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When it comes about the rise of black churches, sects, cults and other religious and non-religious associations in America in the late 19th and early 20th century one should seek the origins in the national social and political changes and the particular changes inside the Afro-American community rather than in the spiritual search of divine truth. First of all one should point to the global migration of Afro-Americans from the Southern farms to the big cities of the North and the South, where they settled in ghettoes.  Thus it is stated that “seventy-five percent of the blacks had become city dwellers by the last quarter of the twentieth century.

”[1] Nevertheless, the cities didn’t welcome black migrants but met them with discrimination and unemployment especially painful in the years between the World Wars I and II. Thus, the historians note that “the series of bills and constitutional amendments designed to safeguard the rights of blacks had become dead letters”[2] what aggravated the difficult conditions Afro-Americans lived in especially after the World War I when “jobs became less plentiful, their temporary welcome more thin, and racial tensions increased.”[3]  As Afro-Americans themselves speak about the difficult times, “The stock market crash in 1929 was the gateway to economic misery that sparked the fuel of the “Great Depression” of the 1930s.

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Moreover, America’s racial situation continued its downward spiral. Lynching, race riots and other forms of terrorism against Blacks continued unabated.”[4] Also suffering from the impersonality of a large city the former farmer workers joined to the religious groups to cope with the cruel reality. The religious organizations, either traditional or non-traditional, provided people with the minimal support they needed.Thus it is observed that “The core attraction of most black cults was not a distinctive drown from a particular religious tradition but its ability to meet practical needs.”[5] However, non-traditional ones, particularly black churches, as they were also the mean of a protest against the discrimination and the domination of white race and the voice of Black Nationalism, met the needs of their members to a larger extent: “African-Americans expressed their peoplehood in a series of nationalistic movements, including the promotion of black culture and theology.”[6] Additionally, as Sydney Ahlstrom noted, the church has “provided leadership opportunities for the lowly born.

” [7] The unfavorable social and economic conditions of Afro-Americans at the beginning of the 20th century and Black Nationalism born in the struggle for civil rights were the general reasons for the flourishing of black sects and cults which met the practical needs and became the mean of Afro-Americans’ protest.One of the largest non-traditional religious groups that was founded at the beginning of the twentieth century and developed during the first half of the twentieth century was the Nation of Islam, or black Muslims. This organization, as many other black groups, expressed the protest against the social and racial injustice, particularly against the Whites as the predominant race and Christianity as its religion. Thus it is said that “in fact the Nation of Islam is more an expression of social protest than it is a religious movement.

[8]” The choice of the religion of Islam as the organizational uniting force is not explained with the strong faith and deep understanding of Islamic doctrines. Thus Peter Williams notes that “‘the designation Islam, which the movement gave itself, was based more on a desire for symbolic identification with an exotic non-Western religion and culture associated with Africa that on a ‘substantive espousal’ of traditional Muslim doctrines.”[9]  According to the one of the former organizational leaders and the founder of the Temple of Islam Wallace D. Farad: “Christianity – a religion of the white race contrived for the enslavement of non-white people” whereas “Islam is the “natural religion” of blacks and the only faith by which they could find freedom, justice and equality.”[10] If to combine these phrases with the opinion that explains the wish of Black Muslims’ adherents to identify themselves with a group strong enough to cast off the denomination of the white race – and perhaps even subordinate it in turn[11] one can conclude that Islam was chosen, sooner, as the religion that had had a very long history of confrontation with Christianity and the bright historical examples of predomination over many Christian countries which lured Afro-Americans with the prospect of possible subordination of the white race. One way or another but black community received the message of the protest and black Muslims relished the prospect of success. Eric Lincoln generalized: “The Nation’s of Islam ultimate attraction is the opportunity to Black Muslims successfully combined an affirmation of Islam with an appeal to black culture … More than any other cultic group they became a protest movement, emphasizing Black Nationalism and militantly denouncing the white race.”[12]Honestly speaking, Afro-Americans had all the moral rights to demonstrate the protest against white people in general and Christian religion in particular as the religion of the predominant race.

The way Christians had been treated Afro-Americans for centuries, having enslaved them and brought from Africa by force is more than reprehensible. However, the relations between black Africans and Arab or even black African Muslims over a long period of history are not less dramatic. Arabs together with other Asians poured into Northern and Eastern Africa under the banner of Islam in the 7th century A.D. either converting or subjugating the African societies they came upon. However the relations between the conquerors and the conquered began with the kind of mutual respect. Nevertheless after Mohammad’s death the tension between the more Caucasian-Semitic Arabs and the Blacks whom Arabs saw as inferior to themselves increased what marked the beginning of African enslavement.

