This study seeks to determine the relationship of Goleman’s (1980) construct of emotional intelligence to excellent sales performance of sales agents in the real estate industry in terms of annual dollar earnings. Furthermore, this study will provide evidence that levels of emotional intelligence is correlated to the overall performance of real estate sales agents. Specifically, this study sees to answer the following hypothesis: a. Emotional intelligence is positively correlated to sales skills such as active listening, emphatic understanding of client’s needs, effective communication skills and powerful negotiation techniques. . Emotional intelligence is positively correlated to sales performance of real estate sales agents in terms of annual sales earnings. Research Limitations The limitations of this research study lies in the design of the study and the measures of emotional intelligence. This study will adopt the correlational design and since correlational measures only determine the existence and the direction of the relationship between two variables, this study cannot claim that one variable had caused the other.
Thus, this study can only prove that emotional intelligence is related to sales performance whether positively or negatively and cannot conclude that emotional intelligence causes high sales performance. Correlational studies have been found to be an effective statistical tool especially if the objective is to find out whether two variables are related in anyway. On the other hand, correlational method’s inherent weaknesses in terms of identifying the antecedent situations or factors that may influence the relationship of the measured variables present another limiting factor.
Correlational coefficients are derived using mean averages of numerical values assigned to the variables, in this case the scores in the emotional intelligence test and dollar earnings. Factors like prior customer relationship, customer satisfaction, perseverance and or length of experience which in all probability can affect the ability of the sales agent to close a deal can only be identified as limitations. Another limitation of the study is the use of self-report inventory to measure emotional intelligence.
Self-report tests asks the examinee to determine the traits, attitudes and feelings that he/she has towards situations or events, the self-report format underscores the presumed willingness of the examinee to give information about oneself. However, researches have found that the more person questions are in the test, the more it is likely that the examinee will fake his/her responses (Harrison, 1995). Self-report inventories generate a wide pool of data that can be utilized for further research however, since the individual is tasked to present a picture of which he/she is, the tendency to fake good is very high.
However, self-report inventories can adequately measure subjective constructs such as emotional intelligence if participants are willing to take the inventory and complete it with the desire for greater self-awareness. Finally, another limitation of the research is that this study uses annual dollar sales which essentially are different from each region. Prices vary for each state depending on the real estate value as well as the amount of commissions that the agents earn for every sale.
This greatly limits the generalizations that this study could make in terms of finding out whether dollar sales is indicative of better performance. It could be that a certain sales agent targets the upper income buyers and even if he/she makes 4 sales in a year but these are all high-value properties and thus earn top dollars, another sales agent work day in and day out and make about 20 sales per year but still earn the same amount as the first agent.
Therefore, any conclusions that will be derived from this study will be limited to the specific sales agent and the specific locality of the agents. As any scientific endeavor, nothing is ever exact and accurate, thus despite the research limitations of this study, the researcher have argued that correlational methods are appropriate for the research problems to be adequately answered. Moreover, the emotional intelligence appraisal is an excellent test in terms of psychometric properties and it is specifically designed for sales people
Methodology This chapter will present the research design and methods to be used in the study to test the hypothesis of the study as well as presenting briefly and in sufficient detail the other aspects of the study methodology such as instruments used participants of the study, and data collection procedure and analysis. Research Design & Approach This study will use the quantitative approach in that it will correlate the emotional intelligence scores of the participants to that of their annual sales in dollars.
Emotional intelligence as a psychological construct have been measured in psychological assessment instruments and to enable the researcher to work faster in the most efficient and psychologically correct manner, the use of the online emotional intelligence appraisal self-report form for career enhancement and awareness developed by TalentSmart (Bradberry & Greaves, 2003) will be used. The annual sales in dollars per sales agent is the most readily available measure of performance and success in the real estate field as every deal closed will amount to dollars, hence higher dollar earnings would indicate better sales performance.
The correlational method determines the relationship of emotional intelligence to sales performance which is more apt for this event than t-test, comparative studies and etc. Quantitative approach is objective and free from biases of subjectivity, research bias, interpreter inaccuracy and or poor research control which are more prevalent in qualitative studies. Setting and Sample The participants of this study will be sales agents who are currently licensed realtors and are members of the National Association of Realtors (NAR).
The purpose for delineating such criteria for the inclusion of research participants is to establish the credibility and objectivity of the data gathered from the participants. The emotional quotient scores validity will be determined by the instrument itself, while the annual sales earnings for each sales agent will be verified by the NAR to maintain accurateness and reliability of the data. Sales agent affiliated with the NAR are monitored and asked to update their status every year, doe the group has up-to-date information and sales agents of good standing can be easily identified.
In addition, the participants need to have at least 3 years experience in real estate sales. The participants will be determined using captive sampling, as the identified participants must first meet the classification criteria. It is desired than an equal number of, males and female sales agents be asked to complete the survey, religion, age and race are not controlled for. The data gathering will be done online, wherein from the NAR’s roster of members of 1. 3 million professional agents, letters of invitation will be sent through email requesting the sales agent to volunteer to serve as participants in the study.
