Tourism and athleticss are the emerging tendency in todays civilization. These tendencies had been influenced by human societal attitudes, technological promotion, economic and political fortunes. Both athletics and touristry activities are organized all over the universe regardless of national boundary lines.
Sport touristry is a prevalent and turning phenomenon. Harmonizing to Gibson ( 2006 ) , sport touristry is defined as ‘leisure-based travel that takes persons temporarily outside of their place communities to take part in physical activities [ Active Sport Tourism ] , to watch physical activities [ Event Sport Tourism ] , or to reverence attractive forces associated with physical activities [ Nostalgia Sport Tourism ] ‘ .
During the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries ( 1880-1910 ) , development of athletics took topographic point. Sports were transformed through such developments as the codification of regulations, bureaucratization ( the development and ordinance of competitions ) , specialisation of participant functions, quantification ( measuring of public presentation ) and the care of records of accomplishment ( Guttmann, 1974, in Higham, 2005 ) . Competitive athleticss were contested in local, regional or national conferences.
In 1970s and 1980s, 2nd period of dynamic alteration in the development of athletics took topographic point. ( Halberstam, 1999, in Higham, 2005 ) examines the outgrowth of overseas telegram telecasting and the broadcast of unrecorded athletics initiated by ESPN in 1978. The development of commercial and median involvements in athletics together with the outgrowth of new signifiers of athletics famous person brought about a dominant characteristic in sport touristry. This had resulted in a turning market for vacations filled with athleticss content.
Sport, athletics squads, athletics events and athletics installations had been transformed into touristry industry. Sport is an of import look of civilization at a touristry finish. The prominence of athleticss and athleticss people in the national and international media is such that athletics has become a powerful tool in finish selling ( British Tourist Authority, 2000, in Higham, 2005 )
1.3 Overview of the athletics touristry industry
Harmonizing to Standeven & A ; De Knop ( 1999 ) , sport tourer are categorize as active or inactive. Active athletics tourers engage in athletics activity vacations. Sport is the chief intent of the trip. Passive athletics tourer can be grouped harmonizing to how of import athletics is the intent of the trip. They are those who have extended inactive engagement and are know aparting in the athleticss activity they watch as witnesss or facilitators.
Today, many people participate in or watch athleticss across the universe. Due to an addition in media attending, people are going more cognizant of the wellness and recreational benefits that sport touristry provide. There had been a turning figure of travel companies that print booklets to publicize on athleticss and escapade vacations, for illustration, aqualung diving in Kenya, mountain mounting in Sabah.
2.0 Market Analysis
Over the old ages, we can see an addition in tourer reachings all around the universe. It is seen to be an of import phenomenon that will prosecute and excite people at the same clip. Throughout this study, the focal point will be on sport touristry in Australia. Sport touristry contributes significantly to Australian economic system.
Australia is recognised internationally as a state that is really involved with athleticss. Harmonizing to Australian Government ( 2008 ) , itemised ingestion for diversion, cultural and athleticss services was $ 2 953 million. In 2008-2009, Australian authorities had invested $ 3.8 billion into humanistic disciplines and diversion service. This shows that they are continuously bettering the diversion services to run into the demand of athleticss tourer and participants.
The hosting of the Sydney 2000 Olympics had provided Australia with a alone chance. It allows Australia to showcase the universe as a touristry finish and as a state with the ability to present such major events. Harmonizing to The Independent ( 2010 ) , it states that during the Sydney Olympics held in 2000, Australian Bureau of Statistics ( ABS ) said 4.94 million people made short-run visits to Australia. This is an addition of 11 % or 480 000 people from the old record in 1999. The addition was due largely to a dramatic rush in tourer reachings in the month of December, a rise of 23 % on the same month in 1999.