Arabs preferred women and children as slaves and therefore many African men were merely killed. The slave-holders also bought the slaves captured during the conflicts between African tribes and sold by black Africans, Muslims and non-Muslims. The most common ‘usage’ of a black slave was sexual abuse in case of women and guarding in case of men. When a boy was designated to guard the harem, he was first tortured by castration, the procedure after which only one of twenty or thirty children didn’t bleed to death. This black holocaust, caused by Muslims, had lasted for more than a thousand years till 1911 A.D. and around 14 million African slaves were sold.

[13]  The name of the article “The Forgotten Holocaust”, which retells us this dramatic history of relations between Africans and Arab Muslims, speaks for itself. Either the crimes of Muslims towards Africans were forgotten or the European and American slave trade appeared to be fresher in the memory of Afro-Americans but nevertheless they have chosen white Christians to protest against and Islam to express this protest.Several sources Islam in America and in black community in particular originates from can be mentioned. First Muslims must have been those of Muslim traders and immigrants who came during colonial times. However the real wave of Islam may not have begun until the twentieth century when the international relations strengthened and migration increased. Thus, Muslim immigrants and students, the flow of which increased especially after the World War II, are said to be the source for Islamic real surge.[14]  Although black community is a large segment of American Muslims[15] it is not known for sure when the first black Muslims came to America.

The most possible origins of Islam in the black community is traced back to the Muslim centers that had developed in Africa south of the Sahara before the slave trade begun. It is believed that some slaves were Muslims who maintain their Muslim faith.[16] When Islam was chosen as the religion of black protest the number of black Muslims increased considerably by means of new converted adherents.The origins of the organization of the Nation of Islam, or black Muslims, can be traced back to Moorish Science Temple of America founded by Timothy Drew in 1913.[17] One should mention Jamaican Marcus Garvey (1887-1940) who can be recognized as the father of the spirit of nationalism among the African-Americans and whom black Muslims call to be a pioneer.

[18] “He raised the black’s self-esteem everywhere; in fact he deliberately utilized the Jewish story of a people in exile awaiting a return to the land of their rightful origins. He called for a literal return of blacks to their African homeland.”  Drew, however, departed from Garvey’s form of Black Nationalism and declared that blacks should identify themselves as Moors with “Asiatic” origins. [19] As one will see later, the idea of Moorish origin is now accepted by the Nation of Islam. Drew also claimed that he received the commission from the kingdom of Morocco to preach Islam in America.[20] Drew’s attempts to trace the origin of the Blacks to the Asian race seem to be the consequence of inferiority complex.

He must have been a very smart man to understand that despite all the difficulties, discrimination and poverty the ideas to return back from the United States to the African homeland would not meet the wide popularity among African-Americans.After Drew died in 1929 Wallace D. Farad (renamed Wali Farad (or Fard) Muhammad) headed the part of movement in Detroit.

The biography and personality of this leader is really obscure. According to one of the sources,[21] Farad claimed to be born in 1891 in Hawaii from a British father and a Polynesian mother, lived in New Zealand and Mecca, and finally moved to Portland, Oregon. However, the other source says that Farad claimed to be born in Mecca in 1877 and trained as a diplomat fro the Arabian kingdom of Hejaz.[22] In Oregon he got married. It is said that he drove his wife nearly insane and she ended up in a mental hospital. He also had a child from another woman, the child later disappeared.

In the Farad’s son’s birth certificate was written that the parents and the child were white.[23] However, it is claimed that the Caucasian origin of Farad was no more than a result of the FBI misinformation campaign.[24] It is said that later Farad deserted Hazel, his woman, and their son Wallace and moved to California. There he was arrested in 1918 for assault with a deadly weapon and released. Later Farad operated a restaurant and was arrested again for selling drugs. The arrest record indicates his complexion was dark although he claimed to be white, apparently from his mother’s alleged Polynesian side.

He was released and moved to Detroit, Michigan in 1929. It might be that Farad adopted Islam while serving the term in prison. In 1929-1930 Farad is said to establish the Allah Temple of Islam and the Lost-Found Nation of Islam of North America.[25] The other source says Farad merely headed one of the branches of Drew’s Temple after his death.[26] Later he was arrested again in Detroit in 1933 and photographed in 1933. After having been released, he posed as a Negro and began to peddle silk clothing.

Having obtained a line of African clothes he began to sell these in the black ghettos. Farad claimed Blacks needed to return to their Islam heritage and he had the clothes for sale to help them to restore their identity. Farad’s speeches were rather popular among the illiterate and unlearned poor blacks. His passionate propagation of black racism apparently met interest among black as he gathered about 800 people audience.

[27] It seems that the religious organization of the black Muslims in fact started as an advertising campaign for the promotion of African clothing in black ghettos of American big cities.According to Farad’s words in 1931 he met Elijah Poole (Robert Poole later renamed Elijah Muhammad[28]). Poole later preached that he met Allah (God in incarnate, the Messiah) when he met Wallace Farad.

