Last updated: August 23, 2019
Topic: LawGovernment
Sample donated:

 Cultural Revolution was an ideological and revolutionary mass campaign in China .It aimed at changing the country’s traditional values and replace them with chairman Mao’s thinking. Mao propagated that the country should  have to get rid of the “Four Olds” ,namely “old ideas, old customs , old culture , and old habits” . It was also an attack on China’s intellectual elite. The revolution and destruction of the old China were carried out by a mass of students with the encouragement of Mao. The student group was called the Red Guards,which were a group of militant students and to attack all traditional values and to publicly criticize party officials .The Gang of Four was composed of four Chinese Communist Party officials. They rose to power during the last stage of  Cultural Revolution.The gang’s members included Mao Zedong’s last wife Jiang Qing, Zhang Chunqiao, Yao Wenyuan, and Wang Hongwen. During the Cultural Revolution, the Gang of Four represented the leftist political faction within the CCP. Jiang Qing was the main leader in the Gang of Four. She staged revolutionary operas during the Cultural Revolution and met with the Red Guards.With the her direction in operas and ballets with communist and revolutionary content ,it was a part of effort to transform China’s culture. She also attempted to reform the Beijing Opera in particular to dominate the Chinese arts.Moreover, she continually worked to undermine political rivals, such as launched the ‘Criticise Lin Biao’ propaganda campaign in late 1973, attempting to link Lin Biao with the highly popular Zhou Enlai.Before Mao’s death, the Gang of Four also controlled many of China’s political institutions, including the media and propaganda.    The Gang of Four, together with the disgraced general Lin Biao who died in 1971, were labeled as the two major “counter-revolutionary forces” of the Cultural Revolution afterwards . On 6 October 1976, shortly after the death of Mao, Hua removed the Gang of Four from political power by arranging for their arrests in Beijing. In Winter 1980-1981, the gang of four were put on trial. They were officially blamed by the Chinese government for the societal chaos that occurred during the ten years of turmoil.The courtroom drama played out on TV.The gang of four  were sentenced to prison after Mao’s death.Their downfall brought about major celebrations on the streets of Beijing and marked the end of a turbulent political period in China.However, their fall did not amount to a rejection of the Cultural Revolution as such. It was organised by the new leader, who was Mao’s designated successor, Hua Guofeng, and others who had risen during that period., Hua Guofeng had also taken over all the formal roles of leadership. B)     Quotations of leaders1. Jiang QingDuring the cultural revolution, Jiang Qing had promote slogan like   “To beat, wreck, and loot for Revolution is fine.”It showed she is loyal to Mao and had a strong desire to promote Mao’s belief through propaganda and support the class struggle through violence .During the trial , she shouted “Revolution is glorious! Revolution is no crime!”and “I was Chairman Mao’s dog. I bit whomever he asked me to bite”.It implied that she had no regret in supporting Mao wholeheartedly, and showing her loyalty to Mao as she would do whatever Mao tell her to do. 2.Deng Xiaoping”Chairman Mao creatively applied Marxism-Leninism to every aspect of the Chinese revolution, and he had creative views on philosophy, political science, military science, literature and art, and so on. Unfortunately, in the evening of his life, particularly during the “Cultural Revolution”, he made mistakes – and they were not minor ones – which brought many misfortunes upon our Party, our state and our people.”It showed that Deng Xiaoping think that Cultural Revolution is a huge mistake made by Mao that bring several consequences to China in different aspects. 3.Xi Qinsheng, former Red Guard”We were told that we needed to use violence to destroy a class, spiritually and physically. That was justification enough for torturing someone. They weren’t considered human anymore. If they were the enemy, they deserved to be strangled to death, and they deserved to be tortured. This was the education we received… the Cultural Revolution brought out the worst in people and the worst in the political system.”He was a former Red Guard in the Cultural Revolution which was encouraged and legislated  by Mao to purge bourgeois and counter-revolutionary groups . His words showed that the instruction of what the Chinese government order them and they were convinced it is legal to purge others with violence.