The history of Greece can be traced back to Stone Age hunters. Later came early farmers and the civilization of the Minoan and Mycenaean Kings. This was followed by a period of wars and invasions, known as the Dark Ages. In about 1100 BC, a people called the durians invaded from the north and spread down the west coast. In the period from 500 – 336 BC Greece was divided into small city states, each of which consisted of a city and its surrounding countryside.
There were only a few historians in the time of Ancient Greece history, that include Herodotus, known as the Father of History who travelled to many ancient historic sites at the time, Thucydides and Xenophon. Most others forms of History knowledge and accountability of the ancient Greeks we know is because of temples, sculpture, pottery, artifacts, and other archaeological. Early Bronze Age (2900 – 2000 BC) The Greek Bronze Age or the Early Helladic Era started around 2800 BC and lasted till 1050 BC in Crete while in the Aegean Islands it started in 3000 BC.
The Bronze Age in Greece is divided into periods such as Helladic 1 and 2. The information that is available today on the Bronze Age in Greece is from the architecture, burial styles, and life styles. The colonies were made of 300 to 1000 people. Mycenaean Age (600 – 1100 BC) About the time Thera was destroyed, the Greeks were just emerging into their civilization stage. They too were heavily influenced by the Cretans and even adopted the model of the Minoan state. A century or so later Minoan zed Greeks from the mainland, the Mycenaean’s, ungratefully repaid their teachers by invading Crete and taking over their power centers.
As was noted eailer Mycenaean refers to the entire civilization of Greece during the Late Bronze (Late Helladic) period (c. 1580 – 1150 BC). The emergence in mainland Greece of a hierarchical political and social system, based on centralized control of the economy recapitulated the process of state formation in the Wear East and Crete. Before 1600 Greece had gone through the preparatory steps: rise in population, increased productivity, expansion of trade with the outside, and the strengthening of the economic and political power of the leaders.
Archaic Greece (c. 750 – 500 BC) The seventh and sixth centuries belong to the period called the Archaic Age (c. 750 – 500 BC). During those two hundred years that pace of change and development accelerated rapidly, continuing and surpassing the progress made in the eighth century as Greece emerged from its Dark Age. Once rather neglected by historians as being merely the intellectual, cultural, and political achievements Of Greece’s Golden Age. Hellenistic (336 BC – 500 AD) Alexander’s conquest changed forever the world the Greeks knew.
From citizens of minuscule city-states on the fringes of the Persian Empire, the Greeks had become partners in the rule of a vast territory that stretched from the Mediterranean to the borders of India. This enormous cosmopolis (literally, a city-state comprising the world) war unified by the use of Greek as the common Language of government and culture and by the creation of islands of Greek culture in settlements scattered throughout this board area. The cosmopolis served as a huge arena for the military and political struggles of Alexander’s successors.
Against this bloody backdrop ordinary people, both Greeks and their subjects, attempted to retain traditional values while making innovations that enabled them to live in a world that was vastly different from that of their grandparents. The Macedonian conquest ended the Greek world known today as Classical. Classical Greece certainly set standers in a number of areas, such as sculpture, architecture, philosophy, and political universe of the polis – in many respects its closest affiliation is with the era we call Hellenistic. Classical (500 – 336 BC)
The period from 500-323 BC is the Classical or Hellenic age of Greek civilization. The brilliance of the Classical Greek world rested on a blend of the old and the new. From the past came a profound religious belief in the just action of the gods and the attainment of virtue in the polis. Such a history helped develop a specific Greek mind in which the importance of the individual and a rationalistic spirit were paramount. The Classical Greek world was, in essence, a skillful combination of these qualities. Athens never united all Greece.
However, its culture was unchallenged. The trade routes from the Aegean brought men and their ideas from everywhere to the great cultural center of Athens. Thanks to its economic initiative, the Athenian polis was quite wealthy, and Pericles generously distributed that wealth to the Athenian citizen in a variety of forms. For instance, the Athenian polis sponsored the production of dramas and required that wealthy citizens pay the expenses of production. At the beginning of every year, dramatists submitted their plays to the archon, or chief magistrate.
Each comedian presented one play for review; those who wrote tragedy had to submit a set of three plays, plus an afterpiece called a satyr play. It was the archon who chose those dramas he considered best. The archon allotted to each tragedian his actors, paid at state expense, and a producer choragus. On the appointed day the Athenian public would gather at the theatre of Dionysus on the south slope of the Acropolis, paid their admission of two obles, and witnessed a series of plays.
Judges drawn by lot awarded prizes to the poet crown of ivy, the actor an inscription on a state list in the agora and to the choragus a triumphal tablet. The Athenian dramatists were the first artists in Western society to examine such basic questions as the rights of the individual, the demands of society upon the individual and the nature of good and evil. Conflict, the basic stuff of life, is the constant element in Athenian drama.