The “Allah” made a convert of Poole and was told he would go by the name of “I” until Farad got his new Islamic name back from Mecca where the original names of all blacks were kept from the time of Moses down to that time. Later, Farad gave him the name of Len Karrien and Poole went by this name for a few years. Poole also used the names of Guland Bogans, Mohammed Rassoull, and at last Elijah Mohammed. On November 21, 1932 Farad was present when John J. Smith, who was told he would become the Savoir of the black people, was sacrificed on an altar in their Mosque. The sacrifice was blamed on Robert Harris who acted as the priest of Allah (i.e.

Farad). This human sacrifice was meant to replace Jesus, a supposed white devil-god who was slain by Jews and Romans upon the Cross. God-Farad and Elijah Mohammed then sanctified the murder-sacrifice, gave Harris his due praise, and then made plans to dispose of the body. All the members present then departed the temple of doom in high spirits that the Black race in America would now be saved by God-Allah-Farad, by the blood of Smith. This murder shocked the city of Detroit.

Since Robert Harris took the blame for the human sacrifice, Wallace Farad-Allah-and-Messiah was not arrested. Elijah Mohammed also escaped indictment. The Detroit Police Department having found his fingerprints matched Ford Dodd apprehended Farad as Ford Dodd in May 1933 and collected his entire police record from California and San Quentin. Ford was forced to get out of Detroit or face going back to prison. Messiah left in charge his Apostle and Prophet Elijah Mohammed and fled to Chicago and then in 1934 he moved to California. He disappeared mysteriously in 1934.

[29] There is the evidence that Farad bought a ticket on a ship to New Zealand[30] or was arrested in 1933.[31] Many years later the members of the Nation of Islam would write about Farad:He taught us the ways of love and peace, of truth and beauty. We are being led into the path of a new spiritual culture and civilization of complete harmony and peace, one of refinement in the pursuit of happiness and eternal joy in the Supreme Knowledge of God and the Science of everything in life.[32] The life and personality of Wallace Farad in this way is very foggy. According to one sources, he was a criminal of questionable race and origin, the drug-seller and enterprising businessman in the black ghettos of US big cities. However, his adherents believe him to be Allah, the Messiah and the Prophet, the Master who taught them the way of beauty, love, peace and truth.

Elijah Muhammad, the successor of Farad, was a charismatic figure and a very successful leader.  The adherents of the Nation of Islam believe him to be Allah’s prophet and cherish the memory of their “Honorable Elijah Muhammad.”[33] As Farad was recognized as Allah, Elijah Muhammad’s authority was supported by the fact that the will of Allah himself had been communicated to him.[34] Under the Elijah’s successful leadership the movement went national.[35]  Nowadays adherents appreciate Elijah for his fruitful work for the benefit of blacks. When being Farad’s Minister he helped to establish schools for the proper education of his children and the community, built a mosque in D.C.

, asserted the rights of blacks not to take part in the World War II and was imprisoned for that, he established farms, livestock and vegetable cultivations, rental housing, private home construction and acquisitions, made other real estate purchases, assisted in the opening of the food processing centers, restaurants, clothing factories, banking, business league formations, import and export businesses, aviation, health care, administrative offices, shipping on both land, sea and air, and men’s and women’s development and leadership training units. In 1972, the Honorable Elijah Muhammad opened a $2 million mosque and school in Chicago.[36] Having asserted the right not to take part in the World War II, Elijah went further and fostered political friendship with the US war enemies, such as Japan and Libya.[37] The Nation’s of Islam adherents appreciate Elijah’s leadership services. They say, “by the mid-sixties, Mr. Muhammad’s ever-growing Islamic movement extended itself to more than 60 cities and settlements abroad in Ghana, Mexico, the Caribbean, and Central America among others places, according to the Muhammad Speaks newspaper, the religion’s chief information apparatus.”[38] They claim also that “a host of Islamic and African governments all over the world received him and donated generously to his mission.

He made Hajj, (holy pilgrimage) to Mecca on more than one occasion and advocated worldwide brotherhood and sisterhood.”[39] Besides his fruitful economic and social activity, Elijah was famous for his writings. He published in The Supreme Wisdom and consecutive issues of Muhammad Speaks.

[40] These writings’ basic message is that the Nation of Islam will lead the American blacks to their “true inheritance as members of the ancient tribe of Shabazz,” which considers Abraham to be its patriarch and to which the non-white people belong. “Caucasian people are an inferior, later-day offshoot of the Black Asiatic Nation.” Elijah wanted to replace the African-American’s inferiority complex and negative regard for black culture with the proud for their ancient origins and the spirit of nationhood.[41]  In this way if Elijah was the spokesman for hatred and black racism for the Whites he was a caring leader for his congregation.Elijah Muhammad brought to the movement other prominent personalities. One of them was Malcolm X (1925-1965), born Malcolm Little who was “an energetic messenger of the movement in New York City and through the nation, a prophetic voice of black emancipation.

