Jeetendra Gautam, Abhishek  Kawle, Mangesh Mohurle, Kaustubh Chimurkar,
Vedant Dhande, Nikhil Potpite.

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Abstract: We proposed a design and analysis
of Cam. In industries many machines are used in which cam mechanisms are used.
We search in industries so many company faced many problems regarding this
mechanism. That’s why we have to design the cam and find out which forces acts
in large amount. We have tried to reduce the problem area.





A cam may be defined as
machine element having a curved outline or a curved groove which by its
oscillation, rotation or reciprocating motion gives a predetermined specified
motion to another element called the follower. A particular type of contact
condition, known as cam and follower contact, exists in the direct valve train
system of an engine and is partly responsible for wear. In this the wear of
analysis of cam and follower contact system analyzed and finite element
modelling of cam and follower assembly is done using Creo software. The contact
pressure and stresses are calculated by using analytical, graphical &
experimental method. A multi aspect comparison between theoretical and
experimental result was made. A good agreement between theoretical and
experimental result show that the reliable prediction between cam and follower.

Cam mechanisms are
integral parts of many products. They are used in many applications from
combustion engines through milling machines to fitness machines.  This analysis will prove to be useful in
explaining the increase in wear and spalling in different regions. Thus this
section starts with a discussion of procedure used to determine the contact
forces between follower and cam will be determined by considering cam speed,
dynamic force, linkage dimension, pressure angle. The maximum shear stress that
the material experiences depend upon depth and location of cam. The various
types of fatigue failure can be determined. Photo elasticity is an experimental
technique for stress and strain analysis that is particularly useful for
members having complicated geometry, complicated loading conditions, or both.
For such cases, analytical methods may be impossible, and analysis by an
experimental approach may be more appropriate.                                                             

               While the experimental solution
of static, elastic, two-dimensional problems are now largely overshadowed by
analytical methods, problems involving three-dimensional geometry,
multiple-component assemblies, dynamic loading and inelastic material behaviour
are usually more amenable to experimental analysis. Photo implies the use of light rays and optical techniques, while
elasticity means the study of stresses and deformations in elastic bodies.



A.  Analysis
of disk cam motion for follower (November 2008 / MOHD SOBRI BIN HUSAIN /


          This is a analyzing
of disk cam motion follower. The objective of this is to analyze disk cam
profile using roller follower that neglected the friction. The performance of
the disk cam mechanism system is based upon the shape of the cam, type of the
follower that will be used, and what the application that the cam is used it,
wherever high speed application or low speed application. The method that will
be used in analyzing the disk cam mechanism using the theoretical manner that
is graphical method and the experimental method using the Creo software. This
type of cam only suitable for low speed application because it will endure the
high vibration while operating in high sped application. Vibration is some sort
of cause of failure to the mechanism that can give disadvantage to the
industries nowadays.


B. Cam mechanism forces (Harold A. Rothbart / 2004/)



           We shall discuss
the cam-follower system forces driven by constant speed cam. (working load,
impact forces, inertia forces, vibratory forces, frictional forces, spring
forces) information on these forces is necessary to determine the structural
sizes of the machine moving parts for strength and rigidity, the proper choice
of and life materials, the bearing sizes, the spring sizes and loads, and the
system performance and power consumption, among other things. Note that impact
forces may produce farces that far exceed all others. Often the follower system
is remotely located with reference to the cam and the dynamic analysis becomes
quite complex. For dynamic analysis of these cams modulated systems, See Paul
(1979/1996) and Sandor and Erdman (1984).


C. Kinematics and Dynamics of Machinery by (K. Waldron / G. Kinzel
John Wiley / 2003) 


            Lot Cams are used
for essentially the same purpose as linkages, that is, generation of irregular
motion. Cams have an advantage over linkages because cams can be designed for
much tighter motion specifications. The disadvantages of cams are manufacturing
expense, poor wear resistance, and relatively poor high-speed capability.
Although numerical control machining does cut the cost of cam manufacture in
small lots, costs are still quite high in comparison with linkages. In large
lots, moulding or casting techniques cut cam costs, but not to the extent that
stamping and so forth, can cut linkage costs for similar sizes.


