Discuss the stages of development in one traditional sport or leisure activity (The Seaside Holiday) and in one newer sport (Surfing) in Britain during the last century. Make particular comment on how changing social conditions have influenced access and opportunity for different groups in these two case studies. This essay will examine the expansion of seaside holiday throughout the United Kingdom. It will examine the impact ongoing changes in the various gender, age and social groups.After this it will analyze these same issues but for modern sport in Great Britain – surfing. Freelance historian, Kathryn Ferry (2009, p7) wrote, that half of the twentieth century have brought to millions of British people an incredible survival – spending their free time during the holiday at the seaside.

Likewise children and adults could not wait to see sights that were possible only during the holidays spending near the coastline.Building sand castles, hanging out at the beach, taking sea and sun bathing, and finally, bragging to friends how great it was to have relax from everyday life. Young bachelors and maidens in holiday saw the chance to make new friends, casual affairs, and spending as much free time just for having fun. English Professor John Walton, listed the basic elements of ‘traditional’ seaside holidays. And despite all the changes that have occurred, and receipts from other countries continue to connected with: Childish innocence (buckets, spades and sandcastles), nature (starfish, rock-pools and gulls as well as the power and tranquility of the sea itself), simple ‘old-fashioned’ fun (donkeys, roundabouts, Punch and Judy, boat trips, beach entertainers), and tasty, informal seaside food: fattening, glutinous and eaten out of the bag while on the move, in defiance of conventional table manners (fish and chips, ice cream, candy-floss, cockles and whelks).

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” (BBC, 2010)The origins of the coastal holiday dates already in the second half of the eighteenth century, however, most development occurred after World War II, here people can fully enjoy a minimum of six days of paid holiday leave. (K. Ferry,2009,p7) One of the main means of tourists transport was trains. From the crowded third-class carriages without basic sanitary facilities to an exclusive first class for wealthier residents. With the growing interest of the rich holiday, and the desire to improve the convenience of traveling by trains powered locomotives replaced the electric expresses. Steamers were another possibility, however, not everyone could afford them.

Ease of movement around the boat, fun and make new acquaintances were associated not only with longer-lasting journey but also greater costs. From the twenties of the twentieth century when there was a development of automotive industry and access to own car was getting easier, have become a popular short trips to the seaside. Holidaymakers were more independent and travel time decreased significantly. Efforts were made to use every day off of work including Bank Holidays.

The drawback was the heavy traffic in cities such as Brighton or Blackpool. The development of aviation has contributed to widening ever more distant destinations. J. Walvin, 1978, p81) It follows therefore that is where the holiday took place depended on the position in society. Lower classes could not afford to travel far and they are mostly limited transport to trains, which reach only to certain places.

This was of course until the car was a good on the agenda. On Sundays and Bank Holidays the number of people traveling and visiting the seaside resorts break all records. For example: “The South Wales tinplate works stopped for a week at the beginning of August, releasing some 28,000 employees for their annual holiday by 1920.The communal nature of these breaks influenced the way people took their holidays, with friends, neighbors and whole streets going to the same place year after year. ” (K. Ferry,2009,p24) Sunday trips were also a memorable event for children.

Schools organized day trips, which the kids were waiting with longing. First short trip to the train station, then great fun in the crowded train, so that over the sea spend money intended for candy and fun. London laundry girls often did the following Monday’s trips to Southend. Travelling by coach and taking with them a pack of beers they counted only for a great fun with an alcohol.However, during the tours people were not only spending their money on eating and drinking but also a spent huge amount for souvenirs, for yourself also as presents for family, friends, friends of friends and so on. As K.

Ferry (2009,p31) mentioned, with the increase of visitors has grown also the accommodate tourists industry. From year to year, including accommodations and meals were more and more. In the thirties of the twentieth century in Blackpool could have accommodated even seven million tourists each year (Southend – 5,5mln, Hastings – 3mln, Bournemouth and Southport – 2mln, Eastbourne and Ramsgate – 1mln).Compared to the eighteenth-century conditions, where visitors could stay mostly in the houses of fishermen, but living conditions two centuries later were very differential. From luxury villas with sea views to modest, but small rooms of a very family character. Everyone was able to find something for yourself. It was associated mainly because of different income of visitors. Sometimes happened also that holidaymakers were a lot more than the possible sites for housing.