”[42]  Malcolm was the son of a Baptist minister, born in Omaha, Nebraska, but spent his formative years in Lansing, Michigan. His family house was burned to ground by the Ku Klux Klan and his father was found dead under a streetcar. Malcolm was sent to a boy’s school. While in the eighth grade he was asked what vocation he wanted to pursue. After having responded that he wanted to be a lawyer, he was ugly retort that such a profession was not suitable for a Negro, what wounded his feelings. Malcolm would become a criminal rather than pursuing the law and spend 10 years in prison.

In 1948 Malcolm was introduced to the teachings of Elijah Muhammad and he converted to the Nation of Islam.[43] With Malcolm X as a National Spokesman the number of adherents grew up to perhaps 300, 000.[44] However, despite the high position and popularity Malcolm enjoyed, he decided to departure from the movement in 1964 and altered his ideas.[45]  There is an opinion that Malcolm disappointed at the Chicago version of Black Islam after his personal experience with Islam of Mecca. However, some sources say that Malcolm left Elijah when found out that two of his former secretaries had filed paternity suites against him charging that he had fathered their four children.[46] Malcolm established the Muslim Mosque and the secular Organization of Afro-American Unity, but was assassinated in 1965.[47] The adherents of the Nation of Islam claim that “the U.

S. Government played a role in the 1965 assassination of Brother Malcolm X.”[48]The other prominent figure in the history of the movement with whom Elijah shared the reigns of government and who stayed faithful to Elijah’s ideas  even after his death wasLouis Farrakhan, the chief lieutenant, minister and future movement leader.

After Malcolm’s death Elijah Mohammad designated Farrakhan to Malcolm’s former position and promoted Minister Louis Farrakhan to the post of National Representative.[49] Farrakhan was a highly educated young man who had been raised a devout Episcopalian, graduated from Boston Latin School with honors and who had spent two years at Winston-Salem Teachers College in North Carolina. [50] Farrakhan’s charismatic authority was declared by Elijah himself:His preaching is a bearing of witness to me and what God has given to me. This is one of the strongest national preachers that I have in the bounds of North America. Everywhere you hear him, listen to him.

Everywhere you see him, look at him. Everywhere he advises you to go, go. Everywhere he advises you to stay from, stay from. For we are thankful to Allah for this great helper of mine, Min. Farrakhan.

[51];Under the leadership of this couple the movement of the Nation of Islam experienced a considerable growth in the 1970th. It acquired many business enterprises, established new temples and gained wide acceptance through black America as a reasonable religious alternative for blacks. The movement was able to provide his adherence with social support and a sense of national dignity.[52] Besides, it was one of a very small number of life institutions what blacks were able to consider to be their own, the temple where the Whites were forbidden. Well-known sport figures such as Muhammad Ali, having joined to the movement, brought it wider publicity and popularity especially among the young blacks. However the organizational and massive financial problems appeared in the early 1980th.[53]Despite the fact that Farrakhan was Elijah’s right hand, not him but Elijah’s son Wallace Mohammad headed the movement after Elijah’s death in 1975. Wallace was active in the movement since his youth but he knew about his father’s financial difficulties and shared some of the Malcolm’s beliefs.

That is why he began his leadership with changing of some of the beliefs and practices, he adopted new name, The World Community of Islam in the West, and moved the nation of Islam further in the direction of orthodox Islam and traditional American culture,[54] having abounded the ideas of black racism, separatism and the belief in the divinity of Wallace Farad; he also said his father’s teachings to be understood metaphorically.[55] According to Wallace, he has been trying to bring what used to be called the Nation of Islam to what is a natural and normal Islamic community. He asserted that the community of black Muslims does not need the strict organizational structure and that many their teachings take the origin in Black Nationalism. “Muslims are just Muslims, and they go to the mosque, and that is it” – spoke Wallace.[56] Wallace pressed towards the racial harmony, brotherly love and American patriotism.[57]However, Wallace’s ideas were not met with understanding by everybody in the Black Muslim brotherhood. The movement split and Louis Farrakhan headed the branch that stayed loyal to the Elijah’s teachings.

Farrakhan said about Wallace and his hew religious course that “one of the most hurting blows came when a disenchanted faction split from the fold.”[58] He retained the original name, the Nation of Islam. Till these days he continues to advocate the combative racism and black separation that characterized the movement in the 1960th. He continues to call white people “white devils” and asserted the belief that blacks should have their own nation within the United States.[59] However the teachings of Farrakhan and his predecessors are totally opposite according to the words of The Nation of Islam adherents. One can read on the Nation’s website:The Nation of Islam was founded on the basis of peace and as an answer to a prayer of Abraham to deliver his people who would be found in servitude slavery in the Western Hemisphere in this day and time… Our Holy Temples of Islam were established in America as sanctuaries of peace and higher learning into the Knowledge of the Oneness of God. Our schools are called Universities of Islam and teach the higher meaning of Islam which is Mathematics. We have always been taught to respect the laws of the land.