D. Analytic analysis of cam mechanism by (Peter Hejma, Martin
Svoboda, Jan Kampo, Josef Souk up / 2017)


The paper deals with a configuration of a cam mechanism with a flat
follower that is pressed to the profile of a radial disc cam by means of a coil
spring. Based on the analytical analysis a new measuring stand will be
proposed. In future, the analytical results will be complemented by experiment.
Cam mechanisms are integral parts of many products. They are used in many
applications from combustion engines through milling machines to fitness




             At the time of
analysis many problem face by our team. So we have to decide these problems are
sort out. If we choose smaller cam then it increases pressure angle. A larger
pressure-angle increases the contact-force between the cam and the cam. The
cam’s physical size, its pressure-angle and radius-of-curvature are related.
Their values are determined principally from the cam design arrangement, and
also the motion and shape of the cam. As per pressure angle forces can be
vary. But in larger machine large cam is used, so large pressure angle is
create. If we replace larger cam bye smaller one then what result we have to





                  Research phase
start by reading some papers on various topics. Then discuss those topics with
group members that can be found out by all and do it comparison for choose the
best concept for project. Then all members decide to do project on Cam Analysis.

                First of all we have to search an
industry and visit this industry and then select one machine. Then we all are
decided to analyze the cam that can be used in this machine. After that we
choose the roller contact cam and follower. On the basis of that cam and
follower we draw a sketch of roller contact cam & follower sketch in Creo
software. Then we have to do analytical calculation on paper and find out the
velocity, acceleration, etc by using some formulas. Using different pressure
angles we have to calculate different forces at different points. Also we do
analysis performance on cam and follower by using Ansys software. In ansys
software different stresses shown by different colors. At the time of analysis
on software we don’t know about the software then we learn the software. Do it
correction for error this project. Finish the analysis process with correction
process. After that, the final report writing and final presentation will be
the last task to be accomplished. The guide will review the final presentation
and revise mistakes to be amended. The final presentation then again will be
presented to three panels. A draft report would then be submitted to the guide
to be point out the flaws. Corrections are done and the real final report is
handed over as a completion of the project.   




The conclusion of this
project is to reduce the friction between cam mechanisms. Also to minimize the
problem area of the cam. From above condition we find out our problem area and
also find forces. From this forces we conclude the contact pressure can be
reduce or increase.    




1 Peter Hejma
et. al “Analytic analysis of a cam mechanism,” at “XXI International
Polish–Slovak Conference Machine Modeling and Simulations 2016”.

2 Nega Tesfie
“Finite Element Based Surface Wear Analysis of Cam and Follower System,” at
“Addis Ababa University Institute of Technology 2014”.

3 James F. Doyle
et. al “Manual on Experimental Stress Analysis,” at “Society for experimental

4 H. T. Jessop
et. al “Photo elasticity Principles and Methods”, “Mineola, N.Y.: Dover
Publications, Inc., 1952”.

5 S.S.Rattan “Theory of Machine”, “Tata McGraw Hill Education
Private Limited 2009”.

6 Thomas L. Dresner, Ph.D., “Cam System Dynamics- Response”, “The
McGraw-Hill Companies 2004”.

7 Mr. Rajkumar A. Kale et. Al “Optimization of Cam Follower
Mechanism to Increase Mechanical Efficiency”, “International Journal of
Research in Advent Technology, Vol.4, No.3, March 2016”.

8 J. Michael McCarthy “Cam and Follower Systems”, “Standard
Handbook of Machine Design, McGraw-Hill, 2004”.

9 Jonathan Larson “Object-oriented cam design”, “Journal of
Intelligent Manufacturing 2000”.

10 G. Kinzel John Wiley “Kinematics and
Dynamics of Machinery”, “University of Bahrain 2003”.