And so on August Bank Holiday in 1926 there were about 10 thousand in Southend.However, Blackpool officers beat a record in ’52 – people who do not have a place to stay was up to 25 thousand. They would sleep on benches, in cinemas, closed stalls, or wherever it is possible to take a nap for a while. Rooms with bathrooms are no longer something new for poorer tourists until the late twentieth century. Previously shared baths are on the agenda. Camping with self-catering has become very popular in the twentieth century. In 1901 was founded by Thomas Hiram Holding the club under the name of the Association of Cycle Campers (later, The Camping and Caravanning Club).In the late thirties, people were leaving the sea to spend several days in a tent.

They were mainly single men. Family trips were organized for longer periods and more distant destinations. In the sixties there was a significant development in this field of tourism. On the coast began to form specialized camping gear and he was becoming more professional and more comfortable tents. There is also some less expensive equipment for the middle class, this gave the opportunity to enjoy a new attraction for almost all residents of the United Kingdom. Turning now to spend time on the sea (K. Ferry,2009,p73), great changes have taken place in women’s bathing suits.

Compared with that at the beginning ladies was limited only to the hem of her skirt and entering the water after the calf, the assumption swimsuit unfolding whole legs, shoulders and back was really a great event. More modern outfit helped in getting a tan, and turned the “bath” in the possibility of swimming. Over the years, the outfit still transformed, and finally in the sixties reduced to three small triangles. Entertainment was the main reason for travel on holiday. To increase the interest of tourists in the centers decided to introduce a little bit exotic.

In the twenties, planted palm trees and created gardens in the Japanese style. Good examples of orientalism are also: Brighton Palace Pier Theatre and Southport Pier Pawillion. Created a lot of new attractions such as opera, aquariums, amusement parks, winter gardens and ballrooms. All this for tourists from the upper classes, to have enjoyed a high level of entertainment. There were many places where they could listen to classical music and see performances by top comedians in the country. Especially the dance halls attracted enormous attention.It was a place where, in addition to music and dance can be to drink and have fun with the opposite sex.

Over the years, changing the style of dance and music, but the aim was always the same. (K. Ferry,2009,chapter 9). Returning to the theme parks, it all started from the simple and traditional to electronic game machines, where visitors naively tried to win a large sum of money.

They resembled small casinos of Las Vegas and allow for a moment forget about the world around them, sometimes with painful effect of an empty wallet. Luna park with various rides were intended not only for children but also for adults.They were able to recall the carefree days of childhood. Devil mills, rotors, rotating cups in the summer never stopped. One of the most popular sites was and is Blackpool. Unfortunately, at the end of the twentieth century, the British seaside holiday has became for some simply old-fashioned or too expensive for others, or not enough sunny and warm.

It should be remembered that it was primarily opportunity for working men and women to have break from the hard work and have some relax, and their children had a unique chance to see the sea for the first time in their lives.An integral part of the seaside holiday is definitely surfing. The oldest records about the history of surfing from 1778, when Captain James Cook during his third expedition to the Pacific was the first documented European to visit Hawaii. In the Cook’s logs was a description of an islanders, who rode the waves using the surfboards. In reference to an ‘Encyclopedia of Surfing’ written by Matt Warshaw state that the British surfing began in 1959 for the time after rescuers from Newquay to keep on the waves used a hollow wooden boards.However the ‘Museum of British Surfing’ says that the first mention of surfing in Britain was already thirty years earlier. When a group of friends from London and Hove saw the film, but rather in a newsreel surfing Australians. This moment changed their past life.

The first four feet long surfing ‘plank’ they built in 1929. The most important thing was that they decided to document everything, all of their learning and later deeds on surfing board was recording on video. Unfortunately, by the outbreak of World War II, the development of surfing has been temporarily suspended.

This remarkable photograph was taken by the Millar family while on holiday in North Devon in August 1939, just weeks before the outbreak of World War Two. It shows cars parked on the beach at Croyde right up to the waters edge ; people in the background surfing on their wooden bellyboards, with a decent swell running. ” (Museum of British Surfing, 2010) According to Dr Belinda Wheaton in the second half of the twentieth century, surfing began to grow again. Initially, heavy and difficult to transport wooden planks were replaced later with fiberglass.The development of the surfing and its culture was associated with a number of objections. Young people practicing the sport characterized by a different dress, vocabulary, style of life and musical tastes. This was regarded by the older generation as an insult to culture.

