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net*Capable: notesContent-Type: multipart/mixed ;boundary= & # 8221 ; & # 8212 ; & # 8212 ; & # 8212 ; & # 8212 ; CA080D6A5F82D8FD0221FE04 & # 8243 ;Content-Length: 70730This is a multi-part message in MIME format.& # 8212 ; & # 8212 ; & # 8212 ; & # 8212 ; & # 8211 ; CA080D6A5F82D8FD0221FE04Content-Type: text/plain ; charset=us-asciiContent-Transfer-Encoding: 7bit& # 8212 ; & # 8212 ; & # 8212 ; & # 8212 ; & # 8211 ; CA080D6A5F82D8FD0221FE04Content-Type: text/plain ; charset=us-ascii ;name= & # 8221 ; Nweconad & # 8221 ;Content-Transfer-Encoding: 7bitContent-Disposition: inline ;filename= & # 8221 ; Nweconad & # 8221 ;Jeffrey Cavorley6/11/2000Mr. Gibbons Global StudiesThe civilizations, histories, and former authorities types of many different statesfind what the consequence a former female parent state would hold on the new state.

Cultures have ever had different reactions to different events in history, and this hadbearing on the authoritiess of former settlements and how they thought about their formerauthorities and status. Many wanted justness for & # 8220 ; land deficit, and the poverty. & # 8221 ;Others wanted to do peace with their former swayers. Some states felt that their formerauthoritiess were & # 8220 ; dirty, & # 8221 ; while another showed contemplation on why the authoritiesof the former female parent state failed. A state & # 8217 ; s history would impact the values andattitudes towards certain topics.Many different states responded otherwise towards their authoritiess becauseof civilization and history.

India, Czechoslovak, and assorted African states respondedotherwise towards their former proprietors. India responded peacefully desiring merely or holda good relationship with the universe, and a & # 8220 ; universe disarmament. & # 8221 ; This peaceable colonywas due to the history of the state, and its civilization. The Hindus did non believe inforce, and so it could be said that the civilization affected this state & # 8217 ; s relationship withthe universe. Czechoslovak, which was a land filled with wars, was more aggressivetowards its former female parent state. Czechoslovak criticized their former female parent state,and did non look for a peaceable relationship.

Many African states felt the same manner.Because of the past exile of Africans, and formation of state & # 8217 ; s without anyconsideration for geographics and tribal history, Africans were acrimonious towards their formerproprietor.The former authorities, in which the state was controlled, besides had an consequenceon the type relationship that were held by the two states. India was ruled by democracy,and remained a democracy, and in a democracy a peaceable manner of thought is dominate.Czechoslovak was ruled under a totalitarian authorities, and because of this, it wasbitter because the larger state had all the control. African states felt about the same,but they merely blamed it on the authorities. In the eyes of the Africans all the authoritiessthat controlled them could of better research the country before organizing the states, and nonhave treated them every bit cruelly as they did.Culture, history, and authorities affected the relationships between states, andtheir former proprietors.

