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            DEDICATION.I hereby dedicate this research project to all people whohave supported me in one way or the other, be it with adequate information,financial requirements or security in terms of data collection. I also dedicateto all the secondary school girls studying at Samburu north constituency.             CHAPTER ONE                                                1.

0 INTRODUCTION.1.1Background to the study.Culture is one of the most dominant factor that hasgreatly affected the academic performance of the students as well as behaviorand conduct during teaching and learning process not only in secondary schoolsin Kenya but also in primary schools(UNICEF,2005).

considering the positiveeffects of education in the changing the life of individuals in Kenyan schools,the research will also focus on both traditional and modern cultures and howthose cultures are affecting education system in Kenyan secondary schools.During the colonial period there was indifferences among communities in Kenyain terms of understanding the meaning of education and its importance to anindividual future. This is simply because the education system was mainly putin place in favor of the colonizers who were mainly the whites of which mostAfrican communities were focusing mainly in traditional culture. Changing theschool culture is believed to be difficult and it is also a process, ittherefore requires the combined efforts of both the teachers and the schooladministrators in terms of taking action in changing the culture of the schoolright from the academic culture, language culture as well as individual conductand behavior during classroom teaching and learning process. For the teachersand administrators of the school to take action in changing the school culture,they should also be aware of the culture itself, how it affects the learner’sbehavior and conduct and also its effects in the academic performance of thelearners (Ronald s.barth 2001).The Kenyan curriculum also forms the basis ofthe academic performance of the learners, it has also influence the schoolculture, this influence has affected the teachers ways of handling the learnersfrom a multicultural society.

The influence has also created a confusion amongteachers in interpretation of culture, diversity and critical analysis ofcurriculum policies that will be put in place to ensure that there is animprovement in academic performance of the learners in secondary schools inKenya (Jill smith, 2007).in this case therefore, culture has mostly affectedsecondary schools from marginalized communities in Kenya with increasing rateof girls dropping out of school than boys.              1.2Statement of the problemGenerally, the research problem addressed in thisstudy is mainly focusing on the school environment comprising of schoolinfrastructures, teachers, administrators, on-teaching staff as well aslearners because both play key roles in the management and running of theschool. Since independence up to date, the government of Kenya have greatlycontributed a lot in provision of quality education especially in secondaryschools, through the employment of enough and qualified teachers annually andalso provision of teaching and learning materials to various secondary schools.This has greatly contributed to improvement of academic performance of thelearners in the national examinations hence increasing the number of studentsenrolling in universities and also in tertiary institutions(teachers servicecommission,2014).apart from all the efforts that the government is putting interms of assuring the secondary school learners of good academic performance innational examinations, the government have also failed in coming out withappropriate measures of dealing with school culture in terms of its effect inacademic performance of the learners with lack of motivation to teachers beinga key contributor to poor performance of the learners in secondary school.

thestudy found that teachers’ motivation in secondary schools was poor caused bylack of promotion to job groups, poor working conditions and environment, poorfacilities in schools, lack of compensation and benefits as well as too muchassignment by head teachers. The issue of removal of corporal punishment insecondary schools is also believed by different individuals as anothercontributor to poor academic performance of the learners in secondary schoolsin Kenya, this is because there is variation among learners in terms ofteachers efforts in ensuring that there is an improvement in their academicperformance as for some learners, it is believed that it is through corporalpunishment that they can be able to improve academically and also in conductand behavior.(Lorine Achaya,2016).

the government has also failed in  gender equality in terms of learners accessto secondary education with 64% of the boys completing secondary schooleducation successfully as compared to 36% of the girls completing secondaryschool education successfully, the difference in completion of the secondaryeducation by both genders is brought about by unwanted pregnancies, lack offees for completing academic studies and also influence by peers.inmarginalized communities in Kenya, there is high school dropouts among the girlchild as compared to boy child because most communities do not value educationof the girl child, with the girl child being used as a way of bringing wealthto the family through early marriages and payment of dowry.           1.3Objectives of the studyThe specific objectives of the study were to:a) Identify factors that greatly affects academicperformance of students of baragoi boys secondary school, Samburu County.

b) Explore the relationship between teachers,administration and the learners as well as parents in improving the academicperformance of the learners.c) Identify the teaching and learning resources thatare greatly contributing to improvement of the academic performance of thelearners in baragoi boys secondary school.           1.