We are taught never to carry arms, to make war or to be the aggressor, for this is against the nature of the righteous. We are taught the Principles of Divine Unity and the Universal Brotherhood of Islam.;We are taught cleanliness inwardly and outwardly with the practice of good manners and respect to one and all. We are taught that the family is the back bone of society and that our children must be reared to reflect the highest morals and training to perfect our society. We are trained to eat and to prepare the best of foods for the longevity of life, without the use of alcohol, smoking and substance abuse which endangers the ethics of healthy living.

We are taught to respect and protect our women who are the mothers of civilization.;Our women are taught a dress code of modesty that will lead to the practice of high morality. We are trained to be an exemplary community expressing the highest spiritual goals for the reform of ourselves and others based on wisdom, knowledge and beauty.;Contrary to the inflammatory rhetoric that has been utilized by the news media and some community leaders to condemn the positive effects of Islam’s influence in today’s modern society, just the opposite is being proven true. The Nation of Islam (The Nation of Peace) represents hope to millions of our people in America and around the globe who have been deprived of the high standards of a righteous way of life.[60];Indeed it is observed that in 1993 Farrakhan tried to change his policy and to warmth the relationship with other religious organizations and social groups.

Thus he was involved in a national summit of black political leaders and even had a dinner with rabbi, however his attacks upon the Jews and other whites continued.[61] Farrakhan and his movement enjoy the wide popularity among African Americans in the United States. Thus it was reported that in 1994 63% of blacks in the US believed Farrakhan’s ideas. The results of the similar polls and the events like the Washington D.C. “Million Man March” which attracted an enormous number of black participators prove that Farrakhan has a gift to convince people that his is a peace-loving person.  When consider all these data the Nation of Islam is the force to be reckoned with in nowadays religious, social and political America.[62]Despite of the fact the Nation of Islam, for the first of all, is the organization of a social, cultural and racial protest and only afterwards is the religious movement, one should consider its religious teachings to be able to give an adequate Biblical answer.

The organisation identifies itself as the Islamic religious group. They worship God under the Arab name Allah and honor the prophet Mohammad, they call themselves Muslims and their temples are called mosques, they recite the Muslim creed and view the Qu’ran as inspired Scripture. The chief leaders have made pilgrimages to Mecca and at the present time the Nation’s members are instructed to fast during the Muslim month of Ramadan and to consult the Hadith for proper conduct and doctrine.[63] However, as the Nation of Islam denies the basic Islamic doctrines and violates the teaching about the nature of Allah, it can be called Islamic by no means.

As it was already mentioned, the organization takes its origins from Timothy Drew’s Moorish Temple and Muhammad Farad, who outlined the basic religious ideas of the feature Nation of Islam. Elijah Mohammad developed their teachings. Drew’s the main teaching was that black race is not actually black but had Asian origins and that the Blacks should be called Moorish.

The basic religious teachings Farad sold together with the African clothes with the purpose to help blacks to restore their ethnic identity can be summed up in this way. The white man (“white devil”) was created by a Black scientist who lived 600 years and whose name was Yacob (identified with Jacob of the Bible) on the island of Patmos. White devil has turned and taken the world from the black man who now must kill him to get it back. Christianity is the white men’s religion, the instrument to enslave blacks.

The Bible, being the book of poison according to Farad’s views, was, however, often cited by him in support of the ideas of black racism he propagated. For example, he taught that the commandment to honor thy father and thy mother meant that the white devils were to honor the black race who was the father and the mother of the white race. He persuaded blacks that they were from Asia and were originally Moslems before the white devils brought them as slaves to America. [64] Black Muslims believe now that being Muslim for black is as natural as breathing.[65] While the adherents considered Farad to be a prophet and a messiah when he was alive, Farad was recognized as Allah after his death.[66] The teachings summed up above are still the core of the Nation’s of Islam religious doctrine.[67]The Nation’s of Islam basic teachings about God contradict not only Christian but also Islamic doctrines.

Black Muslims believe that God is not Spirit, but a man, a black man: “God is a man and we just cannot make Him other than man, least we make Him an inferior one… A spirit is subjected to us and not we to the spirit.”[68] As it was already mentioned, black Muslims believe Farad to have been Allah: “Allah came to us from the Holy City of Mecca, Arabia, in 1930.

He used the name Wallace D. Farad, often signing it W. D. Farad.

… He came alone.”[69] According to the Nation, God is not eternal: “Well, we all know that there was a God in the beginning that created all these things and do know that He does not exist today. But we know again that from that God the person of God continued until today in His people, and today a Supreme One (God) has appeared among us with the same infinite wisdom to bring about a complete change”[70] and “there is no God Living Who was here in the Creation of the Universe, but They produce Gods from Them and Their Wisdom lives in us.”[71] Black Muslims believe that God is one of many gods and that every member of the Nation of Islam is God however, Allah, who is the supreme God, was incarnated only in Farad.