Culture allowed for many different reactions because it is sodiversenesss around the state, and history affected the ideas of the people of assortedstates. Governments of the yesteryear affected the manner a individual idea, depending on howeffectual it was, and how it treated the people.b ) Clapham said conditions improved, and existentrewards of workers increased and with clip working conditions improved* degree Celsius ) our & # 8220 ; aureate age & # 8221 ; was built on this foundation ; the really bad conditions were ofa short one coevals continuance ; and in generalthe European workers were better off than the provincialsvitamin D ) Thompson believes that there was dietetic betterment: increasedingestion of meat, tea, sugar, spirits, beer, and murphies replaced wheat( cheaper ) ; but & # 8220 ; In the 50 old ages of the Industrial Revolution the on the job categoryportion of the national merchandise had about surely fallen comparative to theportion of the belongings owning and professional categories. The working adult maleremained really near to the subsistence level. & # 8221 ;vitamin E ) evils of kid maltreatment ; protectionist Torahs against kid and adult females labourdegree Fahrenheit ) which came foremost: the poulet ( excess production of merchandises ) or the egg( markets )B- Introductory remarks1- Most of the beginning of power and work was done by animate beings and work forces until 1800a ) since so machines have been usedB ) power * steam, electric, internalburning engine, atomic power, solar powerdegree Celsius ) this alteration from musculus to advanced powerand from manus tool to machine powered tool is the industrial revolutionvitamin D ) although it is still spread outing in country andquality of production today, it started in England in the period 1780-18302- In malice of the force per unit areas of this period ofrevolutions, the workman remained reasonably docilea ) it involved great mobility of labour and capitalB ) it found fertile seeds in England & # 8217 ; s heritage of autonomy and commercialismC- The Agricultural Revolution in Britain1- From 1688 to 1832 the landholders of England dominated the authorities andcreated the Agricultural Revolution of excess nutrient and labourwhich made the Industrial Revolution possible2- The landholders, wanting to increase their money incomes, began experimentingwith improved cultivation and stock raising even though these actions wereopposed by husbandmans who tend to be of course conservative in their agriculturalmethodsa ) increased usage of fertilizers- guanoB ) usage of new or improved implementsdegree Celsiuss ) new harvests: Brassica rapas, murphiesvitamin D ) better harvest rotary motionvitamin E ) to transport out these reforms the landlord needed full control over his landdegree Fahrenheit ) he had to get the better of the antiquated old system of unfastened Fieldss and common landsg ) these reforms needed big sums of capital ; this was impossible for manyhapless and little husbandmans3- The common rights of the villagers was based on the Common Lawa ) merely an act of Parliament could alter themB ) the aristocracy pushed thru 100s of & # 8220 ; enclosure acts & # 8221 ; , authorising the abolishmentof the old common lands and unfastened Fieldssdegree Celsiuss ) many of the husbandmans were bought or forcedout of their little retentions ; making its tallness during the Napoleonic Wars4- The productiveness of land and labour increased greatlya ) better methods meant more and better nutrientsB ) less farm labour was needed to bring forth the same sum of nutrientdegree Celsiuss ) excess labour moved to the metropolissvitamin D ) the yeomanry ( little husbandmans ) about vanishedvitamin E ) & # 8220 ; pay gaining & # 8221 ; replaced & # 8220 ; nutrient gaining & # 8221 ; as the basic manner of gaining a lifeD- Industrialism in Britain: Incentives and Inventions1- The British merchandisers had achieved laterality of the universe & # 8217 ; s tradea ) apparently limitless clients, transportation,and capital needed more manufactured goods to sellB ) cotton fabric was in great demand, and couldbe produced cheaply and good in English Millssdegree Celsius ) England had sufficient capital, direction,and stock companies to take up the challenge and hazard of these innovations2- A series of successful innovations in the fabric industry made possible greatadvancement