4Research questions.The research questions in this study therefore willguide the researcher in establishing the overall goal of the study in terms ofknowing the factual information in areas of study and also familiarizing withthe requirements of the study. The research questions that the researcher willuse are as follows.What is the dominant culture in Samburu County?Which is the most populated community in Samburu County?How is the culture affecting performances of secondary schools in Samburu County?What role has the school played in ensuring that the learners academic performances are not interfered with culture?          1.5ignificance of the studyThe study is significant to the researcher simplybecause it addresses the key cultural elements that greatly affects theacademic performances of not only students of baragoi boys secondary school butalso secondary schools from other marginalized communities across the country.On the other hand the study also tries to suggest and recommends some measuresthat should be taken by relevant educational authorities in Kenya to solve thecultural factors affecting secondary school students performance in kenya.inaddition, the study further gives directions for researchers in terms ofaccessing the related areas to the study for their future references.            1.

6Scope and delimitation of the studyDue to the distance and time covered by the researcherin conducting field study, the research was mainly limited to baragoi boys’secondary school in Samburu County, Samburu north. Samburu County is located innorthern part of Kenya with more than 15 private and public secondary schools.The county is mostly affected by cultural practices such as female genitalmutilation and early marriages specifically to girl child hence resulting toannual decrease of the girl child enrolment to secondary schools due to earlymarriages which is dominant in the entire county. The boy child is alsoaffected by the culture and this has affected greatly their relationship withteachers and administrators with most of them expelled out of school due toindiscipline cases, poverty is also another key factor that has greatly affectedthe academic performance of the learners as most learners drop out of schooldue to lack of school fees.however,enrollment, number of teachers ,teaching andlearning resources and the school infrastructure are the key variables that arediscussed in the study.

        1.7Theoretical framework.The researcher used the Vygotsky`s educational theoryin cultural context. The theory mainly talks about the relationship between theteachers, students and knowledge in the classroom setting during classroomteaching and learning process. This is done through the cognitive involvementof learners during classroom teaching and learning as the teacher becomes themediator in terms of giving directions to the learners regarding theexplanation of a certain concept.

The principles of Vygotsky theory are mainlybased on, first, understanding the way of thinking and also learning a processof social and cultural interaction rather than an individual phenomena. Thesecond principle is based on the relationship between language and thoughtssince for one to to be able to understand the theory, he/she must use theappropriate language in regard to his knowledge about the theory from differentperspective. The third principle is based on instruction and development inthat learners should be given instructions by teachers to guide them duringclassroom teaching and learning and this will help them throughout their stagesof development. The last principle therefore is based on everyday academicconcept formation, this entails student daily academic activities that guidesthem in understanding certain concept and the activities should be exercisedfully through the learner’s full participation. The theory is relevant to thearea of study simply because it guides the researcher in understanding howteachers and learners relate with each other during classroom teaching andlearning.

in addition to that, the theory also will help the researcher inmaking a conclusion on the social and cultural interaction between the learnersand teachers as far as classroom teaching and learning is concerned.  1.8Conceptual frameworkThe Kenyan education system therefore requires thecollaboration of various individuals for it to be successful or beneficial toany individual in the society. Most secondary schools in Kenya performs poorlyespecially in national examination mainly because there is minimal relationshipbetween learners and teachers as well as parents and teachers. The other reasonfor poor performance in national examination maybe lack of teaching andlearning resources and also lack of interest by learners in utilizing theteaching and learning resources provide by the school for the improvement oftheir academic performance.

in conceptualizing therefore, the researcher willpoint out how teachers, learners, resources, school infrastructure and alsoparents affects the academic performance of the learners. The goal of thisstudy therefore is to explore how culture affects the academic performance of boys’secondary schools in Samburu County. Figure 1.1 below clearly presentsconceptual framework of the study.

Effects of culture.                                                                                                                                1.9Operational definitions of terms.Academicperformance:    refers to an extent in which both teacher,student and institution has achieved their short term or long term educationalgoals.

it is commonly measured through national examinations or schoolcontinuous assessment tests.Classroomteaching and learning process: this refers to forminteraction between the teacher and the learner in a specific setting with aimof gaining knowledge from one another.Marginalizedcommunity: a marginalized community refers to a group that isless recognized in the society. The group is denied involvement mostly ineconomic, political and social activities.Culture:refers to social behavior and norms found in the society.

it also refers tocustomary beliefs, social forms and material traits of a racial, religious orsocial group.Educationalauthorities: educational authorities refers to a groupof individual who plays a key role in the management of education system inKenya as well as monitoring the progress of the provision of quality educationin Kenya.Schooladministration: school administration involvesindividuals who have been assigned special duties by educational authorities tofacilitate the day-to-day running of the school.    CHAPTER TWO.2.0Literature reviewThe chapter gives a review of literature related tothe study on the effects of culture on academic performance of boys secondaryschools in Samburu north constituency, Samburu county in a clear and also presents literature on the effective teaching and learning methodsused by teachers in improving academic performances of the learners and alsothe reliability of the teaching and learning methods. Effectiveteaching and learning methodsEffective teaching and learning methods are mainlybased          CHAPTER THREEResearchDesign and Methodology.