[72] Elijah Mohammad also taught that there are many gods who live two or three hundred years but are mortal.[73] To any true believer whether Christian or Muslim such teachings about the nature of God would seem merely a blasphemy. As the Nation calls itself Muslims, its doctrines should approach at least Islamic fundamentals but it vehemently contradicts the Qu’ranic teachings about God. According to Qu’ran, there is only one eternal God Who is called Allah (5:73; 112:1-4). Allah is the creator and preserver of the Universe (3:191), the earth and heaven (2:29; 6:1, 73; 25:61-62; 36:81; 46:33); He is omnipotent, omnipresent (6:61-62), (40:20), (2:115; 7:7), and omniscient (2:268; 10:61).

Allah is neither spirit no physical being and of course He is not a man of any race. It is fairly noted that “to orthodox Muslims, the Nation’s teaching that Master Farad was Allah is the sin of shirk, associating a human being with Allah. If the Nation of Islam had promoted these same beliefs in a country with an Islamic government (such as Saudi Arabia, Iran, Indonesia, or Afghanistan), Elijah Muhammad would have been executed for blasphemy and apostasy.

”[74] The Bible also says that there is only one True and Living God and apart from Him there are no other Gods (Deuteronomy 6:4; Isaiah 43:10,11; 44:6,8; 45:21,22; 46:9; Mark 12:29-34), it also teaches that God is Triune. The Bible is sure about the fact that God was not ever a man like us but has existed as omnipotent, omnipresent, omniscient and – eternal! – God (Psalm 90:2; 139:7-10; Isaiah 40:28; Luke 1:37). In this way the teachings of the Nation of Islam about the nature of God do not let a literate one to call this “religion” Islam. The present Minister Farrakhan is acknowledged for the fact that although he perpetuates these erroneous teachings of his predecessors but at least acknowledges that Elijah Mohammad was a divinely commissioned Messenger of God, and to that degree he becomes culpable for promoting the errors of his spiritual father.[75]For Elijah Mohammad white race – is the race of devils. White people were created about six thousands years ago as the result of genetics experiments by a black scientist. Since their creation they caused death and distraction to the righteous race of blacks who lived in Mecca and the Whites were forced to leave those lands to Europe where they lived without a fire and civilisation.[76] The following history of the white race civilisation is so naïvely stupid that it is a pity even to retell it in this paper.

However, a curious one can find this a truly captivating story about the rise of white devils; in the story the famous Biblical personages such as Moses and Jesus play their absolutely unexpected roles. One will be interested to find out that no one but Farad Mohammed was the only who knew the true story about Jesus and about his death from the police officer who needed the dollars in gold promised by the Jews to those who would kill Jesus. Honestly speaking, this fascinating new-invented history of recent human civilisation, which contradicts the tons of books on history, a tremendous amount of archaeological evidences and a simple common sense, raises the deepest regret about the extent to which black people suffered from the Whites if they were able to believe in such a weird interpretation of history. Taking into consideration the fact that the ideas like those could find their adherents only among the very illiterate or very angry public, one should understand the level of education between Afro-Americans and of course the deep guilt upon the white people who were the predominant race indeed and who were and are responsible for this regretful situation.According to Farad’s teachings, Christ was only a mortal man and a prophet, not God.

“He [Jesus] was nothing more than a prophet…” Despite their beliefs that all the members of the Nation of Islam are Gods, black Muslims believe it to be absolutely sinful to make the Son and the Holy Ghost the equal with the Father.[77] When Black Muslims are told that Jesus Christ is God, they object that why can’t they consider Farad to be Allah? According to the Nation, it is the same to ascribe the diving origin to a man Jesus and to a man Farad. However this assertion can easily be objected. Christianity teaches that there is only one triune God and that Jesus is the Person in the Trinity. It is a monotheistic doctrine.

Black Muslims teaches that there is a series of Gods, and Farad, who is Allah, is one in this series. He had not existed before was born. It is a polytheistic doctrine. Moreover, the Bible predicts that God would appear as man in Isaiah 9:6, Jeremiah 23:5-6, Micah 5:2, Zechariah 12:10, and so forth. Though orthodox Muslims may not accept these verses from the Bible, they were part of Jewish scripture over one thousand years before the composition of the Qu’ran.

