Nepal faces assortments of jeopardies, which combined with the turning population and terrible lacking in instruction and consciousness, consequence in really high grade of hazards. Harmonizing to a recent survey by UNDP/BCPR ( UNDP, 2004 ) , among 200 states, Nepal stands at 11th and 30th severally with respect to relative exposure to temblor and inundation. Apart from this, Nepal is exposed to several types of catastrophes such as inundations, landslides, drouths, air current storms, avalanches, dust flow, GLOF, cloudburst, hailstorms, fires, epidemics, lightning and ecological jeopardies. A broad scope of physiological, geological, ecological, meteoric and demographic factors contribute to the catastrophe exposure of the state.

Other major factors are rapid population growing, high grade of environmental debasement, breakability of the land mass and steep inclines.The state of affairs of most of the rural and hilly countries of Nepal is characterized by poorness and want, debasement and depletion of natural resources, and low degree of physical substructure development. Because of Himalayas in northern portion of county and spilling cragged bouldery terrain in most of the countries in in-between zone, the field ( Terai ) territories have high menace on implosion therapy. Furthermore, fickle rainfall, drouth, snowfall, landslide and other natural catastrophes create mayhem in human life and colony.In chapter two, the theoretical model is designed and some semi-structure questionnaires is developed for the information assemblage with respondents to find the affecting factors for logistics operation in Nepal which is described as the consequence of this survey.

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Logisticss Professional:

Emergency human-centered logistics operations often require the engagement of several human-centered organisations, authoritiess and independent NGOs, every bit good as the usage of a figure of conveyance manners ( Beresford and Rugamba, 1996 ) .

Frazelle ( 2001 ) describes as “the key to keeping high degrees of logistics public presentation is maintaining high public presentation on the occupation. The key to maintaining high public presentations on the occupation is to dispute their professionally.” This could be appropriate statement to warrant the deficiency of logistics professional in the filed of logistics professionalism itself. On the other manus, Nepal is rather far manner from the professional logistics attack. Ministry of Home Affair, Government of Nepal ( answering 2 ) plays a coordinative function for human-centered aid through Disaster Management Section.

The authorities could non apportion specific section for Humanitarian logistics/supply concatenation direction and on the other manus, authorities officer is non appointed on the footing of specialisation cognition in the peculiar field. They are appointed on bureaucratic system. So, those officer who is responsible for catastrophe direction, s/he will be the responsible for human-centered logistics operation every bit good.

Most of the respondent from respondent- 1 besides realized the deficiency of logistics professional in international human-centered organisation itself. Some organisation have logistics section and operating by international professional but chief job was they were non more familiar on the geographical division and transit system of the state. Some respondents besides indicated the logistics operation as “politicians and international logistics director chartered chopper to supervise the catastrophe and epidemic affected country while medical specialty and other alleviation stuff used to direct by local porter, Equus caballus and animate being in hilly countries and truck in field area” This shows the dark and darkness on logistics operation in Nepal.Answering 3 is the operative force for human-centered aid and fundamentally they use the “fire fighting” technique instead than the most appropriate methodological analysis where necessary.

I found most of the respondent assumed the human-centered logistics is the portion of the catastrophe direction and same undertaking director developed the policy for catastrophe direction and logistics operation. Although some I/NGOs have logistics manager/officer, usually they were passing their most clip merely to pull offing the bringing stuffs and tracking the vehicle instead than in be aftering policies and schemes to better the map. On the other manus the human-centered logistics and supply concatenation direction was really freshly heard term for respondent 4 and some logistics term and nomenclature used in questionnaire was besides really freshly heard word for some of the respondent and took really long treatment and account to clear up it. The survey besides found the most of warehouse operator of NRCS was general administrative clerk and they did non hold any specific instruction or preparation on logistics and supply concatenation direction or warehouse direction.

Infrastructure and Geography

International human-centered operations may be hindered by administrative and logistical constrictions because of hapless substructure in the aid-receiving part and the multiplicity of bureaus and authoritiess ( Van Wassenhove and Samii, 2003 ) , and therefore impeding efficient bringing and distribution of alleviation ladings to the needy ( Van Wassenhove and Samii, 2003 ) . Coordination may be unequal ( Auf der Heide, 1989 ; Mileti, 1999 ) because of geographical scattering, insufficient or inaccurate communicating between the field and the caput offices of human-centered administrations, and between different administrations. Some administrations may transcend their authorization and act in a controlling or tyrannizing mode ( Dynes, 1994 ) .

In alleviation work, both in catastrophes and complex human-centered exigencies, damaged substructure, unaccessible substructure, and the deficiency of substructure needed for big scale aid lead to constrictions, holds, and congestion at entry points to the catastrophe country. As goods inundation into a part, they can be held up at airdromes due to deficiency of transit, permission to come in certain countries, or even roads. This is a job across all alleviation ironss, and those employed during the inundation were no exclusion.

As the H2O rushed ashore, it damaged the full substructure in its way. This included roads, Bridgess, warehouses, airdromes, ports, vehicles, and communications substructure. As the H2O receded, it left debris covering everything, both substructure it damaged and substructure it left integral. The demands placed on this substructure by the alleviation ironss revealed lacks in the undamaged substructure: a deficiency of available vehicles, deficient fuel storage, runways excessively little to pull off lading planes, unequal warehouse infinite, and scarce air traffic control.Nepal is geographically disadvantageous state and most of the country of the state covered by either wood or hill and Himalayas with much undeveloped substructure.

The logistics operation system in those countries is like mediaeval age. Still, people are compelled to used animate being or porter to transport the goods. Respondents are agreed the substructure and geographical part makes logistics operation really dearly-won and slow.

Political Pressures

In some instances, human-centered assistance became politicized adding unpredictable restraints to the alleviation logistics. Both cardinal and community level political groups wanted to command assistance for countries of catastrophe that have been the topic of political differences. Customss ordinances became a tool used by the authorities to determine organisational responses. Nepal is still unstable political state of affairs and work stoppages and other force have non wholly stopped which causes the transit block, late bringing.

Unsolicited and Unsuitable Goods

The Koshi inundation has generated an improbably generous response. A part of that response has been unasked goods donated by persons, groups, and corporations. These contributions can be uneffective, devour cherished clip and resources, and do non esteem the human self-respect of those in demand.Relief assistance is sensitive to context. In general, goods are location sensitive and expensive to transport, due to both weight and the location of the people that need it. The donees are frequently in difficult to make locations or in topographic points with damaged substructure. The goods need to be culturally and technologically appropriate.

These facts appear straightforward, yet about every catastrophe and complex human-centered exigency brushs unasked and unsuitable goods. Winter jackets, winter collapsible shelters, expired tins of salmon, Cologne, high heeled stiletto places, and sequin-studded black eventide frocks were sent by good intending people and organisations ( Barta & A ; Bellman, 2005 ) . Some points, while utile themselves are non appropriate technologically. For illustration, victims populating in cantonments without can openers can non easy devour the canned nutrient contributions. Other points are non culturally appropriate.

Bath gel, lotion, and other western cosmetics are fresh and confounding. Used apparels, kitchen utensils, and pots and pans serve to thwart those who they are seeking to assist.