Sports had become portion of Australian life style. It plays a critical function in Australian civilization. This experience is a actuating factor that attracts international visitants to Australia. Harmonizing to a study conducted by ABS ( 2005-2006 ) , 66 % of the population aged 15years and above ( 10.5million people ) participated as a participant at least one time during the 12 months prior to interview in one or more athleticss or physical diversion activities. Engagement rate was highest for the 25 to 34 twelvemonth age group ( 75 % ) so declined with age to 49 % for people aged 65 old ages and supra.
In order for sellers to make out to the mark section successfully, here are some of the selling schemes adopted by Australia to advance athleticss touristry. It is of import that athleticss sellers consider how each of the selling mix elements is integrated and related to each of the other elements. For illustration, if athletics merchandises are non priced right, it will ensue in a major impact on how consumers view the administrations.
In athleticss touristry, the merchandise will be the game itself. For illustration, during Sydney Olympic Games 2000, the merchandise will be the games played. Merchandises can be differentiated into touchable and intangible merchandise. The touchable elements of a athleticss merchandise are the participants who play the athleticss, the type of competition or game played, trading ( T-shirts, equipment, souvenirs etc ) , and locale installations. The intangible elements are the feelings, looks, emotions that people have about the athleticss whether they are participants or witnesss. ( Summers et Al, 2005a )
Sports merchandises are similar to the features of services. They are perishable, inseparable, heterogenous and intangible.
Perishable – one time event of the game had ended, there will non be any ‘live ‘ competition any longer
Inseparable – athleticss merchandises are produced and consumed at the same time when participants, functionaries and fans create the event
Heterogeneous – each featuring event and experience is different for everyone
Intangible – many of the elements for athleticss merchandise are intangible
2.2 Monetary value
In the context of athleticss touristry, monetary value refers to the purchase of tickets to watch the clean event. Differential pricing scheme is common for many athleticss merchandises. It meant that different monetary value are allocated for different seats, or different privileges included in the ticket. Harmonizing to Morgan & A ; Summers ( 2005 ) , for most professional stadium-based athleticss, the gross from the ticket monetary value is less than the gross expected from media rights and corporate cordial reception gross revenues.
For illustration, the Melbourne Commonwealth Games 2006, the monetary value scope are categorized into A, B, C, D and Family.
Price class A – ticket monetary value $ 590
Price class B – ticket monetary value $ 420
Prize class C – ticket monetary value $ 250
Prize class D – ticket monetary value $ 100
Family class – ticket monetary value scope from $ 300 to $ 525
The forming commission had monetary value the ticket into different class so that it can make out to different market section. Spectators who purchased class A tickets would hold a better and closer position of the competition. Family category tickets target at parents who wanted to convey their kids to watch the competition together. It is priced somewhat cheaper so as to promote household bonding and to actuate these kids to watch the competition. From the Australian Bureau of Statistics, it reveals that there was a 15 % addition in the figure of international reachings to Australia in September 2000, the month of the Games, compared to the old twelvemonth.
2.3 Topographic point
Topographic point refer to the distribution channel where witnesss can purchase the tickets to watch the competition and the location where the competition takes topographic point.
Now, with the current promotion of engineering, we are able to buy the tickets to watch any competitions held in any portion of the universe. We can log in to the official web site and purchase the tickets online handily.
Australia had developed the state to host many major featuring events such as Sydney Olympics Games 2000, IRB Rugby World Cup 2003, Melbourne Commonwealth Games 2006, etc. Harmonizing to Higham ( 2005a ) , the bowl Australia Trust, together with the Olympic Co-ordinating Authority and the Sydney Organizing Committee for the Olympic Games, identified Homebush Bay as the location for the bulk of the sporting venures for the Olympic Games. This included the 110 000 capacity Stadium Australia ( at a cost of $ A 480 million, and now the Telstra Stadium, host to the 2003 Rugby World Cup Final ) , the State Hockey Centre, and Novotel and Ibis Hotels.