Thus, the possibility of God appearing in human form is not unscriptural. Indeed, it is predicted. Finally, it is one thing to claim to be God; it is another to prove it.[78] While Christ raised people from dead, walked on the water surface, turned water into vine and did many other miracles, Farad sold heroine and served the terms in prison for other criminal miracles. Moreover, unlike Jesus, W. D. Farad fulfilled no definite prophecy from the Qu’ran or the Bible (except 2 Peter 2:1).[79] Thus there is the tremendous difference between Jesus Christ as God and Farad Wallace as Allah which leaves no doubts in the diving origin of Jesus Christ and blasphemy of Farad Wallace.

The Bible has even less authority to the Nation of Islam than Jesus Christ. It is not holy, it is a poison: “The Bible is now being called the Poison Book by God Himself, and who can deny that it is not poison? It has poisoned the very hearts and minds of the so-called Negroes so much that they can’t agree with each other.”[80] On life after death, the Bible and the Qu’ran both agree on the question of literal physical resurrection of the dead (1 Cor. 15:13-14, 17, Luke 24:39, John 20:27, John 5:28-29, Rom. 8:11, Phil.

3:21), (Sura 75:3-4). However Farad and his adherents persistently assist that permanent non-existence follows death.[81] IN this way the teachings of the Nation of Islam violates both Biblical and Qu’ranic teachings.

Having taken a close look at the Nation of Islam one can assume that it is not a religious organization. It was born in the circumstances of social, political and economic problems but was not the result of a spiritual search or diving revelation. The Nation of Islam like the other black churches emerged in those times was the mean of Afro-American’s protest against poverty and racial discrimination common in the early 20th century America and was nurtured by the Black Nationalism but not by the eternal diving wisdom.

Having proclaimed himself Allah, the founder of the Nation of Islam Wallace D. Farad violated not only Christian religious foundations but also those of Islam, the religion which Wallace claimed to belong to. Neither the criminal life of Farad nor his tremendously foolish teachings leave the slightest doubt that the movement he founded was purposed to satisfy his personal ambitions of a leader and a businessman. The popularity of the Nation of Islam can be explained with several reasons. Firstly, the church helps Afro-Americans in their everyday life problems.

Secondly, it wakes the spirit of ethnic identity and dignity among those who had been suppressed, exploited and humiliated for many centuries. Thirdly, the erroneous religious ideology was spread between the very poor and illiterate people. And fourthly this ideology not only justified the hatred Afro-American had towards the predominating white race and its religion but also supplied this hatred with diving origins. To be honest with them, white people, particularly Christians, should recognise their responsibility for every mentioned above reason and preach the Gospel to the Nation’s of Islam adherents with peace and patience.BIBLIOGRAPHYKyle, Richard. The Religious Fringe: A History of Alternative Religions in America. Downers Grove, IN: InterVarsity Press, 1993.Martin, Ralston Walter.

The Kingdom of the Cults.  Minneapolis, Mich.: Bethany House Publishers, 1997.

MSN Groups. “The Forgotten Holocaust: the Eastern Slave Trade.” [article on-line] (Copyright 2005, accessed 30 May 2006). Available from: http://groups.msn.com/blackmuslims/the1stblackmuslims.msnw; Internet.MSN Groups.

“Black Muslims.” [Article on-line] (Accessed 30 April 2006). Available from:  http://groups.msn.

com/blackmuslims/_whatsnew.msnw; Internet.Pement Eric. “Louis Farrakhan and the Nation of Islam: Part two.

” Cornerstone 26, issue 112 (1997): 32-38. http://answering-islam.org/NoI/noi2.html (accessed 30 April2006).The Nation of Islam. “A Brief History of the Origin of The Nation of Islam of America, a Nation of Peace and Beauty.” [Article on-line] (March 28, 1996, accessed 30 April 2006).

Available from: http://www.noi.org/history_of_noi.

htm; Internet.The Nation of Islam. “The Historical Look at the Honorable Elijah Muhammad.” [Article on-line] (Accessed 29 April 2006). Available from: http://www.noi.

org/elijah_muhammad_history.htm; Internet.Watchman Fellowship. “Black Muslims: History” in Watchman Expositor [article in the on-line journal] (Vol.

15, No. 6, 1998, accessed 30 April 2006). Available from: http://www.watchman.org/profile/nationofislampro.htm; Internet. [1] Richard Kyle, The Religious Fringe: A History of Alternative Religions in America. (Downers Grove, IN: InterVarsity Press, 1993), 167.

[2] Ibid.,167.[3] Ibid., 240.[4] The Nation of Islam, “The Historical Look at the Honorable Elijah Muhammad,” [article on-line], (accessed 29 April 2006), available from: http://www.noi.org/elijah_muhammad_history.htm; Internet.

[5] Richard Kyle, The Religious Fringe,170.[6] Ibid., 167.[7] Ibid.

, 168.[8] Ibid., 239.

[9] Ibid., 240.[10] Richard Kyle, The Religious Fringe, 241.[11] Ibid., 240.[12] Ibid.[13] MSN Groups, “The Forgotten Holocaust: the Eastern Slave Trade,” [article on-line], (copyright 2005, accessed 30 May 2006), available from: http://groups.msn.

com/blackmuslims/the1stblackmuslims.msnw; Internet.[14] Richard Kyle, The Religious Fringe, 238.