in productiona ) 1733 John Kay invented the winging birdwhich increased the velocity of weaving and with it the demand for narrationB ) 1760 & # 8217 ; s the spinning Jenny, a mechanised spinning wheel was developeddegree Celsius ) Arkwright invented the H2O frame formultiple spinning ; and in the 1780 & # 8217 ; s steam was usedvitamin D ) machinery needed considerable capital anddirection and was concentrated in big Millss and millsvitamin E ) weaving was besides mechanizeddegree Fahrenheit ) Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin in theearly 1800 & # 8217 ; s which sped up cotton processing and saved the plantation systemg ) English imports of cotton from 1790-1820 increased 500 % and cottonmerchandises made up 50 % of all English exports3- The steam engine revolutionized the production of energya ) helped by the diminution of Europe & # 8217 ; s wood supply and the bend to charB ) steam pumps were needed to pump out coal minesdegree Celsius ) in 1763 Watt perfected Newcomen & # 8217 ; s steam engine of 1702vitamin D ) by the 1780 & # 8217 ; s it was in mass production4- The steam engines spread quickly and were easy adopted to assorted undertakingsa ) 1807 Fulton applied it to river boatsB ) 1829 the railway ; Stephenson & # 8217 ; s Rocket ranfrom Manchester to Liverpool, and by the 1840 & # 8217 ; s they were widespreadE- Social Consequences of the Industrial Revolution in Britain1- It was no longer & # 8220 ; Merry Olde England & # 8221 ; after the Napoleonic Warsa ) population greatly increased from 10,000,000 in 1750 to 30,000,000 in 1850( even with big Numberss emigrating ) and shifted from the South to the newMidlands industrial countries near the Fe and coal sedimentationsB ) from merely 4 metropoliss over 50,000 in population in 1785 to 31 metropoliss in 18502- Manchester was the greatest of the new industrial metropolissa ) sprang from & # 8220 ; nothingness & # 8221 ;B ) in 1845 it eventually ceased to be a manor ; the population grew from 25,000 in1772 to 455,000 in 1851degree Celsius ) these metropoliss lacked municipal organisationand could non cover with urban jobs even if they wanted to3- The new metropoliss were atrocious, dreary topographic pointsa ) crowded slumsB ) household life and morality declined4- Rise of unskilled labour needed for millsa ) skilled workers declined in position and payas they were no longer in great demand- non like todayB ) wages were excessively low to back up a household ;therefore all had to work- at lower rewards of class!5- Factory working conditions were awfula ) 14 hr + working day and 6 twenty-four hours work hebdomad of boring labourB ) no vacations or holidaies except for periods of unemployment which were longand fickle as markets tended to be unsteady in the earlyyearss of the Industrial Revolutiondegree Celsius ) rewards were kept low by the deficiency of labour brotherhoods, kid labour, and stiffcompetition among the manufacturers6- The & # 8220 ; Cotton Lords & # 8221 ; were the first industrial capitalistsa ) self-made, hardworking work forcesB ) tended to impute their success to difficult work ; others were lazydegree Celsius ) believed that they did good workss by supplying the hapless with occupationsvitamin D ) wanted a wild individualistic economic systemvitamin E ) 1802 Peel put through the first Factory Act ; tried to modulate child labour butfailed ; there were no inspectors, in fact in this period England had about no fullclip paid civil-servantsdegree Fahrenheit ) believed that the free market would finally work things out to the bestinvolvements of all ; employers, employees, and EnglandF- Classical Laissez-Faire economic sciences1- The emerging scientific discipline of economic sciences had a great consequence on English thoughta ) Adam Smith- 1776- The Wealth of Nations ; attacked mercantile system with itscomplex ordinances and supported individualistic policies of production and tradeB ) Malthus ( population theory ) and Ricardo ( the Iron Law of Wages ) established& # 8220 ; classical & # 8221 ; economic sciences ; that all should follow their opportunisms to guarantee the bestconsequences for alldegree Celsius ) the authorities should make every bit small as possible ; merely maintain jurisprudence and order, andhold tribunals to protect contracts ; all else should be based on private enterprise:charity, instruction, wellness etc.

