Graphometer:A graphometer is a appraising instrument which consists of a semi-circle which has been divided into grades and proceedingss.
and has a brace of sight venas at either terminal every bit good as a movable alidade with a brace of sights at either terminal. It was used to cipher distances by agencies of triangulation and to find places of specific points on land or at sea. Many graphometers. although non all of them.
hold a built in magnetic compass. It is a reasonably simple instrument to utilize. nevertheless the consequences achieved utilizing this instrument are non every bit accurate as consequences obtained utilizing modern equipment. These instruments do non hold the same high degrees of lastingness that modern equipment can expose ; this is due to the type of stuff these instruments are normally made from.
viz. brass or wood. Although the graphometer itself is light weight and compact. the tripod base which it sits on is heavier and more hard to transport. Today these instruments are no longer in usage or production. they are considered to be historical artefacts which are purchased for big sums of money by aggregators depending on their age. status and rareness.
( Science Museum. 2003 )( Science and society image library. 2008 )New equipment:Field computing machine:Field computing machines are hand-held devices. which are light weight and compact. One of the disadvantages of utilizing a device like this is that it is battery operated which means that the battery will necessitate to be charged on a regular basis and a trim battery will necessitate to be carried around. Although these devices are reasonably easy to utilize.
a individual who is non comfy utilizing a computing machine may happen that utilizing a device like this can be complicated. The truth of these devices varies depending on the specific brand and theoretical account of field computing machine that is being used. Hand held devices designed for land surveying intents can bring forth consequences which are accurate to within centimeters.Field computing machines have an onboard memory capacity and can besides hive away information on removable SD cards.
Most modern devices have a High-resolution VGA show and besides offer the option of Bluetooth and radio LAN connectivity. These devices have built in electronic compasses and in some instances barometric altimeters every bit good. They are designed to be lasting under all conditions conditions.
The monetary value of a field computing machine ranges from R10 000 to R40 000 depending on the brand and theoretical account every bit good as the specific capablenesss of the field computing machine. Using a device such as this one allows the user to enter informations more expeditiously compared to older methods and besides simplifies the procedure by cut downing the sum of equipment required.( Tremble Geo-Explorer.
2010 ) ( GARMIN. 2012 )( Allegro Field PC. 2012 )Reference list:* Stanford University. 2013. Surveying Equipment. [ ONLINE ] Available at: & lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //pangea. Stanford. edu/academics/field-programs/shared-field-measurement-facility/equipment-pool/surveying-equipment & gt ; : [ Accessed 02 February 2013 ] * National Museum of American History.
2010. Graphometer. [ ONLINE ] Available at: & lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //amhistory. Si.
edu/surveying/type. cfm? typeid=10 & gt ; : [ Accessed 02 February 2013 ] * Group Mobile. 2013. Filed service computing machines. [ ONLINE ] Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www. groupmobile. com/dept.
asp/dept_id=108/Field+Service. hypertext markup language? gclid=CIOszqetn7UCFdLMtAodyBAA0g: [ Accessed 01 February 2013 ] * Juniper systems. 2013. Handhelds designed for Land appraising. [ ONLINE ] Available at: & lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //www.
junipersys. com/Juniper-Systems-Rugged-Handheld-Computers/solutions/Geomatics/Land-Survey & gt ; : [ Accessed 01 February 2013 ]