveling to Fort Laramie in1866 for a pact. He intentionally attempted to lead on them ; hesaid nil about edifice garrisons along the trail, merely that theywanted to utilize the Bozeman Trail. He offered them guns, ammo, gifts plus money. The Indians did non sell ( Ambrose213-214 ) . In June 1867, the authorities functionaries produced a newtreaty. This pact, like all the 1s before, merely promisedlavish gifts to those who would subscribe.
One of the Oglala heads, Red Cloud, wanted more for his state than the simple giftsoffered. He wanted the military personnels to travel fromthe garrisons ; Reno, Philkearny and C.F. Smith. During the summer of 1868 his requestwas accepted. The military personnels moved. A civil war hero William TecumsehSherman moved into the district as the new commanding officer of the fields.
He had programs to acquire the pact signed. His hopes were to, close up the congressional critics, acquire the Sioux to hold on atreaty and keep the army’s morale. After dialogues weremade Red Cloud lead one hundred-and 25 leaders of theSioux states to subscribe the pact of 1868. This pact guaranteed “absolute and undisturbed usage of the Great Sioux Reservation. Noperson shall of all time be permitted to go through over, settle upon, orreside in district described in this article, or withoutconsent of the Indians pass through the same” ( Matthiessen 7-8 ) .
This pact besides stated that the runing rights on the landbetween the Black Hills and the Big Horn Mountains “as long asthe grass shall turn and the H2O flows” . ( Guttmacher 73 ) . Itforced the Indians to be husbandmans and live in houses. There couldbe no alterations made to the pact without three fourths of alladult males of the Sioux state holding ( Ambrose 282 ) . The Indians had divided into those who agreed with thetreaty, the “friendly” and those who wanted nil to make withthe pact, the “hostile” .
The U.S. authorities did non recognizethese separate groups. They forbid trade with the Powder RiverIndians until all Indians moved to the reserve.
This was notin the Treaty of 1868, ( Guttmacher 76 ) . Even though the authorities was acquiring the best portion of thetreaty they were non satisfied with advancement. In 1871 the IndianAppropriation Bill was passed which stated “hereafter no Indiannation or tribe within the United States shall be acknowledgedor recognized as an independent state, folk or power with whomthe U.S. may contract by treaty” ( Matthiessen 7-8 ) . General Armstrong Custer was appointed as the new commanderof the fields. He led the Seventh Calvary on a mission to subduea set of hostile Cheyenne.
The calvary came across an Indianvillage and attacked them alternatively. Black Kettle, the head of thevillage and his married woman were killed as they rode to give up. Thiskilling of 100 Cheyenne, largely adult females and kids, and 800ponies was advertised as Custer’s triumph against the brutalsavages ( Guttmacher 81-82 ) . The U.S.
Army led an expedition into the Sioux territory.According to the Treaty of 1868 this expedition was non legal.The expedition was to study land for the Northern PacificRailroad.
The railway meant advancement. ( Guttmacher 81 ) . Since the civil war the American economic system was booming.Railroad stocks led the manner. On, September 18 1873, bankingcrashed.
Farm monetary values plummeted, grasshopper plaques ruined harvests, xanthous febrility struck in the Mississippi Valley, and unemploymentwent sky high. The authorities figured that it’s function was to pourmoney into the economic system. The gold supply was insufficient.President Grants solution to the economic system was to open newterritory for geographic expedition. So in the spring of 1874 military personnels weresent to open a garrison in the Black Hills.
The authorities, exaggerated at the best or lied at the worst, said the Indianswere non maintaining up their portion of the pact. Custer was incharge of this expedition. During this expedition Custer claimedthat there was gold in the Black Hills. Grant looked at this asan chance to demo the state he could draw them from thedepression and he opened the Black Hills for prospecting. Thisbroke the pact of 1868 once more ( Ambrose 343-346 ) . The Black Hillswas a sacred topographic point to the Sioux. It was a topographic point where spiritsdwelled, a holy topographic point called Pa Sapa by the Sioux. The Whites hadonly the crudest construct of what the hills meant to the Indians.
