Echo Personality Disorder Essay, Research Paper
The term Echo Personality Disorder was coined by British Psychosynthesis practician Patrick Hurst, as a replacing term for & # 8216 ; Inverted Narcissism & # 8217 ; and & # 8216 ; Covert Narcissism & # 8217 ; which subsequently footings place indefensible accent on egotistic qualities of the personality, which in many of these persons may non be a characteristic at all.
EPD is a extremely differentiated signifier of Dependent Personality Disorder, marked by behaviors of conformity and a demand to & # 8216 ; mirror & # 8217 ; important others -parents, partner, friends, employer. Persons with EPD may be attracted to relationships with persons demoing marked egotistic traits -people who need to be mirrored or praised- though this in no manner forms a & # 8220 ; standard & # 8221 ; or & # 8220 ; cosmopolitan form & # 8221 ; as is frequently claimed by theoreticians. EPD persons may come in into relationships with a great assortment of people, though at nucleus there is a inclination to take state of affairss in which unanswered love will be the result.
These traits -choosing important relationships where love can ne’er be satisfactorily consumated, and the inclination to mirror important others- were actuating characteristics for taking the term Echo Personality Disorder. In Grecian mythology Echo was the lover of Narcissus. In this myth Echo, a wood nymph, falls in love with the egoistic young person Narcissus, and when he shows clear marks of rejecting her she persists in her attatchement, and will non be moved from her purpose. She eventually satisfies herself with the masochistic undertaking of repeating back to him all that he says. This excessively is a cardinal characteristic of EPD behavior in relationships, where the person will mirror, echo, and compliment another at the disbursal of their ain dignity and self-respect. This repeating behavior, though, does non wash up the fabulous potency of Echo, even if observers on the myth narrow their descriptions to this individual episode with Narcissus. Echo besides has dealingss with Zeus, Hera, Pan, and Gaia, which have a different colour to those she has with Narcissus, and has many friends in the signifier of other forest nymphs – & # 8221 ; sisters & # 8221 ; as we would name them today ; certifying to the complexness we find within the Echo personality configuration.
Self descriptions of EPD persons frequently relate a deficiency of ego worth, and an attach toing fright of rejection, forsaking, and loss, as a consequence of feeling & # 8220 ; unacceptable & # 8221 ; to others. These agonising frights are a impulsive force behind the above-named interpersonal header manner ( mirroring and reflecting others ) . These persons protect themselves from rejection/abandonment by moving so agreeable to others, via their mirroring capacity, that opportunities of re-experiencing forsaking torment is brought to a safe lower limit. Others by and large enjoy being around the benevolent atmosphere cultivated by an EPD person. Unfortunately this interpersonal manner of associating sums to a false being with small or even no true-self look, taking to hapless psychological wellness, and deficiency of individuality.
One characteristic predisposing background of EPD involves persons being parented by caretakers who are themselves self-involved, egotistic, or excessively punitory. In this sort of environment the kid learns that asseverating one & # 8217 ; s & # 8216 ; true ego & # 8217 ; will be met with a signifier of ( frequently consecutive ) rejection, to which the kid responds by replacing & # 8216 ; compliant & # 8217 ; behaviour in topographic point of true selfhood. Such compliant behaviors can so be witnessed as a stable characteristic throughout the kid & # 8217 ; s growing-up old ages, with other school kids, and within the household.
Depression, smoke, alchoholism, and habit-forming behaviors all occur with really high frequence in this personal property type.
On a more positive note, EPD persons are first-class subscribers to society and household life ; are frequently perceptive of the demands of others ; and bask lending in a helpful manner. The extremely well-thought-of faiths of Christianity and Buddhism are based on such rules of selflessness and charity, and this is a life style at which the EPD person can be said to be adept. Good traits such as these can non be written off with a catch-cry of & # 8216 ; pathology & # 8217 ; , and if the EPD person can recover a healthy sense-of-self whilst keeping these good traits, they have the potency to go idols of societal behavior.
-Essay based on Patrick Hurst & # 8217 ; s definition of EPD.
Echo: a quotation mark from & # 8216 ; Narcissism and Character Transformation & # 8217 ; by Nathan Schwartz-Salant
& # 8220 ; It has been said that the Echo episode was added by Ovid to a anterior version of the myth ; if this is so it merely more attests to Ovid & # 8217 ; s mastermind, for Echo laudably represents the feminine opposite number of Narcissus. And she besides represents what is found clinically when confronting egotistic attitudes of utmost defensive control. Then the demand for mirroring, the demand that we & # 8220 ; shut up and listen! & # 8221 ; -respect the significance of this control- so reduces us to an reverberation, unless, that is, we blunder. But otherwise we are so controlled? and we have small voice of our own. & # 8221 ;
& # 8220 ; In early interventions of the myth, possibly up to the twelth century, Narcissus is the chief concern, and Echo is secondary. But bit by bit she becomes of import in her ain right, treated with compassion as an illustration of unanswered love. & # 8221 ;
But in respects to the procedure of therapy, & # 8220 ; is the procedure of repeating, being an empathic mirror, even in existent, psychic deepness, plenty for the transmutation of the egotistic character upset? Surely, without sensitive and effectual mirroring there is small opportunity of perforating the egotistic defences. Like Narcissus, egotistic
characters are terrified of being controlled, for they have so small sense of personal power. Hence the sadism and extreme inhuman treatment that dominates their behavior when in any manner pressed, merely “Hands Off! ” Embrace me non! May I die before I give you power o’er me! ” is Narcissus’ answer to Echo’s progresss. But while a meaningful echoing response is necessary, there is ground to doubt its transformative effectivity even when it exists with great psychic depth.”
