1. Democracy is a type of government that emanates from the constituted powers that are elected, depending on the system (presidentialist, parliamentary, constitutional monarchy, semi presidentialist, semi parliamentary, etc… ) directly or indirectly by the people. Whereas in an absolute monarchy, an absolutist regime exists and is in power because of family lineage.
2. In democracy three state powers(in most cases) exist as a checks and balances system, these being the judicial, executive and legislative as it was enunciated in Montesquieu ’s Of the Spirit of law.
And they are independent, complementary and with no relation of subordination. Whereas in an absolute monarchy, the monarch holds all of the state power in his hands, therefore not having a checks and balances system, and the monarch is entitled to do whatever he wants.
3. On a democracy the president can either serve as head of state, head of government or both, depending of the system that applies to the country, and with limited powers, but in a monarchy the king is the head of state and monarch, having complete power to decide on matters that a head of state or of government wouldn’t be able to do so.
4. In a democracy there is a Political Constitution the defines how the country’s structure is going to be, how the public officers are going to be elected, how it will work, etc… In a monarchy there doesn’t exists, not a real one at least, a constitution and the only orders that are valid are the ones that emanate from the Monarch.
5. In a democracy human rights are guaranteed by the constitution and its laws, whereas in a Monarchic regime the state entities defined by the king will kill, torture, and abuse people, just to assure a popular insurrection doesn’t arise.
6. In a democracy there are several ways to have reinstated one’s rights hen they are being abused by the government, but in a monarchy there is no way to reinstate your non-existent rights, the only way is to get killed by the king’s army.
7. Under a democracy all citizens are equal under the law, there are no privileged classes, and the general principles of law apply, such as the: Prior in tempore potior in iure, In dubio pro reo, Nemo judex in sua causa, contractus lex, Nullum crimen, nulla poena sine lege, etc…. Whereas in a monarchy the monarch is the law and there are privileged classes, where no laws apply, just the laws of the king.