The following report examines the ethnic group of African Americans, considering being labeled as second-class citizens in the American society. Having to face racial discrimination, racial segregation, and low-level education and work opportunities. As part as being a person a color you can relate to other nationalities that have been through oppression and class system. In America we have been through a suffrage movement; slave trade, American military, Jim Crow, and Civil Rights Movement.

Dating back 400 years, having a whole history of being traded as barter and kept as property, and being counted non-people of the population in the United States. This report gives an detailed example of one ethnic group discriminated based on their color and how the human race expresses themselves in hatred sentiment, and how these issues are affective problems in the workplace, schools, institutions, and government. Did The Group Colonize or Immigrate to the United States? In the 1500’s, in the need for developing the “new world” millions of slaves were brought on ships that would benefit them by enriching themselves.

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They had worked on vast, farming lands and used as a resource for picking cotton. They were not considered citizens of the United States, nor counted, as people of the population but were only property of slave owners. As for other people of ethnic races that came upon the land of the United States, didn’t quite face their own being have to be forced to be used a free trade and free labor. Although, some ethnicities did have to work for low pay and had a hard time adjusting in America and as being citizens.

Immigrants from other countries who freely got to work, for some of Anglo-Saxon descent had gotten job opportunities over the African-American who was already immigrated in America. Did The Group Face Prejudice, Segregation, or Racism? Indeed, there was a racial and social system that was created. Dating back to slavery as blacks being non-counted as citizens because the color of their skin. Then when blacks wanted to fight in war, they were treated less and didn’t quite get the satisfaction that they were looking for.

Fighting for freedom was the main cause that they never received in return for their efforts. The Reconstruction and Jim Crow was worst of all, because blacks were not at all free, even if they were not slaves. They still didn’t receive the education or any good opportunities. Leading into the 20th century, Jim Crow laws caused segregation and blacks not being able to go wherever they wanted or integrate with any whites whatsoever. During the 1960’s, it was a time for the struggle of freedom and finally get equality, and to not segregate schools or public places.

Black activist and civilians faced torture and fear, and the possibility of murder. Yes, above all if you see the history of racism and segregation. You are likely to see the African Americans as being that ethnic group. Dual Labor Market The labor market consists of two tiers. Workers in the upper tier enjoy high wages, good benefits, and employment security, and they are often unionized. Workers in the lower tier experience low wages, high turnover, job insecurity, Ethnic Groups and Discrimination 2. and little chance of promotion.

Until now, dual labor market theory has focused mainly on microeconomic factors such as discrimination, poverty, and public welfare. Dual Labor Markets considers the macroeconomic implications of the dual market. The book uses theoretical models derived from the author’s research over the past six years to analyze such policy issues as the level and persistence of unemployment, the level of real wages, the accumulation of human capital, and the political viability of labor market reform in the United States and Europe. Source: Dual Labor Markets: A Macroeconomic Perspective by Gilles Saint-Paul) Environmental Justice “Racism is the intentional or unintentional use of power to isolate, separate and exploit others. . . Racism is more than just a personal attitude; it is the institutionalized form of the attitude” – National Council of Churches Racial Justice Working Group. Delegates to the First National People of Color Environmental Leadership Summit held on October 24-27, 1991, in Washington DC, drafted and adopted 17 principles of Environmental Justice.

Since then, The Principles have served as a defining document for the growing grassroots movement for environmental justice. (Source: Washington Office of Environmental Issue Justice). Environmental Justice calls for the education of present and future generations, which emphasizes social and environmental issues, based on our experience and an appreciation of our diverse cultural perspectives. Affirmative Action IN THE WORKPLACE by Orlando Petterson, as in many aspects of their lives, Afro-Americans as a group are systematically unconnected to the essential network resources that most other Americans take for granted.

Their workplace isolation involves far more than the impenetrable “glass ceilings” associated with the nation’s boardrooms. It is pervasive, hampering working-class laborers seeking well-paying jobs on a construction work crew just as it does upwardly mobile college graduates. (Source: Magazine Title: Brookings Review. Volume: 16. Issue: 2. Publication Date: Spring 1998. Page Number: 17+. COPYRIGHT 1998 Brookings Institution; COPYRIGHT 2002 Gale Group) Three years later the Civil Rights Act of 1964 was adopted.

The unambiguous provisions of that great statute (of which much more will be said in chapter 5) could not by themselves bring public racial discrimination to an end. In hotels and restaurants, in industrial employment, in the admission of students to universities, in the letting of government contracts, in housing rentals and sales, in all the nooks they were used in the National Labor Relations Act of 1935, in which the aim was to eliminate discrimination against union members. Source: Publication Information: Book Title: Affirmative Action and Racial Preference: A Debate. Contributors: Carl Cohen – author, James P. Sterba – author. Publisher: Oxford University Press. Place of Publication: New York. Publication Year: 2003. Page Number: 12. ) Ethnic Groups and Discrimination 3. Redlining Is the slang term used to describe an illegal practice of discrimination against a particular racial group by real estate lenders or insurance companies. Redlining occurs when lenders or insurance company decide certain areas of a community are too high risk.

Real estate companies who redline simply refuse to give a mortgage to buyers who want to purchase property in those areas, regardless of their qualifications or creditworthiness. Insurance companies who redline refuse to insure consumers who live in certain neighborhoods. (Source: ThinkGlink. com) Redlining is the practice of arbitrarily denying or limiting financial services to specific neighborhoods, generally because its residents are people of color or are poor.

While discriminatory practices existed in the banking and insurance industries well before the 1930s, the New Deal’s Home Owners’ Loan Corporation (HOLC) instituted a redlining policy by developing color-coded maps of American cities that used racial criteria to categorize lending and insurance risks. New, affluent, racially homogeneous housing areas received green lines while black and poor white neighborhoods were often circumscribed by red lines denoting their undesirability. Banks and insurers soon adopted the HOLC’s maps and practices to guide lending and underwriting decisions.

