Week 2 Fieldwork Task: Language matters: Agency and ArguabilityStep 1: Collection of dataWillima Kentridge at the Brooklyn Academy of Music, F. Hirsch (2007). The Magic Flute, Mozart’s last opera (1791), has frequently attracted visual artists. Kokoschka, Chagall, Hockney and Maurice Sendak designed stage versions, and Ingmar Bergman turned a performance of it at Stockholm’s 18th-century Drottningholm Theater into arguably the greatest film of an opera ever made. Perhaps it’s the outlandishness of the plot that baits the hook: a combination of a narrative with Masonic overtones set in ancient Egypt, rife with enchanted instruments, elemental trials and a primal face-off between forces of good and evil.
Who can resist the scene where the hero Tamino, raising the flute to his lips for the first time, prompts wild animals to dance? The whole thing just begs for visuals.;Step 2: AnalysisProcess clausesClProcessActorGoal (Range)Circumstance1Has attractedThe Magic FluteVisual artists2DesignedKokoschka, Chagall, Hockney and Maurice SendakStage versions (of opera)3TurnedIngmar BergmanA performanceOf it (The Magic Flute)4It’sIt (bait of the hook)The plot4BaitsThat (the outlandishness of the plot)The hook5SetA narrative, TaminoIn Ancient Egypt (location)With Masonic overtones6Can resist?WhoThe scene6RaisingCharacter;The fluteTo his lips6PromptsThe sceneWild animalsTo dance7BegsThe whole thing (i.e. performance)For visual displays;Step 3: Interpretationa) The title of the article, Willima Kentridge at the Brooklyn Academy of Music, suggests an event-driven review of the activities of a musician, Willima Kentridge, at a specific location. The subject of the article, one assumes, will be Kentridge and the circumstances limited to her activities at the Brooklyn Academy of Music. Hirsch (1980) is, however, using an event-driven review as a means of analysing the history of a particular play, the Magic Flute.
Of the grammatical patterns of the piece, one can say that the main features are material process clauses, but clauses that nonetheless infer mental or verbal process clauses in an indirect fashion. In clause 7, for example, the use of “begs” might be construed as a verbal process clause, but for the reality that the subject, “the whole thing” or, specifically, the performance, is a concept rather than an animate thing; interpreting a verbal process is thus irrelevant.;The principle features of the text are drawn out descriptions and propositions presented as material process clauses. The purpose of the text is to present an analysis of the history of an opera performance as a preamble to discussions of the activities of one individual. However, the quality of the grammatical structure is such that an almost music tone is established. The maintenance of material process clauses, including “attracted”, “designed”, and “turned” among the verbal groups, establishes a formal and well-grounded basis for the subjective analysis. Hirsch thus applies grammatical structures to fulfill a broader contextual need for the theses of the article to be validated.
Week 3 Fieldwork Task: Semiotics: meanings and signsStep 1: Collection of dataThe Empire States Building, New York, NY, USA.;;Big Ben, London, England.Step 2: AnalysisThe Empire States Building: Iconic New York, Modern, Commerce, Business.Big Ben: Iconic London, Traditional (e.
g. Old Roman Numeral Clock Face); Uniform, Grandiose Design (elaborated architectural features about the parliamentary building at the base).;The Empire States Building is a classic New York structure and has featured in countless visual features, from full length films to advertisements.
It is easily recognizable as having been formally one of the tallest buildings in the world; it is perhaps symbolic of ambition, strength, ingenuity, wealth; it carries great significance in terms of material concepts, the same as the location, New York City, conjures a sense of capitalism and commerce.;Big Ben is something of a pillar of strength. Oddly, the tower design is similar to that of the Empire States Building and both structures could be compared to spires on churches as essentially reaching towards the sky and a higher authority, if you will. However, Big Ben carries a greater weight, perhaps, a greater seriousness in terms of its design, which is clearly older; more elaborate.;Numerous connections can be made between the semiotic patterns of the two buildings. Both stand as vertical figures as mentioned. They have, in some respects, the qualities of church spires in the sense that they are both, as mentioned, reaching to the sky. They also, in a sense, have uniform designs.
They are constructed upon a square or rectangular base, promoting symmetry, which implies balance. Both buildings have these qualities.;Despite their similarities, however, the two building communicate very different patterns as well. The Empire State Building has a far more modern design, which obviously is in part a reflection of the time in which it was built.
