Review On Whether God Exists Essay, Research Paper
& # 8220 ; Whether God Exists & # 8221 ;
Countless philosophers since the beginning of recorded history have pondered the inquiry of whether God exists. One such philosopher, Saint Thomas Aquinas, put forth his ain theory on the being of God. In his text & # 8220 ; Whether God Exists & # 8221 ; , he stated that through his five statements he could turn out God & # 8217 ; s being. His five statements are from gesture, from first efficient cause, from possibility and necessity, from step, and from design.
Aquinas begins his text with two expostulations as to why God does non be. The first provinces that God does non be because the word & # 8220 ; God & # 8221 ; has the significance of infinite goodness. Therefore, if God really existed there would be no immorality in this universe. Because there is evil, God can non be. The 2nd expostulation provinces that all natural things can be attributed to grounds other than God & # 8217 ; s being. The expostulation states that natural things are the consequence of human ground or will, without demand for God & # 8217 ; s being.
Aquinas so goes on to explicate his first statement, the statement from gesture. In this he states that it is apparent to everyone that certain things are in gesture, and were put into gesture by something. He defines gesture to be & # 8220 ; & # 8230 ; the decrease of something from a province of potency into a province of actuality & # 8230 ; & # 8221 ; ( Bowie, 58, Col.1 ) . Aquinas gives an illustration of this in his text. He states that something that is really every bit hot as fire will do the potentially hot piece of wood really hot. Furthermore he states that it is non possible to be in a province of actuality and potency at the same clip from the same point of position. From different points of position, nevertheless, this is possible. In the instance of the wood, it can be really hot while at the same clip being potentially cold. With this he is fundamentally stating that nil has the ability to travel itself. Harmonizing to Aquinas, everything has been put into gesture by an original force or first mover, and this he believes to be God.
Aquinas & # 8217 ; 2nd statement is the statement from the formality of efficient causing. In this he states that there is an order of efficient causes in things that occur. Aquinas says that there is no grounds & # 8220 ; & # 8230 ; in which a thing is found to be the efficient cause of itself & # 8230 ; & # 8221 ; ( Bowie, 58, Col.2 ) . He states that there must be a first cause, which creates one or more intermediate causes, which so in bend creates an ultimate cause. Harmonizing to Aquinas, without a cause, there can be no consequence. Therefore without a first cause, there can non be an intermediate or ultimate cause, or an ultimate consequence. So harmonizing to Aquinas, there must hold been some First Efficient Cause, which he claims is God.
Aquinas & # 8217 ; 3rd statement is from possibility and necessity. In this Aquinas states that things that can one twenty-four hours discontinue to be could non hold ever existed. Aquinas says & # 8220 ; & # 8230 ; if everything could discontinue to be, so at one clip there could hold been nil in existence. & # 8221 ; ( Bowie, 59, Col.1 ) . He stated that if this were true so there would be nil in being now. This is because harmonizing to Aquinas, if nil had existed, there would be nil at that place to get down to be. So hence, harmonizing to Aquinas, there must be some being in being that has ever been at that place. This something has its ain necessity and causes necessity I
n others. This being he believes to be God.
Aquinas & # 8217 ; 4th statement is from step. Aquinas says that & # 8220 ; Among existences there are some more and some less good, true, baronial, and the similar & # 8221 ; ( Bowie, 59, Col.1 ) . But he states that more and less are dependent on the grade of most. An illustration he gives was that to be hotter, there has to be something that is hottest to judge it by. Aquinas besides says & # 8220 ; as fire & # 8230 ; is the most complete signifier of heat & # 8230 ; there must besides be something which to all existences is the cause of their being & # 8230 ; & # 8221 ; ( Bowie, 59, Col.2 ) , and harmonizing to him, that something is God. He is thought of as the best, truest, and noblest being who is the cause for us being here.
Aquinas & # 8217 ; fifth and concluding statement is from the administration of the universe, or merely set, design. He states that things in nature that lack intelligence act in a certain manner to obtain the best consequence, which is to last. As Aquinas says, & # 8220 ; & # 8230 ; non fortunately, but intentionally & # 8230 ; they achieve their purpose. & # 8221 ; ( Bowie, 59, Col.2 ) . He states that these things that lack intelligence can non accomplish their intent without being directed by & # 8220 ; & # 8230 ; some being endowed with intelligence and knowledge. & # 8221 ; ( Bowie, 59, Col.2 ) . Aquinas concludes that this being which gives intent to certain things in nature must be, and harmonizing to him this being is God.
After suggesting his five statements, Aquinas offers his answer to the two expostulations as stated in the beginning. To the first expostulation, he states that the immorality in the universe is all a portion of His program. He says that & # 8220 ; & # 8230 ; He [ God ] should let immoralities to be, and out of it produce good. & # 8221 ; ( Bowie, 59. Col.2 ) . To the 2nd expostulation, he states that everything in nature must be traced back to a first cause, which is God. He so states that human ground is mutable and things that alteration can merely come from an immoveable unchanged first rule, which he states is God.
Although Saint Thomas Aquinas wrote five statements on the being of God, to me all but one of them seemed to repeat the same theory. His Hagiographas about the first mover, First Efficient Cause, possibility and necessity, and design all seem to state that nil can be without Being first. I am non convinced by this theory. I believe that Aquinas & # 8217 ; text ignores the inquiry of who is responsible for the creative activity of this & # 8220 ; first mover & # 8221 ; . I feel that scientific discipline better explains why nature is the manner it is. The theory of development gives a more plausible ground why things are the manner they are. The environment wasn & # 8217 ; T designed for everything in it. All living things in nature adapted to their milieus.
As for the staying thought of step, I believe that this does do some sense. I agree that there are different classs of people, best to pip. Since no 1 is perfect, I feel that there must be a perfect being of some kind. I can see that this is still relevant in today & # 8217 ; s, and experience that this is Aquinas & # 8217 ; merely valid ground whether God truly exists. Since no 1 will of all time cognize for certain whether or non He exists, anything said can merely be sentiment and everyone is entitled to his or her ain. Without solid grounds, there can ne’er be an understanding on this subject.
Bowie, Michaels, Solomon. Twenty Questions. Orlando: Harcourt College Publishers, 2000
St. Thomas Aquinas. & # 8220 ; Whether God Exists & # 8221 ; . Pp. 57-59