Q.2 Frederick Taylor’s ‘scientific management’ was for a different clip and a different topographic point. Discuss.
I agree that Frederick Taylor’s ‘scientific management’ doubtless belonged to a different clip and topographic point. In this essay I will show why I believe this to be true. To make so, I will get down by sketching where the thought originated from, and what precisely Taylor’s ‘scientific management’ consists of. Following this I will discourse the grounds why I believe that this system was so for a different clip and topographic point, and I will compare it with systems that I believe to be more applicable to modern managerial work, for illustration Henry Mintzberg’s positions on the Manager’s functions. I do nevertheless, besides believe that there are facets of Taylor’s ‘scientific management’ which can be seen to run good in managerial work today, and so I will besides discourse the ways that I see this to be true.
A director is a individual who is in charge of an organisation or one of an organization’s sub-units. They are responsible for commanding or supervising a group of persons, and they allocate, direct and history for resources. Their chief responsibilities are to be after, organize, take, and control. The chief object of direction should be to procure the maximal leaning for the employer, every bit good as the maximal leaning for each employee ( Taylor, 1911 ) . Taylor’s analysis of direction revealed that ‘unscientific management’ was the cardinal job of the late old ages of the 19Thursdaycentury, around the clip of the terminal of the ‘Long Depression’ . At this clip Taylor was working as a machine-shop laborer at the Midvale Steel Company of Philadelphia, and his surveies were based on his personal observations of the organisation and executing of day-to-day work undertakings here ( Fulop and Linstead, 1999 ) . He realised that maximal efficiency wasn’t being achieved by workers as employers were paying the lowest rewards they could and in return the employees was making every bit small work as they could ( Taylor, 1911 ) . The bulk of workers believed that the cardinal involvements of the workingman and the direction were counter ( Taylor, 1911 ) . Taylor believed that the greatest obstruction to cooperation between the workingman and the direction was the ignorance of the direction as to what the workman’s day-to-day enterprises really consisted of ( Taylor, 1911 ) . ‘Scientific management’ was developed on the contrary to this, where the involvements of both the direction and the workingman needed to be viewed as one and the same – where prosperity for the employer can non be achieved in the long tally unless it is accompanied by prosperity for the employee ( Taylor, 1911 ) .
Taylor came up with a systematic attack to the survey and design of work ( Fulop and Linstead, 1999 ) . There were four cardinal elements of this thought of ‘scientific management’ sketching the new responsibilities of the direction. The first being that they develop a scientific discipline for each component of a workman’s work, where before they merely used a general regulation of pollex method ( Taylor, 1911 ) . Second the direction themselves scientifically select and train the workingmans. In the past the workingman appointed his ain work and trained himself to the best of his capablenesss ( Taylor, 1911 ) . Third the direction heartily collaborate with the workingmans, sing that all the work is being done in conformity with the developed rules of the scientific discipline ( Taylor, 1911 ) . Fourthly and eventually, that there is an basically equal division of both work and duty between the workingmans and the direction. The direction take on the work for which they are better suited, where in the past the bulk of the duty and virtually all of the work load were thrown upon the workingmans ( Taylor, 1911 ) . At the clip the system of ‘scientific management’ was adopted by legion companies in the United States, and it worked really good. Daily rewards rose from 33 % – 100 % higher than environing companies who were still runing under ordinary direction, and mean end product per adult male per machine doubled ( Taylor, 1911 ) . As clip progressed nevertheless, defects to the system surfaced, and what seemed to be more appropriate direction systems were developed.
One component of ‘scientific management’ was that work activities were standardized and formalized to optimise executing of finely subdivided insistent undertakings ( Fulop and Linstead, 1999 ) , for illustration Henry Ford’s assembly line that was developed after 1914 is an extension of this rule ( Drucker, 1999 ) . In their book, Liz Fulop and Stephen Linstead point out how this isolating and insistent nature of work undertakings was seen by the workingmans and the trade brotherhoods as ‘the ultimate dehumanizing and disaffection attack to work’ ( Fulop and Linstead, 1999 ) . Workmen became disgruntled, progressively careless, and more often absent from their employment. Working in these in humane working conditions, caused many workers to endure extended psychological injury and hapless work life quality ( Fulop and Linstead, 1999 ) . Directors could see that demotivation from the ceaseless humdrum of the mill was bound to emerge in the long tally ( Fulop and Linstead, 1999 ) . In today’s society employee’s mean intelligence has risen greatly, and people have become more cognizant of their value as human existences ( Priestly, 2005 ) . While ‘scientific management’ workers were viewed as working entirely for economic wages, today people are no longer satisfied with having merely financial wages for their work ( Priestly, 2005 ) . It was clear that directors needed to look for ways to do occupations more per se honoring – so that the existent work itself would convey a wages of significance or test ( Boddy, 2005 ) . Most early occupation redesign schemes were concerned with change by reversaling the effects the over-specified, inflexible occupations that stemmed from Scientific Management, stressing doing occupations more satisfying and challenging ( Fulop and Linstead, 1999 ) .