vitamin D ) there was no flight from the frequently & # 8220 ; cruel & # 8221 ; Torahs of economic sciences2- The Industrial Revolution was a unsmooth experience for England & # 8217 ; s peoplea ) but neither child employment, the 14 hrtwenty-four hours, or unemployment were new ; all had existed in agribusinessB ) mills and towns merely concentrated poorness in one topographic pointdegree Celsius ) so much wretchedness made it apparent and discernible ; reform became inevitablevitamin D ) workers concentrated in metropoliss recognized their strength and were educatedand nonionized, geting finally a greater portion of the fruits of productionII Political Consequences of the Industrial RevolutionA- Reforms in Great Britain1- Liberal reforms in England had been get downingeven before the Paris events of July 1830a ) in the 1820 & # 8217 ; s immature progressives moved up in the Tory Party and revised EnglishTorahs ; they abolished many capital offenses ; and started a constabulary forceB ) allowed brotherhood formingdegree Celsius ) reduced tariff responsibilities and the Navigation Acts ; favored leting the export ofmachinery and the out-migration of skilled labourvitamin D ) moved towards the secularisation of theprovince by abrogation of the Test Act of 16732- Certain things they could non make as yeta ) abrogation the Corn LawsB ) reform the House of Commons3- Commons was more unrepresentative than of all timea ) no new borough had been created since 1688B ) the new mill towns were unrepresenteddegree Celsiuss ) rural countries were over-represented with their lost population ( icky boroughs )vitamin D ) non all seats were elected, some were appointed by certain members of thearistocracy based upon medieval & # 8220 ; autonomies & # 8221 ;4- Attempts to reform the House of Commons before 1830 faileda ) the events in Paris caused the Whigs to inquire for reformsB ) the Tory bulk led by the Duke Odegree FahrenheitWellington opposed reforms ; & # 8220 ; England & # 8217 ; s authorities was perfect & # 8221 ;degree Celsiuss ) when the Whigs reform measure failed many Whigmembers of the authorities resignedvitamin D ) under fright of popular force the jurisprudence wasreintroduced and passed in the Parksvitamin E ) but was defeated in the Godheadsdegree Fahrenheit ) serious rioting throughout England resultedg ) under the menace of the King naming newequals, the House of Lords passed the measure in April 18325- The Reform Bill of 1832a ) a really & # 8220 ; English & # 8221 ; voting system resultedB ) you enjoyed the franchise if you resided ina borough and paid L 10 a twelvemonth in rentdegree Celsius ) or resided in the state and paid L 10 fora 60 twelvemonth rental ; or L 50 for a short rentalvitamin D ) if you owned land that could be rented for L 2 a twelvemonth you votedvitamin E ) the electorate of 500,000 was increased to 813,000 12 % of grownup males voteddegree Fahrenheit ) seats were redistributed: 56 boroughs wereabolished ; 30 were diminished ; and 143 were given to the new industrial towns6- While non genuinely sweeping, it was considered so by the Whigsa ) the force per unit area valve of a redeemable Parliament prevented the danger of arevolutionB ) societal and political alterations could begained without driving conservativists into an indefensible placedegree Celsiuss ) hope of future advancement7- The new industrialists now joined the old rural nobility in regulating Englanda ) the Whigs and extremist industrialists formed the Liberal PartyB ) 1833- bondage was abolished in the British Empiredegree Celsiuss ) 1835- the Municipal Corporations Actmodernized the authorities of British metropoliss8- The Tories ( Conservatives ) & # 8220 ; retaliated & # 8221 ; byreforming the industries which were the strength of the Liberal Partya ) championed workersB ) publicized societal immoralitiesdegree Celsius ) Factory Act of 1833 forbade kid labour ofkids less than 9 old ages of age in fabric Millssvitamin D ) in 1842 they regulated the coal mines ;prohibit the employment of adult females, misss, and male childs under 10 old ages of age9- The Ten Hours Act of 1847 was a great triumph for workersa ) limited the labour of adult females and kids to 10 hours a twenty-four hours in millsB ) shortly spread to work forces10- Liberals, aghast at the modification of individualistic economic policies & # 8220 ; retaliated & # 8221 ;with the 1838 Anti-Corn Law Leaguea ) maize Torahs raised nutrient monetary valuesB ) industrialists felt that this forced them to pay higher rewards to workersdegree Celsiuss ) others