3.1.Research methodologyThis chapter highlights the research design, targetpopulation, sample and sampling procedures, data description, data collectioninstruments, data collection procedures, data analysis procedures and alsotheir usefulness in research work as well as their reliability in terms of useby the researcher in carrying out field research. 3.2Research designThe research design used in this study was descriptivesurvey. The study therefore is carried out with the aim of collectinginformation from both school administration, teachers, students andnon-teaching staff on how culture has greatly affected the academic performanceof boys secondary schools in Samburu north constituency, Samburu county.

inorder to carry out research successfully with aim of getting more information,the researcher used both primary and secondary data as technique of discoveringthe factual information. Primary data was obtained through questionnaire whilesecondary data was obtained from internet sources, articles, magazines andKenya this case therefore, survey study was employed by theresearcher with aim of obtaining reliable and clear information about theresearch problem and finally drawing appropriate and varied conclusions basedon the discovered facts (Lokesh,). 3.3 TargetpopulationTarget population refers to specific population inwhich the researcher wants to carry out research study with aim of gettingfactual information and concluding the results of the study. The research studyin this case was conducted at baragoi boys’ secondary school, Samburu north,Samburu County. The school is located about three kilometers from baragoitrading Centre.

in this case therefore, deputy principal, teachers and studentswere the main source that the researcher used in getting full and factualinformation about the research study area.Generally,Samburu county has 13  both public and private boys secondaryschools in total but the research is carried out at baragoi boys secondaryschool due to time, security and those 13 boys secondary schoolsthe population of 6120 students were recorded and 62 teachers in total whichshows that there is a gap between the teacher and student ratio during teachingand learning.         3.4Sample size and sampling procedures.

Sampling is a process of selecting a part of thepopulation in which the researcher wants to carry out research study with aimof getting factual information and further concluding the results of the study(kerlinga 1973).with aim of carrying out research successfully, the researcherselected school deputy principal, class teachers and representative of thenon-teaching staff .students representatives were randomly selected. Theselected individuals were used by the researcher specifically for datacollection. The main reason why the researcher selected the above individualswas because they have experiences and knowledge on how the school cultureaffects the academic performance of the learners in both continuous assessmenttests and national examination.          3.5Description of data collection and instrumentsThe data collection instruments were used by theresearcher in different fields of research this case, two datacollection instruments were used by the researcher, questionnaires and interviews.

Open ended and closed ended questions were used by the researcher during theresearch study, in open-ended questions, respondents filled their opinions inthe spaces provided while in closed ended questions, respondents respondedusing a tick for their answers. The questionnaires was used by the researcherin getting information mainly from the learners on their academic performance,experiences during teaching and learning, participation in school co-curricularactivities and finally relationship between them and their subject teachers aswell as school administration. Interviews were employed in getting informationfrom both the school deputy principal and the class and subject teachers. Theclass and subject teachers provided information on the cause of decline andimprovement of academic performance of the learners across the classes and thepossible reasons for the decline and improvement of academic performances ofthe learners. The deputy principal provide a general information of the schoolwith indiscipline cases among students being the great challenge affecting theschool academic performance, the principal also mentioned lack of teaching andlearning resources as among the key elements that affects the academicperformances of the learners.     3.

6Data collection procedures.Before carrying out the research study, the researcherobtained permission from the head of research from the institution of higherlearning. This was done through an official written letter authorizing theresearcher to carry out the research study in a chosen area of study. Theresearcher visited the sampled school with the letter which was to be given tothe school principal for consideration of the research study. The researcher inthis case familiarized with the school administration with aim of making anecessary arrangement on when and how the research study would be carried out.

The questionnaires were administered to the students and were given a period of1 hour and 30 minutes to fill the questionaires.the interview sessions wereorganized with teachers and the deputy principal of the school. The informationcollected was finally kept confidential by the researcher and was used forresearch purpose only         3.7Data analysisData analysis was done after data collection .in thiscase the researcher collected the questionnaires from the respondents andgathered the information obtained through interviews with the school deputyprincipal and teachers. The researcher then checked and corrected the responsesby removing the incomplete responses from the respondents as well asunnecessary responses in regard to the context of the expectation of the researcher.

The necessary responses are organized systematically by the researcher with aimof bringing out their relevance in the area under study. After the data wasanalysed,they were then interpreted to show their validity in terms of knowinghow culture  has affected the academicperformance of students of baragoi boys secondary school, Samburu north,Samburu county.