World War implanted them with other values, so the hobby of surfing meant for them a waste of time. People was very wrong. Clusters surfers resembled a family, they supported each other, learn and give advice.

They can be compared to modern tribal groups, which were characterized mainly brotherhood.Sport was a good way to discharge negative emotions, so as not to harm others. Culture surfers mainly included male gender.

The reason was primarily physical. It was believed that a man should show their skills on the waves, and the role of women was sitting on the beach and watching. In the nineties, the sport has also become popular among women. It is stated that due to a more stable surfboards, so that it could have been easier to learn and maintain balance. There was also the problem of female sexuality, but for those who are more involved in sports was nothing important.Today there are even websites created just for surfers girls (eg.

www. surfgirlmag. com).

In 1966, set up an association which was to bring together and represent all surfers UK. The tasks must first be organizing training and courses, organization of competitions (mainly the most important: the British National Championship for Shortboard, longboard, bodyboard and kneeboard events. ) contacting other associations of this type, and to represent Great Britain in the world.

Three years later created the first magazine for British surfers. In the seventies, an increasing number of surfers and companies producing equipment. In 1978 Britain produces its first professional surfer, who ironically given its heritage, is a member of the British Aristocracy: Viscount Ted Deerhurst. ” (History of British surfing, yosurfer. com) The eighties was a period of maturity of surfing, the changes that occur are not as big or extensive as before. In 1989, Martin Potter won for the Great Britain the title of “World Surfing Champion.

” At the end of the twentieth century appear first copies of two important magazines, “Carve”and “The Surfers Path. ” Surfers organize many of ecological movements and take part in several campaigns.Surfers Against Sewage – a group of British surfers, which is struggling with the pollution of waters to be free from sewage, chemicals and other toxic wastes.

The organization represents today a growing number of members, has had many successes, and the traffic surfing is highly regarded not only in the country but also abroad. ( www. sas. org. uk) “Surf culture is now mature enough to experience the phenomenon of retro. ” (History of British surfing, yosurfer. com) Followed return to long boards, as it was in the early history of surfing.

The popularity of short is not declining. In the last century in Great Britain there has been considerable development of sport and recreation. An example may be described in this essay seaside holiday and surfing. The dominant population in both activities were young people who are not afraid to break with routine. Fun, meet new people, places, detachment from reality, this is what connects these two case studies.

Surfing unfortunately only limited to young people, and tourists spending time at the seaside were differences in age and wealth.The tourist infrastructure has been so designed that everyone can find something for yourself. In both cases at the beginning evident difference was gender.

Starting from the seaside swimwear after he participated in surfing. The development activity has been adapted to the user. Transport, accommodation, entertainment is the most important elements of the acquisition of new tourists. Similarly, in the surf, the corresponding improvement of equipment attracted the new surfers. In both areas still will change in such a way as to ‘offer’ was for the possible widest number of customers.

References:1. Ferry, K. (2009). The British Seaside Holiday.

Great Britain, Shire Publications Ltd. 2. Walvin, J. (1978). Down to the sea in droves.

Leisure and Society 1830-1950. New York, Longman. 3. Walton, J. (2010). The Victorian Seaside [Internet]. BBC British History.

Available from: http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/victorians/seaside_01.shtml [Accessed 15 October 2010]. 4.

Friese-Greene, C. (1925/6). The Open Road. Blackpool Pleasure Beach, Lancashire (1926) by FBIfilms [Internet] Youtube. Available from: http://www.youtube.

com/watch?v=VvUjbKUBMmo&feature=related [Accessed 23 June 2008]. 5. Booth, D. (2004). Surfing: from one (cultural) extreme

to another. In: Wheaton, B. (ed.

) Understanding Lifestyle Sport: Consumption, Identity, and Difference. New York, Taylor & Francis. 6. Warshaw, M. (2005). The encyclopedia of surfing, Matt Warshaw. London : Harcourt, Orlando, Fla. 7.

SAS. History of SAS [Internet]. Available from: http://www.sas.org.uk/sas-background/history-of-sas/ 8.

Museum of British Surfing. British surfing history archives [Internet]. Available from: http://www.museumofbritishsurfing.org.uk/category/surf-history/