Last updated: July 9, 2019
Topic: ArtDesign
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I hereby declare
that the research project that I will present is my original work and it has
not been presented in any other university for the award of the degree.






SUPERVISOR`S NAME:…………………………………..














I hereby dedicate this research project to all people who
have supported me in one way or the other, be it with adequate information,
financial requirements or security in terms of data collection. I also dedicate
to all the secondary school girls studying at Samburu north constituency.














CHAPTER ONE                                               


Background to the study.

Culture is one of the most dominant factor that has
greatly affected the academic performance of the students as well as behavior
and conduct during teaching and learning process not only in secondary schools
in Kenya but also in primary schools(UNICEF,2005).considering the positive
effects of education in the changing the life of individuals in Kenyan schools,
the research will also focus on both traditional and modern cultures and how
those cultures are affecting education system in Kenyan secondary schools.
During the colonial period there was indifferences among communities in Kenya
in terms of understanding the meaning of education and its importance to an
individual future. This is simply because the education system was mainly put
in place in favor of the colonizers who were mainly the whites of which most
African communities were focusing mainly in traditional culture. Changing the
school culture is believed to be difficult and it is also a process, it
therefore requires the combined efforts of both the teachers and the school
administrators in terms of taking action in changing the culture of the school
right from the academic culture, language culture as well as individual conduct
and behavior during classroom teaching and learning process. For the teachers
and administrators of the school to take action in changing the school culture,
they should also be aware of the culture itself, how it affects the learner’s
behavior and conduct and also its effects in the academic performance of the
learners (Ronald s.barth 2001).The Kenyan curriculum also forms the basis of
the academic performance of the learners, it has also influence the school
culture, this influence has affected the teachers ways of handling the learners
from a multicultural society. The influence has also created a confusion among
teachers in interpretation of culture, diversity and critical analysis of
curriculum policies that will be put in place to ensure that there is an
improvement in academic performance of the learners in secondary schools in
Kenya (Jill smith, 2007).in this case therefore, culture has mostly affected
secondary schools from marginalized communities in Kenya with increasing rate
of girls dropping out of school than boys.















Statement of the problem

Generally, the research problem addressed in this
study is mainly focusing on the school environment comprising of school
infrastructures, teachers, administrators, on-teaching staff as well as
learners because both play key roles in the management and running of the
school. Since independence up to date, the government of Kenya have greatly
contributed a lot in provision of quality education especially in secondary
schools, through the employment of enough and qualified teachers annually and
also provision of teaching and learning materials to various secondary schools.
This has greatly contributed to improvement of academic performance of the
learners in the national examinations hence increasing the number of students
enrolling in universities and also in tertiary institutions(teachers service
commission,2014).apart from all the efforts that the government is putting in
terms of assuring the secondary school learners of good academic performance in
national examinations, the government have also failed in coming out with
appropriate measures of dealing with school culture in terms of its effect in
academic performance of the learners with lack of motivation to teachers being
a key contributor to poor performance of the learners in secondary school. the
study found that teachers’ motivation in secondary schools was poor caused by
lack of promotion to job groups, poor working conditions and environment, poor
facilities in schools, lack of compensation and benefits as well as too much
assignment by head teachers. The issue of removal of corporal punishment in
secondary schools is also believed by different individuals as another
contributor to poor academic performance of the learners in secondary schools
in Kenya, this is because there is variation among learners in terms of
teachers efforts in ensuring that there is an improvement in their academic
performance as for some learners, it is believed that it is through corporal
punishment that they can be able to improve academically and also in conduct
and behavior.(Lorine Achaya,2016).the government has also failed in  gender equality in terms of learners access
to secondary education with 64% of the boys completing secondary school
education successfully as compared to 36% of the girls completing secondary
school education successfully, the difference in completion of the secondary
education by both genders is brought about by unwanted pregnancies, lack of
fees for completing academic studies and also influence by
marginalized communities in Kenya, there is high school dropouts among the girl
child as compared to boy child because most communities do not value education
of the girl child, with the girl child being used as a way of bringing wealth
to the family through early marriages and payment of dowry.












Objectives of the study

The specific objectives of the study were to:

a) Identify factors that greatly affects academic
performance of students of baragoi boys secondary school, Samburu County.

b) Explore the relationship between teachers,
administration and the learners as well as parents in improving the academic
performance of the learners.

c) Identify the teaching and learning resources that
are greatly contributing to improvement of the academic performance of the
learners in baragoi boys secondary school.












Research questions.