The 21stCentury has seen important additions in entree to engineering and information. This is another ground why it is hard to use ‘scientific management’ to modern organisations. Organizations today process immense sums of input, provided by satellite link-ups and the Internet, and employees no longer work in stray units but are literally connected to the organisation in its whole ( Priestly, 2005 ) . With this fleet technological growing the importance of responding rapidly to developments that may impact the organization’s public assistance is lifting, and directors realise that it is non possible for them to command every facet of employee’s maps, doing it imperative for the employees to utilize their ain enterprise ( Priestly, 2005 ) . This flexibleness that must be sustained by modern companies does non follow with Taylor’s ‘scientific management’ , which required the work of every workingman to be wholly planned out by the direction at least one twenty-four hours in progress ( Boddy, 2005 ) . Lack of flexibleness of workers can besides be seen under ‘scientific management’ when workers became excessively extremely specialized in their specific undertaking, forbiding their capableness to accommodate to new state of affairss. Directors in the 21stcentury require their workers exhibit flexibleness every bit good as efficiency ( Priestly, 2005 ) .
Henry Mintzberg besides tackles many rules of Taylor’s ‘scientific management’ by comparing what he believes to be ‘folklore’ and what he believes to be fact about the manager’s occupation, from his point of position in 1990. The first rule he deals with is that ‘the director is a brooding, systematic planner’ ( Mintzberg, 1990 ) . He countered this by explicating how alternatively legion surveies have shown that the director works at an grim gait, and that their activities are characterized by brevity, assortment and discontinuity ( Mintzberg, 1990 ) . He backs up his claim with grounds from surveies of U.S. chiefs and of British top and in-between directors, where his beliefs, which contradict Taylor’s, can be seen to be true in these modern work organisations. Mintzberg besides opposes ‘scientific management’ as a whole by stating that it is ‘folklore’ that direction is a scientific discipline and a profession ( Mintzberg, 1990 ) . What Mintzberg suggests to be true today is that the manager’s plans, including determination devising and so on, are rooted deep with their encephalons ( Mintzberg, 1990 ) . With organisations going much more complex today, the manager’s occupation is progressively more hard. Directors are overburdened with duties and are forced to overwork and make many of their undertaking superficially ( Mintzberg, 1990 ) . ‘Scientific management’ concentrated on specialised maps of the organisation, but Mintzberg saw that the features required of effectual managerial work are brevity, atomization and verbal communicating ( Mintzberg, 1990 ) . As these are non what ‘scientific management’ was chiefly concerned with, these features have in fact impeded any scientific efforts to better the manager’s occupation ( Mintzberg, 1990 ) .
Peter Drucker had a great sum of regard for Taylor’s ‘scientific management’ . In his article in the California Management Review, he declared that no affair how aloud Taylor’s adversaries tried to proclaim their differences with him, every method during the past one hundred old ages that has shown any success in raising manual plants productiveness and existent rewards, has in fact been based on Taylor’s rules ( Drucker, 1999 ) . This can been seen in ‘work enlargement’ , ‘work enrichment’ and ‘job rotation’ for illustration ( Drucker, 1999 ) . Despite this, Drucker did hold that in come ining the 21stCentury we needed to travel by ‘scientific management’ . He expressed the factors which he considered to be successful in finding the knowledge-worker’s productiveness. One of them being that the duty for cognition worker productiveness must lie with the single cognition workers themselves. They have to pull off themselves ; hold liberty ( Drucker, 1999 ) . Another being that uninterrupted invention must to be portion of the work, and a 3rd is that productiveness of the cognition worker does non entirely depend on measure ; quality is at least every bit as of import ( Drucker, 1999 ) . Each of these are about the complete antonym of the factors emphasized by Taylor’s ‘scientific management’ . Drucker’s cognition worker system has proved to work efficaciously in the modern workplace, and an illustration of where its success can be seen is with a group of orthopedic sawboness in a Mid-western metropolis in the United States ( Drucker, 1999 ) .
