Getting Toothy: What are the Effects of Different Liquids on Teeth?ChemistryExperimental Investigation___________________________________________Signature of Sponsoring Teacher___________________________________________Signature of School Science Fair Coordinator TeacherCiara Hernandez640 W. Scott St. Chicago, IL 60610Grade #7Table of ContentsAcknowledgments Page 3Purpose and Hypothesis Page 4Background Research Page 5Materials and Procedure Page 8Results Page 9Conclusion, Reflection, Application Page 13Reference List Page 15Acknowledgments First of all I would like to thank my friend Aaron, who in a shining moment of unintelligence, gave me this idea by soaking a hard-boiled egg in blue Gatorade and proceeded to call it an oversized robin egg. Besides that, I did this all on my own without any help from anyone, so I would like to thank myself for not procrastinating anything this time and getting my Science Fair project done in a timely manner for once, so a special thank you to myself.Purpose and Hypothesis The purpose of this experiment is to find out what the effects of different liquids on teeth. This tested the effects of different colored dyes on teeth over time. This also tested the effects on liquids ranging in acidity and their effects on teeth. This experiment also was conducted in an attempt to find if the effects of carbonated and non-carbonated drinks were the same. My hypothesis was this; liquids with more vibrant colors or very dark colors would stain the enamel the most. I thought that the liquids with the highest acidity would dissolve the enamel the most. I also thought that the bubbles in carbonated liquids would leave noticeable marks on the enamel.Review of Literature My project is the effects of different liquids on tooth enamel. in order to form a hypothesis, research was conducted on tooth enamel and it’s similarities to eggshells, the replacement I would be using for human teeth in my experiment.What is enamel? Tooth enamel is, “the visible tissue of the tooth where it covers the anatomical crowning and the nerve.” (www.drugabuse.gov). What does the enamel do for the tooth? ” Enamel consists of minerals that protect the tooth.” (www.drugabuse.gov). So enamel protects the tooth. Enamel, according to the National Institute on Drug Abuse, enamel is avascular, meaning it has no blood flow and cannot be renewed, so any damage to it is permanent. Why can eggs be used as a substitute for teeth in experiments? “Both teeth and eggshells are made of stone-like minerals containing most calcium.” (www.madsci.gov). Also, “Tooth enamel and bird eggshells have a link beyond their neighboring spots on the color spectrum: both are made of calcium compounds. As with, limestone, pearls and seashells, eggshells are made of a composite of calcium carbonate. Tooth enamel is composed of calcium phosphate.” (www.sciencing.com). This means that eggs would have similar, if not the same chemical weaknesses, according the Canadian Dental Association.I developed my hypothesis off of this, “Drinking liquids with high acid and sugar contents, such as colas or fruit juices, should be done in moderation because staining and decay can occur.” (www.drugabuse.gov). And, “According to the American Dental Association, soda can erode tooth enamel. However, what most people do not know is that sports drink might erode teeth as well. Soda’s acidity is the reason soda can soften teeth enamel. If sports drinks are acidic enough, they can erode tooth enamel too.” (www.scijourner.org). As well as, “Bacteria, if left in your mouth for twenty four hours, results in damaging the enamel of your tooth that gradually weakens the gums and roots resulting in the decay of teeth.” (friedmandentalgroup.com). This led me to believe that high acidity levels in drinks would lead to softer enamel, decay and erosion of the enamel. This also told me that the enamel can be stained, causing me to believe colors that generally stain things easier, like bright, vibrant colors or dark, rich colors would stain the enamel more severely than a liquid with little to no dyes or with a dull color. “In general the more your teeth are exposed to sugar, the greater the chance of damage to your teeth.” (www.westladentalcare.com). ABC says that, “Bacteria burns sugar to make acid, which dissolves the protective layer of tooth enamel and causes cavities,” (abcnews,go.com). Also, “Tooth enamel can undergo a process called demineralisation if the pH of the mouth falls to lower than normal levels. The combination of mouth bacteria and sugars from some foods, snacks, soft drinks and sweets can generate lactic acid. The acidic conditions over time cause the enamel to slowly dissolve, creating tooth cavities. This allows for greater bacterial invasion deeper into the tooth, which assists the decay process.” (www.sciencelearn.org.nz). This leads me to believe that the liquids with a higher amount of sugar will have a greater impact on the enamel than their less sugary counterparts. There was an experiment conducted on pulled teeth in 2008 that tested the effects of different liquids with varying acidity on pulled teeth; the results were as followed, “Of the tested and control fluids, lemon juice displayed the most eros ion, followed by acetic acid, grapefruit juice, orange juice, and water, which had no effect. Continued immersion in the four acidic fluids led to varying degrees of enamel loss progression.” (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov). And, “Dentists warn about sweet foods because sugar feeds bacteria living in a layer of plaque on the surface of tooth enamel. These bacteria create acids through their metabolism, and it’s the acids that cause decay.” (sciencing.com). This also leads me to believe that the liquids with higher acidity levels, like vinegar, will dissolve the enamel of the eggshell and softening of it. Materials and ProcedureMaterials: White eggs (8)Blue Gatorade ( 1 bottle)Purple Gatorade (1 bottle)Green Gatorade (1bottle)Red Gatorade (1 bottle)Coca-Cola (1 bottle)Mountain