By 1876 10 thousand Whites lived in Custer City, the frontiertown of the southern Black Hills. Agency Indians were non livingvery good on the reserves. Government agents were corrupt.They would accept morbid cowss, rotten flour and wormy corn.They would acquire a kickback on the net incomes.
The Indians wereundernourished and even hungering. The agents besides claimed theIndians exaggerated in their Numberss merely to have morerations. However, in a nose count conducted by the authorities tryingto prove this, they found that the Indians were really claimingless ( Ambrose 359 ) . In 1876, the bureaus were taken from the churches and givento the ground forces to command. This was petitioned to Washington with statements that soldiers were objectionable and their disfavor forIndians was really obvious.
Besides the ground forces was perverting theIndians by presenting and promoting intoxicant and gaming. Thepetition besides stated that all the bureau problems had been causeddirectly or indirectly by the soldiers. No alteration in policy wasdone on behalf of these requests ( Kadlecek 33 ) .
Unwilling to pay for the Black Hills and unable to defeatthe Sioux in war, on August, 15, 1876 Congress passed the SiouxAppropriation Bill. This measure stated that farther provisionswould non be given to the Sioux until the hostiles gave up theBlack Hills, Powder River state and Bighorn state. They wouldalso have to travel to the Missouri River in Central Dakota or toOklahoma.
Upset because of there get the better of the Government demandedunconditional resignation of the Sioux or they would hunger thosein the bureaus. Red Cloud and the other heads were told to signa pact or their people would hunger. Crazy Equus caballus and SittingBull continued to contend for land that was stolen from them in amisleading pact ( Ambrose 417-418 ) . The Treaty of 1876 was notsigned by at least three fourths of the male members of the Sioux state as the Treaty of 1868 had stipulated. So they cheated bycalling the pact an “Agreement” alternatively of a pact. The authorities had changed or disturbed about every portion ofthe Indians lives.
They had taken their Equus caballuss ( their wealth ) , taken their land, taken the American bison and taken their tepee. Theystill had their faith. They had seven ceremonial rites ofwhich two were the most good ; the Vision Quest and the SunDance. The Vision pursuit was an single dance and the Sun Dancea community matter. In June 1877 the biggest Sun Dance seen onthe reserve, twenty 1000 strong, was held to honour CrazyHorse. This was the last large Sun Dance ( Kadlecek 37-42 ) . Brainsick Horse was eventually persuaded to convey his people in tolive on the reserve. Brainsick Equus caballus was lied to when agovernment functionary told him that he was needed at a conference.
He realized this was a trap when he saw bars on the Windowss. Hedrew his knife and attempted to interrupt loose. A white soldier, William Gentiles, lunged at Crazy Horse with a fixed bayonet thatpunctured his kidney. Brainsick Horse died September, 5 1877. The Sioux Indians had lost about everything that made thema strong state.
In 1881 the authorities prohibited allreservations from leting the Sun Dance. The authorities went against the First Amendment and took away the Sioux’s greatestreligious ceremonial. General Sherman, ne’er known as an Indianlover, said a reserve was “a package of land inhabited byIndians and surrounded by thieves” ( Matthiessen 17 ) . This type ofharassment did non halt. In 1887 the General Allotment Act ( theDawes Act ) was passed. This Act was designed to help the Indians to mainstream into America. Each male Indian was given160 estates of land from the reserve.
Of class the surplus landwas taken by the authorities and sold to the Whites. The Indianswere non accustom to covering with stealers and the majorityof them lost their land through fly-by-night traffics. The U.S. Government used many misrepresentations to obtain the landthe Indians one time owned. The Sioux Indians were non treated withthe most respect to state the least. They must be commended forstaying strong and still being a large portion of the United Statestoday.
Debo, Angie.History of the Indians of the US. Norman, OK. Oklahoma Press, 1970