The research questions in this study therefore will
guide the researcher in establishing the overall goal of the study in terms of
knowing the factual information in areas of study and also familiarizing with
the requirements of the study. The research questions that the researcher will
use are as follows.

What is the dominant
culture in Samburu County?Which is the most
populated community in Samburu County?How is the culture
affecting performances of secondary schools in Samburu County?What role has the
school played in ensuring that the learners academic performances are not
interfered with culture?










ignificance of the study

The study is significant to the researcher simply
because it addresses the key cultural elements that greatly affects the
academic performances of not only students of baragoi boys secondary school but
also secondary schools from other marginalized communities across the country.
On the other hand the study also tries to suggest and recommends some measures
that should be taken by relevant educational authorities in Kenya to solve the
cultural factors affecting secondary school students performance in
addition, the study further gives directions for researchers in terms of
accessing the related areas to the study for their future references.













Scope and delimitation of the study

Due to the distance and time covered by the researcher
in conducting field study, the research was mainly limited to baragoi boys’
secondary school in Samburu County, Samburu north. Samburu County is located in
northern part of Kenya with more than 15 private and public secondary schools.
The county is mostly affected by cultural practices such as female genital
mutilation and early marriages specifically to girl child hence resulting to
annual decrease of the girl child enrolment to secondary schools due to early
marriages which is dominant in the entire county. The boy child is also
affected by the culture and this has affected greatly their relationship with
teachers and administrators with most of them expelled out of school due to
indiscipline cases, poverty is also another key factor that has greatly affected
the academic performance of the learners as most learners drop out of school
due to lack of school fees.however,enrollment, number of teachers ,teaching and
learning resources and the school infrastructure are the key variables that are
discussed in the study.









Theoretical framework.

The researcher used the Vygotsky`s educational theory
in cultural context. The theory mainly talks about the relationship between the
teachers, students and knowledge in the classroom setting during classroom
teaching and learning process. This is done through the cognitive involvement
of learners during classroom teaching and learning as the teacher becomes the
mediator in terms of giving directions to the learners regarding the
explanation of a certain concept. The principles of Vygotsky theory are mainly
based on, first, understanding the way of thinking and also learning a process
of social and cultural interaction rather than an individual phenomena. The
second principle is based on the relationship between language and thoughts
since for one to to be able to understand the theory, he/she must use the
appropriate language in regard to his knowledge about the theory from different
perspective. The third principle is based on instruction and development in
that learners should be given instructions by teachers to guide them during
classroom teaching and learning and this will help them throughout their stages
of development. The last principle therefore is based on everyday academic
concept formation, this entails student daily academic activities that guides
them in understanding certain concept and the activities should be exercised
fully through the learner’s full participation. The theory is relevant to the
area of study simply because it guides the researcher in understanding how
teachers and learners relate with each other during classroom teaching and addition to that, the theory also will help the researcher in
making a conclusion on the social and cultural interaction between the learners
and teachers as far as classroom teaching and learning is concerned.



Conceptual framework

The Kenyan education system therefore requires the
collaboration of various individuals for it to be successful or beneficial to
any individual in the society. Most secondary schools in Kenya performs poorly
especially in national examination mainly because there is minimal relationship
between learners and teachers as well as parents and teachers. The other reason
for poor performance in national examination maybe lack of teaching and
learning resources and also lack of interest by learners in utilizing the
teaching and learning resources provide by the school for the improvement of
their academic conceptualizing therefore, the researcher will
point out how teachers, learners, resources, school infrastructure and also
parents affects the academic performance of the learners. The goal of this
study therefore is to explore how culture affects the academic performance of boys’
secondary schools in Samburu County. Figure 1.1 below clearly presents
conceptual framework of the study.

Effects of culture.











Operational definitions of terms.

performance:    refers to an extent in which both teacher,
student and institution has achieved their short term or long term educational is commonly measured through national examinations or school
continuous assessment tests.

teaching and learning process: this refers to form
interaction between the teacher and the learner in a specific setting with aim
of gaining knowledge from one another.

community: a marginalized community refers to a group that is
less recognized in the society. The group is denied involvement mostly in
economic, political and social activities.

refers to social behavior and norms found in the also refers to
customary beliefs, social forms and material traits of a racial, religious or
social group.

authorities: educational authorities refers to a group
of individual who plays a key role in the management of education system in
Kenya as well as monitoring the progress of the provision of quality education
in Kenya.

administration: school administration involves
individuals who have been assigned special duties by educational authorities to
facilitate the day-to-day running of the school.