Dew (1 bottle)Procedure:Measure 8 oz. of each liquid and put it into a sterilized container.Put one hard-boiled egg in each liquid.Leave the eggs in the liquid at room temperature for 5 days.After 5 days, remove the eggs from the liquid, record and observations and take pictures. Feel the egg and rate the softness compared to a normal egg on a scale of 1-5.ResultsGreen Apple Gatorade The egg had a thin green film on it, and underneath the actual shell was stained green quite vividly. The eggshell retained most firmness and earned a 4.5 Out of 5Mixed Berry Gatorade The egg had a thin blue film on it. The bottom was less stained than the top. The actual shell was stained a robin egg blue color. The shell was a bit soft, and ranks at a 4.5Grape Gatorade The egg was covered in a thin film of a grayish purple color. Underneath the film is a lighter shade of the same color. The egg was about the same as the others at a 4.5Coca-cola The egg was covered in a thicker brown film, that built up greatly at te bottom. The shell beneath was stained a near match of a color underneath, only a tad bit lighter. The egg was softer, but still firm at a 4.Red Gatorade The egg had a red film on it with a larger build up on the top, and the bottom had a thinner film. The colour of the shell beneath is stained a red pink colour. The egg ranks at a 4.Mountain Dew The egg was less stained than I expected. There was a thin film, and underneath the film, the egg was nearly white, but yellowish. The eggshell was weaker, scoring a 3, as it cracked under pressure, as you may see in the photo.VinegarThe eggshell was white, the same color as it started out as. The eggshell had been reduced to rubber. The shell was the same consistency as the inside of it, scoring a 1. In the vinegar, you could see film on the top, which is from the enamel. There was a froth on the egg that was the dissolving eggshell.Conclusion, Reflection, and ApplicationI think that my tests were fair and that my results were accurate. I sterilized everything so cross contamination couldn’t have been a problem and they were all in the same conditions while sitting. Nothing was different about any test. I think that I could have been more accurate, for example, doing multiple tests for each liquid, but overall I was sufficiently accurate. There are a few things that I would do in future if I was redoing this experiment. First of all, I would have done multiple tests for each liquid, to improve accuracy and stability in my results. Second of all, I would like to use different liquids, like milk or coffee, to see their effects. Third of all I would like to check their progression over time. I would further like to look into the effects of brushing teeth and being exposed to the same amount of liquid, by repeating the example the exact same way, but by brushing the egg with toothpaste twice a day for two minutes, and see the effects. The results of this experiment are applicable in people’s everyday lives. The results to this experiment will help people drink healthier drinks and help people have healthier, balanced diets. This experiment shows the negative effects that different liquids have on your teeth and the effects that liquids with a high acidity have on your teeth. This experiment shows why people that drink lots of sodas and sugary drinks have very poor teeth that are discolored or rotting.My science fair project is about the effects of differences of different liquids on teeth. I wanted to find out what different dyes, sugars and acidity levels did to teeth. My hypothesis was that liquids with darker or brightly colored dyes would stain the enamel more and those liquids with higher acidity levels would soften the enamel. I tested this by putting eggs in different liquids ranging in color and acidity levels. I noticed that some liquids developed a darker spot on the bottom and some developed one at the top. My hypothesis was proven correct because the eggs took on a brighter color with more vibrant colors like, for example, the blue gatorade, and darker dyes, like the Coca-Cola and the liquids with a higher acidity level practically dissolved the enamel entirely. I learned that bright colors stain easier than less vibrant colors and richer colors stain more than more watered down colors. I also learned that the higher acidity dissolves enamel.Reference ListBassiouny MA, e. (2017). Topographic and radiographic profile assessment of dental erosion. Part II: effect of citrus fruit juices on human dentition. – PubMed – NCBI. online Ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18348369 Accessed 18 Nov. 2017.Deziel, C. (2017). A Science Fair Project on Tooth Decay. online Sciencing.com. Available at: https://sciencing.com/science-fair-project-tooth-decay-6085859.html Accessed 18 Nov. 2017.Friedman Dental Group | Dental Implant Specialists in Florida. (2017). 5 Top Reasons Why you should Brush Teeth Twice a day – Friedman Dental Group | Dental Implant Specialists in Florida. online Available at: https://friedmandentalgroup.com/5-top-reasons-why-you-should-brush-teeth-twice-a-day/ Accessed 18 Nov. 2017.Goldblatt, A., Samberson, S. and Diamond, N. (2017). “Egg”stra Healthy Teeth. online Drugabuse.gov. Available at: https://www.drugabuse.gov/eggstra-healthy-teeth Accessed 18 Nov. 2017.Hub, S. (2017). Bone and tooth minerals. online Science Learning Hub. Available at: https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/1796-bone-and-tooth-minerals Accessed 18 Nov. 2017.Jacobson, E. (2017). What Are the Similarities between Eggshells and Teeth?. online Sciencing.com. Available at: https://sciencing.com/similarities-eggshells-teeth-8427281.html Accessed 18 Nov. 2017.Madsci.org. (2017). Re: How are teeth similar to eggshells?. online Available at: http://www.madsci.org/posts/archives/1997-05/864330165.Ot.r.html Accessed 18 Nov. 2017.News, A. (2017). Best and Worst Foods for Teeth. online ABC News. Available at: http://abcnews.go.com/Health/Wellness/best-worst-foods-teeth/story?id=19085884# Accessed 18 Nov. 2017.