The Depression-Era building is designed to be a symbol of the strength of capitalism and the United States by extension. Big Ben, on the other hand, communicates a more conservative and also a more traditional, historic status that is associated with the UK parliamentary building. The height and form of the building and the clock tower are used to communicate a sense of wisdom and power but within a much more theoretical sense; the power is communicated less as a physical quality and more as a conceptual feature.
Week 4 Fieldwork Task: The origins of languageStep 1: Collection of dataObservations of child aged 14 monthsStep 2: AnalysisTopicSign and MeaningContextFoodPointing or Reaching for Food – Implied Meaning Asking to Be Included In ActivityImplied meaning may have been that the child was hungry, however, when offered food, they shook their heads or actively pushed away the food, meaning “no”.Beating Surfaces and Rubbing Eyes – The Child was Breast Fed and Apparently Associated Sleep with Nursing and thus Sleep with Food.Wanting To Get DressedChild Reached for Clothes (Any Clothes) and placed them about their neck like a towel.this was during the time of day they were changed out of their bedtime clothes and dressed for the day (about 9am).Communicating With Specific Adults (Grandmother)Preverbal, the child responded to his grandmother by either touching his nose, reaching into the air with both hands, or clapping his hands. The implied meaning was a request for attention.The Grandmother habitually said things to the child like “Where is your nose? There it is (pointing)” and “How big are you? So big! (reaching into the air with both hands)”. The Grandmother also repeated “Pat-a-Cake” with clapping gestures.
Repeating the sequences over several visits. The child interpreted the movements as a means of communication and securing attention.b) So far as was observed, the subject did not make signs or features of signs that expressed modality, time, abstraction. The focus of signs was very finite.Step 3: InterpretationThe subject’s communication style was very limited. It was limited to the context with which they were familiar. They used the limited range of gestures and symbols to communicate a whole range of emotions, feelings, desires, and requests. The communication method with the subject’s grandmother was particularly interesting.
The subject used a limited range of gestures that the grandmother had repeatedly used to entertain the child. The child had clearly come to associate those gestures, three in particular, with the grandmother and so repeated those gestures himself when his grandmother was present.;The child’s interaction with food was also interesting. They were reportedly not eating more than one meal a day so they were not associating the food with hunger.
None the less, they communicated an interest in what adults around them were consuming. The subject periodically reached to grab food items from plates held by adults in the vicinity. The food would subsequently be placed upon the floor and left for a period of several seconds before being retrieved and either offered to an adult with an extended hand gesture, or placed in the subject’s mouth.
;Overall, the subject’s communicate system was similar to Kanzi’s system in the sense that it was defined by a limited context of familiar gestures and in the sense that the communicate system was not based on the general or ordinary meaning but upon the subject’s own inference of meaning and purpose of gestures. However, in terms of actual gestures, the subject’s system was not comparable to Kanzi’s, which must be inferred as extensive and far more generally applicable in terns of meaning. The child subject had no awareness of abstract concepts and did not differentiate between time frames or other abstract concepts.
;Week 5 Fieldwork Task: Prominence of grammatical elementsFieldwork Task Four;Intimates, D.H. Lawrence, 1930;Text divided into clauses with verbs underlined;1 Don’t you care for my love?2 she said bitterly3 I handed the mirror4 and ^I said5 Please address these questions to the proper person6 Please make all requests to headquarters!7 In all matters of emotional importance please approach the supreme authority direct!-8 -So I handed her the mirror;9 And she would have broken it over my head10 but she caught sight of her own reflection11 and that held her spellbound12 while I fled;Processes and Participants;This analysis is quite tricky because the poet sometimes chooses a verb that has a different process from another more usual verb with ‘the same’ meaning. Eg ‘catch (sight of ) is a material process, more congruently expressed by the mental process ‘see’, and ‘make’ (all requests) is probably material with a Range although ‘to headquarters’ does better as a Receiver than a Circumstance. The muddle is probably part of the style and has her doing or behaving rather than saying anything beyond the first clause.For the analysis, I’ve added MC for male character and FC for female character. FC in brackets denotes potential Actor in a commandClause 11 is similarly tricky and is best handled as a relational process with a CauserNotice that ‘the mirror’ is the only real Goal, the other items in that column being Ranges and is thus foregroundedclause 12 is the only clause without a Goal or Range and is thus foregroundedclauses 6 and 10, and even perhaps 5, are material versions of a different process type so the choice to make this amainly ‘doing’ text are motivated;** you might feel that this too is a material process but, although ‘address’ can’t be followed by direct or indirect speech, it can still be seen as verbal. So what about ‘make requests’? – it’s a bit more material even though the agnate form would be ‘request’.