Promotion is an effectual tool to pass on with the selected mark tourers. It can construct and creates individuality for the state. Australia Sports Commission had work on publicity scheme to market itself to athleticss tourer. The vision is to go on to be recognised as the universe leader in developing high public presentation and community athletics. This will make a positive image for athleticss tourer and contribute to the singularity of finish.
Harmonizing to Australia Sports Commission ( 2006a ) , one of the schemes adopted is to actively lend to international community athletics development plans, increase apprehension of international tendencies in athleticss. They provide funding, advanced support services, in partnership with national sporting administrations. This manner, it allows them to heighten high public presentation plans and to guarantee sustained international high public presentation success. They had promoted more effectual tracts into high public presentation development for gifted persons who aspire to vie at higher degree.
SWOT analysis is an acronym for strengths, failings, chances and menaces. It provides an effectual model for analyzing internal resources and external tendencies.
Australia has a proud tradition and civilization in athleticss touristry. The national athleticss system, its bringing mechanisms and its plan are widely regarded as universe leaders. This will hike the repute in the athleticss tourer industry.
Harmonizing to Australia Sports Commission ( 2006b ) , Australian Government together with Australian Sports Commission provides unprecedented degrees of support for Australian athletics. Strong leading and impulse through a comprehensive scope of plans and enterprises shows the governmental support for sport touristry industry. With the strong support, it will take to an addition in tourer reachings for any athleticss event held in Australia.
Harmonizing to a study on Sydney 2000 Olympics, there were more than ten 1000 jocks travelled to Australia from 199 states to vie in 28 athleticss. There was a sum of 6.7 million Olympic tickets sold, more than four and a half million fans passed through the Gatess at Sydney Olympic Park to witness the games. From this figure, we are able to place the success of Sydney Olympic Games.
After looking at the strength, we will research on the failings of athleticss touristry. It is non easy for a state to host mega event such as Olympic. Government and organizing commission had to work closely together to guarantee that the event goes swimmingly and successfully.
During the Sydney Olympic Games in 2000, there was concern that many tourer will non desire to take Australia as a vacation finish. They want to avoid the crowd traveling for the Games, the uncertainnesss such as traffic congestion, herding, security issues and etc. Thus, Australia authorities will hold to look into this peculiar sector of touristry so that they are non being neglected. If this country is managed good, Australia will be an thought finish for all types of tourer even during the period where the Game is traveling on.
The hosting of Sydney Olympics had created a batch of chances for Australia athletics touristry industry. Sydney 2000 Olympics had left a bequest of expertness in a scope of sports- touristry related Fieldss. Now, Australia has more chances to keep athleticss events at the international, national and regional degrees. This will consequences in an addition in gross domestic merchandise and employment rates for Australia.
Sports director have to continuously develop new athletics merchandise to heighten the position of the athletics as a tourer attractive force. This will assist to bring forth new touristry market or spread out on bing touristry markets. The development or upgrading of athletics installations is an effectual scheme to make out to the new market section for athleticss touristry. Sport sellers can develop originative selling techniques to encompass international tourers sing the finish as a causal consumer of athleticss ( Hingh & A ; Higham, 2004 )
Sport touristry is a menace to the natural environment. In order to provide to the big demand of witnesss and participants, athletics locale and substructure have to be improvised. During the procedure of upgrading these installations, ecosystem is being damaged. Ecosystem consists of different type of species, vegetations and zoologies. This will go a menace to biodiversity and nursery consequence. In the long tally, it will go a lasting and irreversible environmental harm.
Harmonizing to Higham ( 2005b ) , long term impacts include debasement of natural landscapes. Due to extremes of height and clime, touristry in alphine ecologies require drawn-out recovery and regeneration timeframes, long term monitoring and appropriate direction intercessions.
3.0 Factors That Motivate Tourists
Sport touristry entails a set of motives. The authoritative theories of motive normally applied to understand leisure, athletics and touristry behaviors are Murray ‘s ( 1938 ) Needs Theory of Personality and Maslow ‘s ( 1943 ) Hierarchical Theory of Needs.