said it was needed to protect andpromote English agribusiness and keep a balanced economic systemvitamin D ) the Corn Laws were repealed in 1846 under industrialist backed force per unit area11- In England industry had triumphed over agribusinessa ) England relied for her nutrient supplies upon a universe broad economic systemB ) industrialisation accelerated as economic specialisation in England increaseddegree Celsius ) the importance of British sea power was re-affirmed to keep unfastened and controlthese universe broad trade paths that were needed forEngland & # 8217 ; s survival on imported nutrientsvitamin D ) growing of the & # 8220 ; free trade & # 8221 ; needed by England for her enduranceB- The Challenge of Labor1- The workers felt left out and estrangeda ) they had a low portion of the addition of wealthB ) they had forced thru reforms by rebellionsor menaces of rebellions and the middle class got all the political benefitsdegree Celsius ) if reform was impossible * destruct the system2- Concept of a labour market developed ( trade good )a ) monetary value of labour was kept down by high populationB ) high unemployment was an advantage in thissystem as it would maintain down rewards1848 1997Precedence for Capital Needs Priority for Consumer NeedsCheap Food Cheap FoodHigh Unemployment Low UnemploymentHigh Population High Population3- There were two ways out:a ) reform via brotherhoods ; they merely became legalin England in 1825 ; and all over Europe were non allowed the right to strikeB ) disown the system and expression for somethingnew such as compensation based upon demand non productionC- Socialism and Chartism1- Socialism spread quickly as a philosophy after 1830a ) in France it joined with radicalRepublicans who wished to utilize the events of 1793 as a footing for more reformsB ) Robespierre & # 8217 ; s works became popular amongworkers and intellectualsdegree Celsius ) in England it joined with runs for parliamentary reform2- An English mass motion, the Chartists, was formed in 1838a ) anti-capitalisticB ) demanded working category representation in Parliament ; an terminal to belongingsmakings for office ; and wages for members of the House of Commonsdegree Celsius ) a & # 8220 ; Convention & # 8221 ; was held in 1839 with representatives of brotherhoods and extremistsocieties in London ; a bad name, as it reminded people of the Gallic Revolution,and some members were revolutionists3- The Chartists presented a request with 1,000,000 signatures to Parliamentdemanding reformsa ) the & # 8220 ; physical force & # 8221 ; Chartists started public violencesB ) in 1842 the request was re-submitted with3,317,702 signatures out of a population of 19,000,000 peopledegree Celsius ) it was rejected by parks 287 to 49because they feared reforms would jeopardize belongings rightsvitamin D ) Chartism died out, but may hold created theambiance of reforms being neededvitamin E ) labour brotherhoods concentrated on betteringlabour conditions with greater successIII The Revolutions of 1848A- 1789 was repeated1- Violence in the streets ; international rebellion ; even another Bonaparte2- There were more revolutions than earlier orsince ; no one state dominated it as it spread all across Europea ) was it due to an & # 8220 ; international radical motion & # 8221 ; ? – noB ) it was merely that most people wanted thesame things: constitutional authorities ; national provinces ; and an terminal to serfdom3- It was a superb flash- so it was gonea ) there were far making effects ; pan-Germanisn and pan-Slavism grewB ) Marxism received careful inducements for growingB- The revolutionists had many purposes:1- Hungarians wanted an independent province2- Czechs wanted liberty within the Austrian Empire3- Italians and Germans wanted national fusion4- Gallic wanted political reformsC- There are many positions on the events of 1848 among historiographers1- Trevelyan: it was a opportunity for broad reforms that was lost2- Namier: it was the start of the German ultra- patriotism that led to the rise ofAdolf Hitler and the start of states engaging wars to oppress other states3- Langer: & # 8220 ; 1848 led to sculpt political and societalstruggles ; national hostilities and wars that might otherwise hold been avoided. & # 8221 ;4- Meinecke: the 1848 revolutions were on a relatively high moral degree5- Moraze: the revolutions were a socio-economicphenomenon and were a great triumph for the in-between categoryIV Paris: The Specter of Social Revolution in the WestA- The July 1830 Monarchy did non truly work out jobsor supply