The growth of any organization depends on its employees. Most of the companies can not retain their employees because they fail to resolve their employee’s issues. Some of the employment issues are employee turnover, discrimination in the workplace, Managers with poor management skills and sexual harassment. Discrimination is “any distinction, exclusion or preference which has the effect of nullifying or impairing equality of opportunity or treatment in employment or occupation”, and is made on the basis of “race, color, sex, religion, political opinion, national extraction or social origin”.
Obviously, distinctions based strictly on the inherent requirements of the job are not discrimination. It induces low morale to the existing employees. Unless there is a very good business-related justification, it is inappropriate to identify people by race, color, gender, and ethnic origin (George 1994). Moreover, it can occur with respect to the terms and conditions of the employment, such as for example equal remuneration, hours of work and rest, paid holidays, maternity leave, security of tenure, advancement, social security, and occupational safety and health.
Economists have typically pointed to unexplained differences in compensation or employment between various groups as evidence of discrimination (Ashenfelter and Oaxaca, 1987). With the imminent aging of the workforce, and the increasing numbers of people with career responsibilities who need or wish to work, the understanding, detection and subsequent removal of discrimination in employment is of critical importance to an egalitarian society.
Despite the fact that discrimination may occur at many points in the employment process, most of the research has focused on the interview stage (Barber et al. , 1994). Discrimination can take many forms, both in terms of gaining access to employment and in the treatment of employees once they are in work. It may be direct, such as when laws, rules or practices explicitly cite a reason such as sex or race to deny equal opportunity. Most commonly, discrimination is indirect and arises where rules or practices have the appearance of neutrality but in fact lead to exclusions.
It is an issue that should be of concern to all businesses because discriminatory practices in employment and occupation restrict the available pool of workers and skills, and slow economic growth for society as a whole. The lack of a climate of tolerance results in missed opportunities for development of skills and infrastructure to strengthen competitiveness in the global economy. Finally, discrimination isolates an employer from the wider community and can damage a company’s reputation, potentially affecting profits and stock value. Turnover can be extremely costly to an organization.
For each employee you lose, the turnover costs range from 120% to 200% of annual salary. On average, new employee performance takes 13. 5 months to reach maximum efficiency (Laura 2004). The cause is more likely to be one of these – understaffing or lack of communication or poor job fit. Many average and below-average job performers do not lack the skills; rather, they lack the desire to achieve. It could result because of lack of opportunity for advancement or growth, lackluster supervision and training and a bad match between the employee’s skills and the job. Joel, 1998). Employees who survived layoffs and recessions with their jobs intact are working harder than ever. The reduced numbers of workers still shoulder the same (or larger) total workload that existed before staff-cuts. In 2002, worker productivity in the United States was at its highest level since the 1950s — 4. 7%. Each and every day good employees quit their employers for better jobs elsewhere. U. S. businesses spend over $200 billion annually recruiting and replacing their employees (Gregory 2003).
Most professionals have a backlog of 200 or more hours of uncompleted work, in spite of working harder. As a result, employees experience a strong need to balance the urgent demands of work and personal life without sacrificing either. Employees want to know manager’s vision and what, specifically, the manager want them to accomplish. Employees also want to know how the manager thinks about what they’re doing — and not just during annual reviews. Regular and consistent feedback is essential for any worker to do the job that the manager expects.
Many employees feel unfulfilled, bored, or “stuck” in their current positions. Cross-training gives employees more variety and managers more flexibility in the workforce. Adjusting job tasks can also increase worker satisfaction. Another kind of employment issue is sexual harassment. Sexual harassment can take range from offensive sexual innuendoes to physical encounters, from misogynist humor to rape. An employee may be confronted with sexual demands to keep a job or obtain a promotion, known in the earliest cases as a quid pro quo form of harassment—literally, do this for that.
When sexually offensive conduct permeates the workplace, an employee may find it difficult or unpleasant to work there (Barbara 2000). Employees know that their issues need strong leadership from management. Executives must respond to that need, as well as to other management issues that diversity creates. As Richard Rosenberg, former chairman of Bank of America, says, “Diversity has to be managed. It just doesn’t manage itself. ” When there is weak leadership and management of diversity within an organization, a variety of problems and issues can arise (Kathleen 1996).
Managers fail to make good use of the diversity of skills and perspectives among their workers. Inter group conflicts cause fights, distrust and hatred. Morale cannot stay high under such conditions and hence production suffers (William 1999). Executives fail to create an environment in which employees feel good about coming to work. Bad communication, fear, and discrimination affect the whole organization and can destroy it. These result in high turnover rates and work inefficiency. Employees leave non-supportive organizations in order to find a work environment that is supportive.
Organizations waste millions of dollars every year hiring and training new employees. People don’t really quit companies, they quit managers. Many people leave simply because of the way they are treated every day. Surveys show that lack of appreciation, lack of teamwork, and the perception that the company doesn’t care about employees are consistently the highest-rated reasons for low job satisfaction. As a manager, one must specifically communicate to employees that you appreciate their contributions, rather than talking to them only when they do something wrong.
One must use charts and graphs distributed through electronic bulletin boards and e-mail groups to keep his/her team informed of results and how they are moving toward company goals. We as a society are affected by all these employment issues. I believe these issues could be confronted to educate, train and give seminars to our employers, managers and business owners. These issues and many more should be confronted and dealt with for our society and economy. Many corporations such as the University of Arizona provide employee assistance for these types of issues.