Which would be verbal. But in that case over to you. A very sophisticated analysis would do them in both ways.Relational process clause or in terms we haven’t ever discussed that is, her reflection caused her to be spellbound‘Held’ gives it a very material feel and you could have put this in with the material processes with ‘her’ as Goal and ‘spellbound’ as an Attribute – or just called it a description. We don’t expect you tp know all the details we haven’t told youAnalysis of speech functionsWhat can we say about this? All the narration is statements in the past tense.
The opening polar question requires a yes or no answer. The answer is obliquely given by a series of commands and the rest of the narration. Do you think it is yes or no? Does he, again obliquely, give a reason for his answer? The Subject in a command is the addressee, who is in the context though not in the clause itself: you can find it by adding a Tag. The only modality shows a strong but unrealised possibility in the past.
Notice the clauses that are different from the dominant pattern of statements, the clause that is different from the dominant pattern of positive, and the clause that is different from the dominant pattern of no modality.Thematic analysisNotice that, in the absence of a marked Theme, the process is topical Theme in commands.;;What can we say about this? Notice how the marked Theme fits the name of the poem Intimate. The dominant Theme is the MC (5/12), the FC in 3 clauses, the process in 2 clauses. and ‘that’ in 1 clause. Notice too that the MC is Theme in the first and last clause, the last being the final answer to the initial question.
Discussion of the grammatical patterns in IntimatesThe title of this text initially suggests that this is a love poem, but the relationship that the text itself construes seems better described by the proverb ‘familiarity breeds contempt’. The poem construes a relationship between the narrator (MC in the analyses) and his female ‘intimate’ (FC) in 12 clauses. The first clause is the only mental process clause in the poem, and it construes emotion both in the Process ‘care for’ and in the Phenomenon ‘my love’. This might confirm that this is a love poem, but because this clause begins with the negative interpersonal Theme ‘Don’t’, and calls into question whether the love is mutual, we are already shifting away from a positive construal of ‘intimacy’; the fact that this question is projected from a verbal clause with the negative Circumstance ‘bitterly’ emphasises this.Most of the other clauses in the poem are material. FC slightly dominates as Actor (she is Actor 4 times, MC is Actor 3 times) but several factors actually make her seem less dominant:several of her ‘material’ clauses are of the ambiguous type that construe mental or verbal action (‘caught sight of’, ‘make all requests’);her most prototypical material clause, breaking the mirror over MC’s head (cl 9), is also the only modalized clause in the poem (so is construed as potential, not actual, action);two of the clauses in which she is construed as Actor (cl 6 ; 7) are MC’s commands to her – so again, these are potential rather than actual actions.FC also slightly dominates as Sayer (in 2 clauses, against MC’s 1 clause), but again, this dominance is attenuated because:FC’s saying projects only 1 clause, the initial question of the poem, whereas MC’s saying projects 3 commands (with FC being the subject of those commands); andone of the clauses where FC is construed as Sayer (cl 5) is again a command from MC.MC’s material clauses (cl 4, 8 ; 12) and verbal clause (cl 4) are all fairly straightforward in terms of experiential analysis (they are not ambiguous in the way FC’s clauses are), but in interpersonal terms, they are not a straightforward response to FC’s yes/no question in clause 1.
Clauses 4-8 (the handing of the mirror and the projected commands) form a rather sarcastic response (akin to ‘why ask me?’ or ‘how should I know’), while clause 12 ‘I fled’ is the ultimate evasion of the question.The patterns of Themes fit in with these experiential and interpersonal findings, with MC slightly dominating as Theme (5 out of 12 clauses). The marked Theme in cl 7 links back to the title and the emotional nature of the first line (were it not for this Theme, we might lose sight of the fact that initially seemed to be a love poem).Together, this seems a rather stereotypical vignette of ‘the war between the sexes’, as construed by a stereotypical man (the male narrator of the poem – not necessarily D. H. Lawrence himself, although he is not a favourite of feminists, in general).
The man construes the woman as stultifyingly vain, and demanding with respect to emotional validation of their relationship; he denies his ability to comment on his own emotional life, and construes her as ‘the supreme authority’ on emotional issues. Notable also is the irony of him construing her as the extreme authority while himself issuing her with commands, and his denial of knowledge of his own emotional state, while commenting on her potential actions (‘she would have broken it over my head’).;