Literature review

The chapter gives a review of literature related to
the study on the effects of culture on academic performance of boys secondary
schools in Samburu north constituency, Samburu county in a clear and precise also presents literature on the effective teaching and learning methods
used by teachers in improving academic performances of the learners and also
the reliability of the teaching and learning methods.


teaching and learning methods

Effective teaching and learning methods are mainly












Design and Methodology.

Research methodology

This chapter highlights the research design, target
population, sample and sampling procedures, data description, data collection
instruments, data collection procedures, data analysis procedures and also
their usefulness in research work as well as their reliability in terms of use
by the researcher in carrying out field research.


Research design

The research design used in this study was descriptive
survey. The study therefore is carried out with the aim of collecting
information from both school administration, teachers, students and
non-teaching staff on how culture has greatly affected the academic performance
of boys secondary schools in Samburu north constituency, Samburu
order to carry out research successfully with aim of getting more information,
the researcher used both primary and secondary data as technique of discovering
the factual information. Primary data was obtained through questionnaire while
secondary data was obtained from internet sources, articles, magazines and
Kenya this case therefore, survey study was employed by the
researcher with aim of obtaining reliable and clear information about the
research problem and finally drawing appropriate and varied conclusions based
on the discovered facts (Lokesh,).


3.3 Target

Target population refers to specific population in
which the researcher wants to carry out research study with aim of getting
factual information and concluding the results of the study. The research study
in this case was conducted at baragoi boys’ secondary school, Samburu north,
Samburu County. The school is located about three kilometers from baragoi
trading this case therefore, deputy principal, teachers and students
were the main source that the researcher used in getting full and factual
information about the research study area.Generally,Samburu county has 13  both public and private boys secondary
schools in total but the research is carried out at baragoi boys secondary
school due to time, security and those 13 boys secondary schools
the population of 6120 students were recorded and 62 teachers in total which
shows that there is a gap between the teacher and student ratio during teaching
and learning.










Sample size and sampling procedures.

Sampling is a process of selecting a part of the
population in which the researcher wants to carry out research study with aim
of getting factual information and further concluding the results of the study
(kerlinga 1973).with aim of carrying out research successfully, the researcher
selected school deputy principal, class teachers and representative of the
non-teaching staff .students representatives were randomly selected. The
selected individuals were used by the researcher specifically for data
collection. The main reason why the researcher selected the above individuals
was because they have experiences and knowledge on how the school culture
affects the academic performance of the learners in both continuous assessment
tests and national examination.











Description of data collection and instruments

The data collection instruments were used by the
researcher in different fields of research this case, two data
collection instruments were used by the researcher, questionnaires and interviews.
Open ended and closed ended questions were used by the researcher during the
research study, in open-ended questions, respondents filled their opinions in
the spaces provided while in closed ended questions, respondents responded
using a tick for their answers. The questionnaires was used by the researcher
in getting information mainly from the learners on their academic performance,
experiences during teaching and learning, participation in school co-curricular
activities and finally relationship between them and their subject teachers as
well as school administration. Interviews were employed in getting information
from both the school deputy principal and the class and subject teachers. The
class and subject teachers provided information on the cause of decline and
improvement of academic performance of the learners across the classes and the
possible reasons for the decline and improvement of academic performances of
the learners. The deputy principal provide a general information of the school
with indiscipline cases among students being the great challenge affecting the
school academic performance, the principal also mentioned lack of teaching and
learning resources as among the key elements that affects the academic
performances of the learners.






Data collection procedures.

Before carrying out the research study, the researcher
obtained permission from the head of research from the institution of higher
learning. This was done through an official written letter authorizing the
researcher to carry out the research study in a chosen area of study. The
researcher visited the sampled school with the letter which was to be given to
the school principal for consideration of the research study. The researcher in
this case familiarized with the school administration with aim of making a
necessary arrangement on when and how the research study would be carried out.
The questionnaires were administered to the students and were given a period of
1 hour and 30 minutes to fill the questionaires.the interview sessions were
organized with teachers and the deputy principal of the school. The information
collected was finally kept confidential by the researcher and was used for
research purpose only










Data analysis

Data analysis was done after data collection .in this
case the researcher collected the questionnaires from the respondents and
gathered the information obtained through interviews with the school deputy
principal and teachers. The researcher then checked and corrected the responses
by removing the incomplete responses from the respondents as well as
unnecessary responses in regard to the context of the expectation of the researcher.
The necessary responses are organized systematically by the researcher with aim
of bringing out their relevance in the area under study. After the data was
analysed,they were then interpreted to show their validity in terms of knowing
how culture  has affected the academic
performance of students of baragoi boys secondary school, Samburu north,
Samburu county.