[15] Ibid.[16] Richard Kyle,The Religious Fringe, 239.[17] Walter Ralston Martin, The Kingdom of the Cults, (Minneapolis, Mich.: Bethany House Publishers, 1997), 450.

[18] Richard Kyle, The Religious Fringe, 240.[19] Ibid.[20] Walter Ralston Martin, The Kingdom of the Cults , 450.[21] MSN Groups, “Black Muslims,” [article on-line], (accessed 30 April 2006), available from:  http://groups.msn.

com/blackmuslims/_whatsnew.msnw; Internet.[22] Walter Ralston Martin, The Kingdom of the Cults, 450.[23] MSN Groups, “Black Muslims.”[24] Walter Ralston Martin, The Kingdom of the Cults, 451.[25] MSN Groups, “Black Muslims.

”[26] Richard Kyle, The Religious Fringe, 241.[27] MSN Groups, “Black Muslims.”[28] Richard Kyle, The Religious Fringe, 241.[29] MSN Groups, “Black Muslims.”[30] Ibid.[31] Walter Ralston Martin, The Kingdom of the Cults, 451.

[32] The Nation of Islam “A Brief History of the Origin of The Nation of Islam of America, a Nation of Peace and Beauty,” [article on-line], (March 28, 1996, accessed 30 April 2006), available from: http://www.noi.org/history_of_noi.htm; Internet.[33] The Nation of Islam, “The Historical Look at the Honorable Elijah Muhammad.”[34] Richard Kyle, The Religious Fringe, 242.

[35] Walter Ralston Martin, The Kingdom of the Cults, 451.[36] The Nation of Islam, “The Historical Look at the Honorable Elijah Muhammad.”[37] Walter Ralston Martin, The Kingdom of the Cults, 451.[38] The Nation of Islam, “The Historical Look at the Honorable Elijah Muhammad.

”[39] Ibid.[40] Richard Kyle,The Religious Fringe, 242.[41] Ibid.[42] Ibid., 243.

[43] Watchman Fellowship, “Black Muslims: History” in Watchman Expositor, [article in the on-line journal], (Vol. 15, No. 6, 1998, accessed 30 April 2006), available from: http://www.watchman.org/profile/nationofislampro.htm; Internet.[44] Walter Ralston Martin, The Kingdom of the Cults, 451.

[45] Ibid., 451.[46] Watchman Fellowship, “Black Muslims.”[47] Richard Kyle, The Religious Fringe, 244.[48] The Nation of Islam, “The Historical Look at the Honorable Elijah Muhammad.

”[49] Ibid.[50] Watchman Fellowship, “Black Muslims.”[51] Ibid.[52] Richard Kyle, The Religious Fringe, 244.[53] Ibid.[54] Ibid.[55] Walter Ralston Martin, The Kingdom of the Cults, 451.[56] Watchman Fellowship, “Black Muslims.”[57] Ibid.[58] Ibid.[59] Richard Kyle, The Religious Fringe, 245.[60] Nation of Islam “A Brief History of the Origin of The Nation of Islam of America, a Nation of Peace and Beauty.”[61] Walter Ralston Martin, The Kingdom of the Cults, 452.[62] Ibid.[63] Pement Eric, “Louis Farrakhan and the Nation of Islam: Part two,” Cornerstone 26, issue 112 (1997): 32-38. http://answering-islam.org/NoI/noi2.html (accessed 30 April2006).[64] MSN Groups, “Black Muslims.”[65] Richard P. Bailey, Rev., “Which Roots,” [article on-line] on the Answering-Islam.org, (accessed 29 April 2006), available from: http://answering-islam.org.uk/Bailey/which_roots.html; Internet.[66] MSN Groups, “Black Muslims.”[67] Walter Ralston Martin, The Kingdom of the Cults., 452.[68] Muhammad, Elijah, Message to the Blackman in America, (Chicago: The Final Call, Inc., 1965), 6.[69] Ibid., 16.[70] Ibid., 9.[71] Muhammad, Elijah, Our Savior Has Arrived, (Newport News, VA: United Brothers Communications Systems, n.d.), 97.[72] Martin, Ralston Walter. The Kingdom of the Cults, 452.[73] Pement Eric, “Louis Farrakhan and the Nation of Islam.”[74] Ibid.[75] Pement Eric, “Louis Farrakhan and the Nation of Islam[76] Ibid.[77] Watchman Fellowship, “Black Muslims.”[78] Pement Eric, “Louis Farrakhan and the Nation of Islam.”[79] Ibid.[80] Mohammad, Message, 94.[81] Pement Eric, “Louis Farrakhan and the Nation of Islam”.