3.1 Murray ‘s Needs Theory of Personality
Murray ( 1938 ) developed a theory of personality that was organized in footings of motivations, imperativenesss and demands. It is explained that ‘A demand is a stimulus – a force forcing an person in a certain way or to act in a certain manner ‘ . He identified 12 physiological demands and 28 psychological demands. Physiological needs, viewed as primary demands, include air, H2O, nutrient and security. Psychological needs, viewed as secondary demands, are related to mental or emotional satisfaction – including accomplishment, liberty and satisfied.
3.2 Maslow ‘s Hierarchical Theory of Needs
Maslow ‘s ( 1943 ) Hierarchical Theory of Needs suggests that people are motivated to carry through basic demands before they move on to other demands. Maslow ‘s theory and Murray ‘s theory are similar, in the sense that both propose that people ‘s behavior is driven by both physiological and social-psychological demands. However, Maslow developed a more structured hierarchal order to the activation and satisfaction of demands. He suggested that an person has to fulfill the lower order of demands before working on the higher order of demands. The top of the hierarchy is the demand for self-actualization, which is an chance for persons ‘to become everything that one is capable of going ‘ . The needs become more psychological and societal as one advancement up the pyramid. Maslow found that holiday satisfaction was associated with the grade to which the demands for self-actualisation, belongingness and physiology were met by the experience.
In sport touristry, the relationship between demands and activity pick is complex. Hence, it is non sufficient to partner off a set of demands with an activity. The same activity may be motivated by different demands at different times for one person. In another instance, one activity may stand for different significances to another person at the same clip ( Crandall, 1980 ) . Despite the complexness of the relationship, motive theory still provides penetrations into why people choose to take portion in certain activities.
In the context of athletics touristry, push factor is the demand to necessitate to fit an person ‘s motives and pull factor is the outlook sing a holiday with the properties of a peculiar finish.
3.3 Push factor
Push factor are alone to each tourer. They are determined by the personality and attitude of single. To a certain extend, athletics tourer may be motivated by push factor. They want to get away from day-to-day modus operandi, explore other signifier of athleticss, interact and construct friendly relationship with people. This group of tourer want to derive new exposure and achieve something from the trip.
3.4 Pull factor
Pull factor is an extrinsic factor. They include monetary value, finish image, selling and publicity of the host state. Harmonizing to Higham ( 2005 ) finish image is an of import property that formulate the outlook of the state. Physical properties include attractive forces, activities, featuring installations and physical landscapes. Abstract attributes are atmosphere, herding, safety and atmosphere. These properties are indispensable to further a distinguishable finish trade name and advantageous finish imagination. If the state is perceive as a cohesive state, that is safe and secure for any signifier of athleticss to take topographic point, tourer will go to that state to bask the competition. In this manner, tourer reaching and outgo will increase.
4.0 Future Challenges
Sport and touristry phenomena are dynamic and delicate. Sport touristry industry will confront some hereafter challenges. If these challenges are managed good, sport touristry industry will pull more athleticss tourer sing the state.
4.1 Technology promotion
With technological promotion, people are able to watch the Games played through the usage of athleticss describing media such as synergistic telecasting and Internet. Now, the inquiry to us: will athleticss tourers want to go out of their comfort zone to see a wholly different go oning where sounds, sights and atmosphere can be virtually created? Is at that place any desire for them to go to another state if they can watch the Games in the amenitiess of their place?
Harmonizing to a study on Sydney 2000 Olympics, it show that Sydney 2000 was broadcast in 220 states and generated more than 36.1 billion telecasting screening hours. Nine out of 10 persons in the universe with entree to telecasting watched some portion of the Olympics – runing from an mean four hours per viewer to more than 37 hours per spectator in Japan. From this statistics, we are able to cognize that there are many people who do non necessitate to go to Australia but they are still able to bask the Games played.