profoundly needed reforms1- From 1830 on republicanism continued to turn progressively socialistic inclinationsa ) although they were merely active in Paris, the utmost centralisation of Franceand the function of Paris enabled them to take andrule the motion through out the state2- Politicss in the Orleanist authorities was unreala ) basic issues weren & # 8217 ; t dealt with due to the narrow involvements ( 3 % of the grownupmale population ) represented in the Chamber of DeputiesB ) even most of the middle class were unrepresenteddegree Celsius ) there was widespread transplant and corruptnessvitamin D ) the radical motion was divided: groups wanted cosmopolitan manhoodright to vote and a democracy ; progressives wanted a wideningof the electorate within a constitutional monarchyvitamin E ) Louis-Philippe opposed any reforms and did non ally himself with the progressivesB- The February Revolution in France1- A little, individual incident precipitated the revolution ; reformists planned to keep ananti-king feast in Paris on February 22, 1848a ) on February 21, the King forbid it and roadblocks sprang upB ) the National Guard refused to fire on the peopledegree Celsius ) the King promised some electoral forms- but it was excessively latevitamin D ) rioting broke out near the house of theKing & # 8217 ; s curate Guizot, and spread through out the metropolisvitamin E ) on February 24 Louis-Philippe abdicated and fled to England2- Armed republicans stormed the Chamber of Deputiesa ) progressives had hoped to go on the house of OrleansB ) the republicans ruled France with a 10 adult malecommission until a component assembly could be electeddegree Celsius ) 3 of the commission were socialists, andunder strong force per unit area from & # 8220 ; ruddy & # 8221 ; workers3- Louis Blanc, the socialist leader wanted thecommission to ordain immediate economic and societal alterationsa ) the socialist minority in the authorities couldn & # 8217 ; t do itB ) the via media worked out was that& # 8220 ; National Workshops & # 8221 ; would be establisheddegree Celsius ) a program for a 10 hr work twenty-four hours was rejectedvitamin D ) the issue of a & # 8220 ; just portion & # 8221 ;4- The National Workshops were a signifier ofunemployment alleviation, non worker-owned mills as Blanc had wanteda ) workers were put on national defence undertakingsB ) great Numberss of unemployed Paris work forces were in the workshops: March25,000 ; April 66,000 ; June 120,000 ; plus an extra 50,000 thatwere non in the workshopsdegree Celsius ) there were 200,000 unemployed work forces in a metropolis of 1,000,0005- The Constituent Assembly was elected withcosmopolitan male right to vote in April and met May 4a ) it selected a 5 adult male board to run FranceB ) it was anti-socialist and anti-Blancdegree Celsiuss ) Paris was non France ; the in-between category and skilled workers resented an incomerevenue enhancement that could make 45 % to back up the workshops6- It was the City versus the Country- as usuala ) Paris was the largest and most radical metropolis in EuropeB ) the Paris workers were hungering under suffering conditions ; they thought thatthey could non wait for slow legal reformsdegree Celsiuss ) by 1848 violent revolution was a tradition in FranceC- The June Days of 18481- It was the nationally elected ComponentAssembly versus the socialist controlled National Workshopsa ) workers were concentrated in a fewlocations and subjected to extremist propaganda and programsB ) May 15, the workers stormed and tried to destruct the Constituent Assembly ;trusting to set up a new authorities of their aindegree Celsius ) the National Guard drove out the workers and restored ordervitamin D ) the Assembly prepared to close down the Workshops ; the workers would eitherhold to fall in the ground forces or go forth Paris2- In the bloody June Days of 24-26, 1848 the regular ground forces under GeneralCavaignac crushed the armed workers in stiff street contending at the roadblocks ;10,000 insurrectionists were killed and another 11,000 were shipped away to the settlements3- The June Days of category warfare terrified Europea ) the extremist workers increased their hate of the middle class and theircapitalistic system, and felt that it merely existed by armed forceB ) the center and upper category feared being murdered in their beds4- In England the February Revolution revived the Chartist motiona ) 6,000,000 signatures appeared on Chartist requestsB ) the Chartists started to build up and fix to arise in Londondegree Celsius ) a Chartist