One of the rules of ‘Scientific management’ that I antecedently mentioned that it was to a great extent oriented to turning everything work-related into quantifiable dimensions, instead than trusting on the ‘rule of thumb’ method ( Ritzer, 1983 ) . Fordism’s roots are based on Taylor’s direction theoretical account ( Priestly, 2005 ) . I will utilize the illustration that I antecedently mentioned of the assembly line. This is likewise oriented to a assortment of quantifiable dimensions such as optimising the velocity of the line, and diminishing the monetary value of the finished merchandise ( Ritzer, 1983 ) . General Motors received increased gross revenues and finally increased net incomes from the employment of this system. Although his theory retained the mistakes of Taylor’s ; small workplace democracy and disaffection, after 16 old ages of implementing Taylor’s scientific attack, Ford skillfully managed to sell more than 10 million autos, turn outing the success of the system ( The Saylor Foundation, 2005 ) . The car industry has continued to boom into the 21stCentury, doing usage of new efficiencies and cost decreases ( The Saylor Foundation, 2005 ) .
There are many other organisations today where elements of Taylor’s ‘scientific management’ can be seen to be employed efficaciously. Taylor’s system strived for reason and maximal efficiency. A typical illustration of an organisation using ‘scientific management’ in its production is the fast nutrient concatenation McDonalds. The McDonalds worker’s manual includes every step-by-step item that the staff must follow, from the precise cookery times and temperature scenes for all merchandises and equipment, to that precise direction that the Grill work forces must set beefburgers ‘on the grill traveling left to compensate, making six rows of six cakes each’ ( Priestly, 2005 ) . Speed, convenience and standardisation are set in topographic point of any creative activity in cookery or assortment in pick ( Ritzer, 1983 ) . Uniformity is complete in every McDonald’s eating house, intending that no affair what state in the universe you are in, each on is utilizing the same criterion method to fix nutrient, promote the staff, and clean the floors ( Priestly, 2005 ) . This scientific system of pull offing every facet of working life in this fast nutrient concatenation is what has given them the ability to expeditiously provide standard nutrient and service about universe and take them to go the biggest eating house concatenation on Earth ( Priestly, 2005 ) . While there is no uncertainty that it is this scientifically managed system that has led to McDonald’s worldwide victory, the defects of the system are still to be seen. George Ritzer introduces the thought of the sarcasm of the ‘irrationality of rationality’ that is found in the workplace of McDonalds ( Ritzer, 2011 ) . This means that what appears to be an highly rational and efficient system, does in fact lead inefficiency, loss of control, and other unreasons in the long tally. Employee’s ‘McJobs’ are deemed dehumanizing, and supply small satisfaction or stableness, and so it is no surprise that disaffection, bitterness and absenteeism are present ( Ritzer, 2011 ) . The fast-food industry have an tremendous turnover rate of 300 % , significance that the mean workers lone stopping points for about 4 months ( Ritzer, 20011 ) . This high turnover rate is of class inadmissible for any organisation, as there is the increased costs of invariably engaging and developing new staff. Besides, the deficiency of worker’s accomplishment required for their ‘McJobs’ in inefficient for the organisation. Directors could be obtaining much more from their workers for the money they are paid ( Ritzer, 2011 ) , but as they operate under a scientific system of direction, there is no diverseness or flexibleness in the worker’s occupations, and therefore they can merely make the exact undertakings that they are asked to make in the exact mode that they are asked to make them.
To reason, I would state that it is obviously clear that Frederick Taylor’s ‘scientific management’ was developed for a different clip and a different topographic point. ‘Scientific management’ seemed like a simple consequence to managerial jobs at the terminal of the 19ThursdayCentury, but modern organisations of the 21st, being much more complex, require more than a systematic attack to directors. There is no uncertainty that Taylor’s thoughts have dramatically shaped modern methods of mass production and structural organisation ( The Saylor Foundation, 2005 ) , and it is true that there are elements to ‘scientific management’ which cooperate good today with some organisations direction systems and go on to work efficaciously, nevertheless in general, our industry and society today have moved on and left ‘scientific management’ in the yesteryear where it belongs.
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