Further, the Federal Housing Administration, created in 1934, also used the HOLC’s methods to assess locations for federally insured new housing construction. (Source: Jackson, Kenneth T. Crabgrass Frontier: The Suburbanization of the United States. 1985. Squires, Gregory D. , Larry Bennett, Kathleen McCourt, and Philip Nyden. Chicago: Race, Class, and the Response to Urban Design. 1987. Squires, Gregory D. , ed. Insurance Redlining: Disinvestment, Reinvestment, and the Evolving Role of Financial Institutions. 1997. ) Double Jeopardy

Being tried twice for the same offense; prohibited by the 5th Amendmentto the U. S. Constitution. ‘[T]he Double Jeopardy Clause protects against three distinct abuses: [1] a second prosecution for the same offense after acquittal; [2] a second prosecution for the same offense after conviction; and [3] multiple punishments for the same offense. ‘ U. S. v. Halper, 490 U. S. 435, 440 (1989). ”The constitutional prohibition against ‘double jeopardy’ was designed to protect an individual from being subjected to the hazards of trial and possible conviction more than once for an alleged offense. . . The underlying idea, one that is deeply ingrained in at least the Anglo-American system of jurisprudence, is that the State with all its resources and power should not be allowed to make repeated attempts to convict an individual for an alleged offense, thereby subjecting him to embarrassment, expense and ordeal and compelling him to live in a continuing state of anxiety and insecurity, as well as enhancing the possibility that even though innocent he may be found guilty. ”Green v. United States, 355 U. S. 184, 187 -88 (1957). Institutional Discrimination

Part VIII some doctrinal and normative ramifications of institutional racism theory. (37) To begin with, I point out that while many social science theories of racism conceive of that phenomenon as exceptional and therefore impermanent, Ethnic Groups and Discrimination 4. institutional theory pictures racism as both ubiquitous and largely intractable. I then use institutional racism theory to critique central facets of the Supreme Court’s contemporary equal protection jurisprudence–its exclusive fascination with purposeful racism, and its increasingly strict equation of purposeful racism with the open consideration of race.

Institutional analysis demonstrates that the current Supreme Court’s reasoning is exactly backward: Racism occurs frequently–and perhaps predominantly–without any specific invocation of race, while the explicit consideration of race may have as its aim racism’s amelioration rather than perpetuation. (Source: Institutional Racism: Judicial Conduct and a New Theory of Racial Discrimination Journal article by Ian F. Haney Lopez; Yale Law Journal, Vol. 109, 2000) Reverse Discrimination Paul W. Taylor argued, roughly, that when a certain group of persons within a given society is discriminated against because of some nonormal characteristic (that is, skin color), and such discrimination is essentially tied to a pervasive social practice, the characteristic upon which the discrimination is based takes on a moral quality; consequently it becomes the moral duty of the society to make reparation to that group. (Source: Analysis 34, no. 5 (April 1974). Reprinted by permission of the publisher. Discrimination and Morally Relevant Characteristics J. W. Nickel presents what he calls the “reverse-discrimination argument” and offers a counterargument to it. The reverse-discrimination argument is that, if we grant as a matter of compensatory justice special advantages or benefits to persons who have been unjustly treated on the basis of a morally irrelevant characteristic (such as being a woman, being black, being a Jew. (Source: Analysis 33, no. 6 ( June 1973). On the Justifiability of Reverse Discrimination The topic of reverse discrimination in hiring excites strong passions on all sides.

It is a complex issue, the difficulty of which is reflected in divisive, often volatile debates. In the following discussion I shall consider whether and why preferential treatment for members of certain groups is permissible. I assume that discrimination against females and blacks is wrong and unjust. The issue is whether employment discrimination against white males in favor of less-qualified persons of another sex or color is morally justifiable. Another crucial assumption is that employers are able and willing to use objective standards for determining relevant qualifications–that they have access to, nd can follow, nonsexist and nonracist criteria. I shall adumbrate four aims in view of which a comprehensive social program of reverse discrimination may be justified. These are worthy goals which, were there no serious countervailing considerations, should surely be sufficient to justify preferential treatment. To ensure that past discrimination against females and blacks. (Source: This is an original paper by Hardy E. Jones. ) Glass Ceiling In the early 1970’s, labor demographers were observing changes in the composition of the U. S. orkforce that were expected to modify domestic employment patterns in the coming decades. In 1976 a Conference Board report forecast that the 1980’s decade would see higher percentage increases in labor force participation rates for white women and minorities than for white men – Ethnic Groups and Discrimination 5. given continuation of current trends (Lecht, 1976, p. 8). When the mid-1980’s arrived, demographers, noting that anticipated workforce changes had occurred, predicted further acceleration of the trend by the milestone year 2000.

Workforce 2000 projections forecast continuing increases in labor force participation for previously under-represented demographic groups, especially women and people of color. These projections indicated that by the year 2000, working women’s representation in the labor force would increase to 47% (of the labor force); African-Americans to 12%; Hispanics to 10% and Asians to 4%; building on trends already apparent in labor force participation rates (Fullerton, 1989).

Do You Culturally Identify more with the Ethnic Group you examined with the United States Mainstream Culture or with Both Equally? If you’re a person of color you can identify more with any other persons of color, if you haven’t experienced the certain disadvantages like other people have. You have to be able to put yourself in other people’s shoes and read their racial discrimination background to see how it feels for each group and what they have gone through, and that they don’t quite relate or fit in the mainstream America, if your privileged of a favorable color or class.