Echos: from & # 8216 ; Echo & # 8217 ; s Passion & # 8217 ; By Patricia Berry
Little has been written about the figure of Echo, and those who have commented tend to see her negatively. These remarks bunch in subjects:
( 1 ) Echo has a self-defeating passion. She is in love with an unachievable object ( Narcissus ) . This is an impossible love, since Narcissus can & # 8217 ; t, and continually rejects her. Echo in this position is a sort of masochist. ( 2 ) Echo lacks individuality ; since she can merely repeat what others have said, she has no individuality of her ain. She ( 3 ) is merely antiphonal, ( 4 ) simply mimics, ( 5 ) ne’er originates.
What about this individuality Echo lacks? The thought of & # 8220 ; individuality & # 8221 ; is really voguish in current psychological science. & # 8220 ; Just be yourself, & # 8221 ; we say, as though one could step into something called & # 8220 ; self, & # 8221 ; as though whatever else one is making is non one & # 8217 ; s self but something other. Self individuality implies an entity distinct from milieus and other individuals. It implies an indispensable sameness, unity, and internal integrity of personality.
The observers are right. Echo is non identical or one ; nor is she separate from her milieus. ( She needs milieus in order to talk. ) Psychiatrically, Echo has so a really hapless sense of individuality. Further, her boundaries are so loose that she has been, at one clip or another, involved with everything & # 8230 ;
Possibly the ground we have concentrated on Narcissus to the exclusion of Echo is that Echo & # 8217 ; s passion is much more hard. Echo & # 8217 ; s passion is painful ; her yearning is unachievable. Echo & # 8217 ; s passion requires distance, a infinite between her and her beloved. To be true to Echo, one must cultivate this distance that agonizes and yet is one & # 8217 ; s aesthetic passion? This repeating distance creates a infinite for beauty. And Echo & # 8217 ; s beauty implies non merely heat but besides agony, affliction, sorrow. Echo & # 8217 ; s beauty is every bit a agony and a certain passiveness. That is to state, it is a agony of something beyond one & # 8217 ; s self-identified bounds or self-importance. It is related to passio, the Grecian poignancy. This passion is like a gustatory sensation or touch all the more affecting because it isn & # 8217 ; t existent. Or a passion all the more cherished because of the hurting of its nonconsumation. Nothing in the myth of Echo and Narcissus gets fulfilled -there & # 8217 ; s no happy ending- at least non in any ordinary sense. The focal point of the myth is on unrealized passion ( Echo for Narcissus and Narcissus for his contemplation ) .
Harmonizing to Ovid, Echo & # 8217 ; s love provenders on the fact that she is rejected. Her love & # 8220 ; grows on grief. & # 8221 ; It becomes greater because of the heartache. And in this love heartache, her organic structure wastes off until & # 8220 ; she becomes gaunt and wrinkled and all wet slices from her organic structure into the air. Merely her voice and her castanetss remain: so merely voice ; for they say that her castanetss were turned to stone. & # 8221 ;
Echos: from & # 8216 ; Narcissus and Oedipus & # 8217 ; By Victoria Hamilton
The myth tells us that & # 8220 ; Echo has been captivated by the voice of another of which she is a mere contemplation. Echo and Narcissus fit together absolutely ; neither is able to originate and prolong duologue.
Although Narcissus & # 8217 ; way is littered with heartlessly rejected lovers, it tends to elicit our ill will so that his spouse may get away our notice and judgement: Echo & # 8217 ; s plasticity is every bit distracting and, so, provocative. Not a note of disagreement can be traced in Echo & # 8217 ; s voice. She offers nil which might rectify Narcissus & # 8217 ; ever-expanding psychotic beliefs of magnificence. Rejection is the inevitable destiny which befalls a individual who is unable to take the enterprise to rectify blowouts in a system of communicating. In many relationships, we find an Echo who is outcast and a Narcissus who casts out. As in the myth, Echo & # 8217 ; s love remains & # 8216 ; steadfastly rooted in her bosom, and was increased by the hurting of holding been rejected & # 8217 ; . She maintains the belief that rejection is a necessary ingredient to love. But her masochistic fidelity merely reaffirms Narcissus in his position that she is no more than a mirror and a hapless animal. In bend, through loss of self-esteem, Echo is engulfed by melancholia. She falls prey to tantrums of unmitigated anxiousness and to self absorbed, compulsive contemplations. & # 8216 ; Her dying ideas kept her awake, and made her pitifully thin? . Sinse so, she hides in the forests and though ne’er seen in the mountains, is heard there by all: for her voice is the lone portion of her that still lives & # 8217 ; . Like many malancholics, in a province of drawn-out bereavement, her anxiousness renders her sleepless person which farther exacerbates the repetitiousness of her ideas. Without the interruption of slumber and the displacement in consciousness of dreams, Echo & # 8217 ; s life creases into one endless nightmare. & # 8221 ;
Mentions: Dependent Personality Disorder [ in ‘Disorders of Personality ‘ by Theodore Millon ]
Dependent Personality Disorder [ in ‘Diagnostic and Statistical Manual ‘ 4th edition ]
Self-love and Character Transformation, by Nathan Schwartz-Salant
Echo & # 8217 ; s Subtle Body, by Patricia Berry
Narcissus and Oedipus, by Victoria Hamilton
Inverted Narcissism, by Sam Vaknin [ hypertext transfer protocol: //www.geocities.com/vaksam/faq66.html ]
Related treatment forum [ hypertext transfer protocol: //communities.msn.com/Npartners/_whatsnew.msnw ]