Convention met- would it declare itself a Constituent Assembly?vitamin D ) the Duke of Wellington ( still about ) sworein 70,000 voluntaries to support the kingdomvitamin E ) Parliament rejected the request and the crisis passed with the aid ofauthorities infiltration of the motionvitamin E ) a assorted feeling of complacence still existed in England ; people still had faith intheir establishmentsD- The Emergence of Louis-Napoleon in France1- In France General Cavaignac ruled as a dictatoras the Constituent Assembly drafted a republican fundamental lawa ) the Gallic desired a strong executive tomaintain power, and elections with cosmopolitan male right to vote had the undermentioned consequences:Lamartine- & # 8220 ; moralism and idealism & # 8221 ; – 18,000Cavaignac- a disciplined republic- 1,500,000Ledru-Rollin- & # 8220 ; societal democracy & # 8221 ; – 370,000Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte- & # 8220 ; ? & # 8221 ; – 5,400,000 won by a landslide2- Louis-Napoleon, born in 1808 was the boy of Louis, the former King of Holland ;in 1832 he resolved to reconstruct his household & # 8217 ; s place and Empire ; his attemptedputsch vitamin D & # 8217 ; etats in 1836 at Strasbourg and 1840 at Boulogne failed ; he escapedprison in 1846a ) considered to be an anti-capitalist friendof the common man- yet he stood for order3- Growth of the Napoleonic Legenda ) Louis wrote & # 8220 ; Napoleonic thoughts & # 8221 ;B ) Frenchmen dreamed of past glorificationsdegree Celsius ) Hugo and Thiers glorified Napoleonvitamin D ) 1836- The Arch of Triumph was dedicatedvitamin E ) 1840- Napoleon was buried at Les Invalidesdegree Fahrenheit ) the name of Bonaparte had a charming consequence in France4- Thus Louis-Napoleon became president by a great popular authorizationa ) the Legislative Assembly replaced the Constituent AssemblyB ) with cosmopolitan manhood right to vote it produced a 2/3 bulk for theroyalists, but it was split between Orleanists and Bourbonists( expletive of the Monarchists )degree Celsius ) the republicans had the staying 1/3 of the seats, but were split betweensocialists ( 180 seats ) and regular Republicans ( 70 seats ) who felt that the chiefissue should be the reform of authorities and non society5- The President and the Assembly looked to purge republicanism of socialisma ) in June of 1849 an stillborn socialist rebellion was put down ; 32 socialistdeputies were expelled from the Assembly, and censoring was imposedB ) in 1850 the poorest 1/3 of the electorate was disfranchiseddegree Celsius ) 1850 the Falloux Law placed schools under the control of the Church becausethey feared that & # 8220 ; lay instructors have made the rule ofsocietal revolution popular in the most distant small towns & # 8221 ;vitamin D ) it was an anti-republic democracy! ; in 1850 it sent military personnels to Rome to destructMazzini & # 8217 ; s democracy and reconstruct the Pope to power ; they stayed until 18706- Bonaparte was needed by the utmost conservativistsa ) they looked upon him as a & # 8220 ; care-taker & # 8221 ;authorities until the Bourbon-Orleanist difference could be settledB ) Bonaparte turned to the groups for support to increase his power base ; in1851 he urged the Restoration of cosmopolitan right to votedegree Celsiuss ) On December 2, 1851 ( Austerlitz Day ) hecarried out his putsch, guaranting control of the ground forces and constabularyvitamin D ) declared cosmopolitan right to vote and dissolvedthe Assembly, while 150 were killed in contending in Parisvitamin E ) on December 20, 1851 Bonaparte was electedPresident for 10 old ages 7,439,216 to 646,737degree Fahrenheit ) the following twelvemonth he proclaimed himself Napoleon III7- The Second Republic was deada ) it killed itself with its fright of radicalism and diffidenceB ) liberalism, constitutionalism and monarchism besides dieddegree Celsiuss ) France was now ruled by a rabble-rouser and dictator: Napoleon IIIvitamin D ) what did France privation? even the French did non cognizeV Vienna: The Nationalist Revolution in Central Europe and ItalyA- The Austrian Empire in 18481- In 1848 the Habsburg Empire was Europe & # 8217 ; s 2nd most thickly settled provincea ) it was made up of many cultural groups: Germans, Magyars, Czechs, Poles,Ruthenians, Slovaks, Serbs, Croats, Slovenes, Dalmatians,Romanians, and ItaliansB ) these people in most topographic points were wholly intermixeddegree Celsius ) the Germans inhabited all of Austria and parts of Bohemia and Hungaryvitamin D ) the Czechs inhabited Bohemia and Moraviavitamin E ) the Magy