Contact information of the researcher was included in the invitation to enable the prospective participant to communicate with the researcher for any concerns or clarifications about the study. The first 35 from the NAR list will be considered to participate in the study. Once the target participants have been notified, they will be asked to complete a separate questionnaire online through TalentSmart which will contain demographic data and asks them of their annual sales earning for the past year.
After completing the initial survey, the participants will be given a link in which they could access and answer the Emotional Intelligence Appraisal (EIA) which still will be facilitated by TalentSmart. Identifying data will not be collected in order to protect the privacy of the participants and there is also a lower level of the threat to confounding variables since the data is gathered through the internet only, there will be no face to face interaction and thus offer the safety and comfort of anonymity which will help in bringing about the very real perceptions of the participant. Instrumentation and Materials
The emotional intelligence appraisal is a simple yet powerful tool in discriminating against the five core traits of effective sales person. The EIA has positive psychometric properties and it can be used in several forms but for the purpose of this research it will be based on the general scores yielded in the test. The instrument was developed based on the theory of emotional quotient by Goleman (2007). The EIA form used in this study will be the Me Edition, and which will measure aspects of emotional intelligence such as self-management, self-awareness, social awareness and relationship management.
The instrument asks the examinee to indicate the rate of frequency of the mentioned behaviors in terms of skills application necessary for selling real-estates. A 6-point frequency scale wherein 1 is never and 6 is always. It would take 7 minutes to complete the appraisal online and the language used in the EIA will correspond to the reading level of the test taker. Since everything will be processed online, the time needed for the collating and data analysis will be relatively shorter compared to paper and pencil tests. The EIA will derive composite scores based on the four key aspects and also a general EQ score.
A survey form will also be used in this study which will gather the demographic details of the participants as well as include a self-report checklist on their perception of how adequate their skills are in active listening, emphatic understanding of client’s needs, effective communication skills and powerful negotiation techniques which will be developed by the researcher in coordination with TalentSmart. The questionnaire will be accessed through a special key provided by TalentSmart. The collating and analysis of the data will also be handled by TalentSmart.
A related material to be used in this study will be the membership list of the NAR where prospective participants will be identified. And the most important resource material in this study will be the internet, since everything will be online. This would enable the researcher to speed up the data gathering process and statistical analysis of the data, although threats of system crashes, viruses and difficulty in accessing the internet are expected to hamper the actual research study but which are reasonable risks that will not affect the validity of the results of the study. Data Collection and Analysis
The data collected in this study will be threefold, the first will be the demographic data of the participants which will include the age, gender, race, religion, years of experience in sales and if any real-estate specializations. With it is the participant’s report of their annual sales earnings in dollars for the past year, which can be verified through NAR, the data would be in dollar values. The next set of data will be the self-rating of participants in their skills or abilities in active listening, emphatic understanding of client’s needs, effective communication skills and powerful negotiation techniques.
The responses will range from a scale of 1 to 6, 1 being the least practiced and 6 the most practiced. The scores for this self-report will be in decimal values since the scale will be computed through weighted means. The last data to be collected will be the emotional quotient scores of the participants as measured by the EIA. All of the data collected din this study will be channeled through the internet, all of the measurement tools are accessed online.
The analysis of the data will use statistical tools that TalentSmart will provide as part of the services that they offered. The gathered scores from the survey and the EIA will be analyzed through Pearson’s correlational formula “r”. In order to test and answer the first hypothesis, self-report ratings for the skills in active listening, emphatic understanding of client’s needs, effective communication skills and powerful negotiation techniques will each be correlated separately to the emotional intelligence quotient for each of the participants.
For the second hypothesis, the dollar sales earnings and the emotional intelligence quotient will also be subjected to the correlational analysis. The correlation coefficients of more than 5 will be defined as highly positive correlation, which means that the higher the EQ the more it is likely that annual sales are high, as well as having more skills in active listening, emphatic understanding of client’s needs, effective communication skills and powerful negotiation techniques.
The results of the study will be presented through tables and charts to depict the values of the data analysis. Measures taken for protection of participant’s rights This study relies heavily on the survey and self-report instruments, thus it is a possibility that participants might not feel comfortable in answering the items of participating fully in the study, thus if a participant wishes to drop out from the study at any given period can do so.
Since the participants volunteered for this study, it is important that their privacy and identities will be protected especially in the medium such as the internet where everything is almost accessible by shady characters. Thus, the participant’s will not be asked to give out their email address and enter it into any of the forms. The researcher will be the only person allowed to view the email addresses of the participants for the sending of the invitations.
Then the participants will be asked to call a dedicated number to ask for their access codes and they will be the one to open and access their EIA forms and then resend it to TalentSmart for the collating and data analysis. No identifiable data will be asked from the participants and they will be briefed and given orientation on the purpose and objectives of the study, the individual results of their EIA will also be returned to them or mailed to them and save for the TalentSmart personnel and the researcher, the participants anonymity will be protected.
References (I can’t find the biblio, but the technical manual has to be here) Dear michelle, The sentences in red refer to an additional survey question that can be integrated with the initial questionnaire for the demographic data , this is necessary for the study as it will answer the first hypothesis. If you feel that this is not important, then you can delete it but also delete the first hypothesis. We cannot correlate anything, if it does not have a value. Thanks