4.2 Tendencies in Winter Sport Tourism
Winter touristry is an of import beginning of income for many alpine countries. Hence, they are extremely dependent on satisfactory snow conditions. Skiing, snowboarding are some of the athleticss activities that are extremely depend on snow. Recently, due to an impact of clime alteration and conditions conditions, the deficiency of snow during winter season poses a challenge for assorted states such as Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Austria and etc.
Winter touristry depends on good snow conditions. Hence, athletics touristry developer and event organisers should concentrate on ways to better the state of affairs of this country so as non to lose the ski market touristry.
4.3 Growth of athleticss tourer seeking alternate athleticss
It is seen as a common tendency for athletics participants to seek alternate athleticss and new ways to make athleticss. They have taken a great involvement to play other athleticss that will convey them more exhilaration. Harmonizing to Higham ( 2005c ) , alone athletics subcultures have emerged in association with alternate athleticss.
The growing of alternate athleticss will present as a challenge for any state. A state that wants to develop these alternate athleticss must put a significant amount of money. New, progress substructure and installations has to be built to provide to this group of athletics tourers seeking alternate athleticss. It will be really hard for a state that does non hold the necessary athleticss resources and expertness to develop alternate athleticss.
5.0 Conclusion and Recommendation
Sport is omnipresent as a signifier of popular civilization. There are some ways that sport touristry developer can follow to minimise the hereafter challenges of athleticss touristry. Once these challenges are manage good, there will be a steady addition in sport tourer reachings to the state.
5.1 Invest in snow-making
Due to climate alteration and planetary heating, athletics touristry developer has taken a future measure to look at the innovation of snow doing. Harmonizing to Higham ( 2005d ) , snow devising is a technological development that lengthened the ski season in the snow-belt provinces. It besides made athletics possible in countries where natural snowfall was less than abundant.
Although snow devising is an expansive investing, it is seen as an indispensable manner to guarantee sport touristry activities take topographic point. Many states are willing to pass 1000000s of dollar to do unreal snow so that they will capture tourers who want to bask the ski installations and resort.
5.2 Sustainable athletics touristry
Harmonizing to ( Butler 1993, in Hinch and Higham, 2004 ) , sustainable touristry is touristry in a signifier which can keep its viability in an country for indefinite period. The accomplishment of sustainable athletics touristry requires a balance between societal ends, economic ends and environmental ends.
Sustainable touristry is one of the ends for many sport touristry states. In order to make this end, sport touristry should heighten the social/cultural dimension of the community. Mega-events such as Olympic gamess can include cultural factors of the state. Sport tourer can watch the Games and larn about the civilization of the state at the same clip.
5.3 Market variegation
Market variegation is a tool that sellers of athletics touristry administration can follow. It is an effectual manner to section the market and make out to them. The targeted section will be people who are non tied down to traditional holiday constructions. They are more likely to go during shoulder and off-season period. This group of people are conference delegates, incentive travelers and particular involvement group.
Sellers can see cross-leverage athletics and touristry across the full selling mix to pull them. They have the power to pass on any athletics activities as they have the luxury of clip. Harmonizing to Higham ( 2005e ) , Canmore in Canada is numbering on the ageing babe boomers to assist extinguish the shoulder season. There are programs drawn up for a wellness and health resort offering a myriad of traditional and non-traditional wellness services.
All in a nutshell, the field of athletics and touristry are dynamic industries. Sport touristry organisers and finish directors have to understand and react to these turning tendencies in an effectual mode. This is so as to accomplish a competitory advantage in the athletics touristry field. In mega event or small-scale event, forming commission has to be after and pull off all type of activities in athletics event in an orderly mode. The success of the event will consequences in a positive image of touristry finish. It will derive the celebrity and pull more tourers to the finish to take part or bask the athleticss activities.