Sri Lanka is an island in the Indian Ocean in South Asia, 65 610 square kg metres in country, divided into nine administrative states. Colombo is the capital metropolis of Sri Lanka. It has about 21 million populations. The state ‘s urban population has been steadily increasing over the past few old ages to its present degree of over 15 % of the population.
The urban population is expected to increase from the present 15 % to35 % of the population in 2015. Sri Lanka has been bit by bit altering from an agricultural based economic system to an industrial based one over the last few decennaries. The industry sectors contribute 27 % of the GDP, agribusiness sectors 17 % of the GDP and services sectors contribute 56 % of the GDP.There are broad regional disparities sing lodging sector in Sri Lanka. It can be divided as three major portion name as urban, rural and estate sector lodging jobs. Chiefly industrial sector and service sector are represented by urban sector and agricultural sector represented by rural and estate sector.
2 Research Problem
Housing jobs in Sri Lanka
There has a adage as “ Fools physique houses, and wise work forces buy them ” . Although people are wise if they have n’t adequate income they can non purchase or construct a house. The present lodging demand in Sri Lanka is estimated to be about 4.95M where as the bing lodging stock is about 4.35 M. There is a spread of about 600,000 units.
( Beginning: Mahinda Chintana, Department of National Planning, Ministry of Finance & A ; Planning, 2006 ) . In Sri Lanka merely 8.1 million included to labour force out of 21 million entire populations. Although this 8.1 million people earn income it is non adequate to populate in good wealthy harmonizing to populating outgo in state. Harmonizing to Sri Lanka Central Bank one-year study, nest eggs rate, % of Household Income in 2006/2007 is 11.1 % . Its average state labour force besides is suffered from better lodging job.
1.3 Research Objective
The chief intent of this research is to suggest to the local governments or authorities to work out these lodging jobs by giving a proper solution and reconstruct the metropoliss as a modern and beautiful metropolis in line with the hustling metropoliss of Asia.
4. Research Field
Housing jobs can be found all over the state. But in this research has chiefly concerned about urban, rural and estate sector lodging jobs in Sri Lanka. Harmonizing to the Time bound has concerned about informations in sector wise.
1.5 Research Methodology
In this research may utilize merely secondary informations. They are,Statistical information from Statistical section in Sri Lanka.
Web sites. Information about other statesAnnual studies – Central Bank of Sri Lanka / Colombo Municipal CouncilNews paper articlesEmail information ‘s
1.6. Research Restrictions
The restrictions of this research can be identified as follows,1.
Secondary informationsIn sing about topographic point and clip bound has hard to utilize primary informations.
2. Analysis of the job
In this instance I do non discus about lodging jobs relevant to state labour force. I focus my attending about lodging jobs relevant to self employed or unemployed peoples. It can be divided as major three parts.Urban Sector lodging jobsEstate Sector lodging jobsRural Sector lodging jobs
2.1 Urban Sector lodging jobs
When sing approximately urban sector lodging jobs Colombo became more engorged and the metropolis selected moved out into more big residential countries than other metropoliss.
An estimated 65,000 households in Colombo entirely live in underserved colonies. ( Beginning: Guidelines for Housing Development in Coastal Sri Lanka, NHDA, 2005 ) . ‘Under served settlements’A are slum colonies and populations populating in bedraggled edifices that are unhealthy to populate in.
Other metropoliss in Sri Lanka are non that bad. But because of commercial chances, more and more people are traveling into metropoliss. Harmonizing to Censes Department information, 54 % of the Colombo metropolis population lives in huts, slums or unauthorised constructions or designated unsuitable for worlds. The cardinal portion of Colombo became characterized by chiefly low-income residential countries, chiefly slums, and the northern and eastern parts contained most of the hovels. Harmonizing to statistics, some 1,000 estates of province land and other militias are being occupied by these people and that means they are illicitly occupied. Out of the estimated 1,000 estates, 71 % have been taken over by those populating in hovels and huts.
Colombo has some 63 slum countries which reflect a monolithic lodging job. These urban informal colonies are characterized by hapless quality lodging and unequal H2O, sanitation, drainage and solid-waste substructure, ensuing in pollution, sick wellness, and hapless societal well-being.Narahenpita Usaviwatte slums Railway colony in Colombo, Sri LankaDegree centigrades: UserscompaqDocumentsNew folderimages.jpg C: UserscompaqDocumentsNew folderll.jpgDegree centigrades: UserscompaqDocumentsNew folderslums.jpg
1 Reasons for Urban hovel and slums
The of import ground is poorness. Harmonizing to Household Income and Expenditure Survey – 2006/07, Department of Census and Statistics Sri Lanka, there are 184000 hapless individuals and 32000 hapless families in urban sector. They are enduring with a good shelter for their caput.Migration to Colombo.
Most of these people are colonists who have come to Colombo looking for occupations. Peoples move because they expect to hold a better life.Street sellers. There are about 20,000 street sellers in Colombo and most of them live in slums around Colombo. The slum inhabitants are increased in every twelvemonth around the Colombo and one grounds for that this street sellers.The tsunami has added a new dimension to increasing population and job in Colombo. The tsunami displaced over 500,000 persons and destroyed or damaged about 150,000 houses.Banks are constrained by the really systems when they pass a lodging loan.
Their fiscal analysis is biased towards people with bank histories, formal sector occupations and a proved recognition history. As portion of disqualification of these demands the hapless people are pushed to words slums, hovel or other temporally shelter.Slum inhabitants are more likely to hold less instruction and fewer employment chances. Most of slum inhabitants get married without sing house and they besides established in these slums as a new household.
2.1.2 Significant of this job
Exceeded the transporting capacity of capital metropolis.
The hapless slum inhabitants, required to populate with limited substructure and resources. Scientists have already warned that Sri Lanka has really exceeded the “ carrying capacity. Today, installations are unhappily disproportional to the figure of donees. These people, the full 54 % , autumn into the class of low-income groups. This besides means that they do non pay any revenue enhancements like belongings and H2O, that are collectible by ordinary citizens. This means they place a immense load on the metropolis ‘s resources besides being an economic load.
Unplanned urban population growing has exerted force per unit area on land and H2O resources in the metropoliss every bit good as environing countries, with impacts on the H2O supply, sewerage disposal, waste direction, surface drainage and environment related wellness jobs, vehicle traffic, etc. Populating in metropoliss does non interpret into a better life.Most of these slums country are popular for illegal activities. Most of people in these country are making under universe activities because of can non happen a good occupation for them.Sri Lankan authorities had taken many stairss to evict more than 70,000 occupants in order to clear land for commercial development. But job was authorities did n’t hold 100 % complete reply for this job. After eviction from one topographic point these people are traveling to another topographic point.
2 Rural Sector lodging jobs
Agricultural productiveness of small-scale farms has declined over the past decennaries due to irregular rainfall, recurrent drouth and disregard in keeping irrigation substructure. Rural population in Sri Lanka takes a higher constituent on entire population. It takes 80 % on entire population. Most of these rural people are depending on agribusiness sector which represent 17 % on GDP. Harmonizing to their agrarian income they besides suffer with lodging job. Although they are farmer existent net income receive by intermediary.
After contending the life outgo they besides have n’t adequate money to construct a good house.Degree centigrades: UserscompaqDocumentsNew folder7766218774b6.jpghttp: //www.peacegallery.org/images/asia/srilanka/srilanka07.JPGC: UserscompaqDocumentsNew folder222.jpg
3 Estate Sector lodging jobs
On entire population 3.6 % peoples are populating in plantation colony as estate labourer. The plantation workers live in “ line suites, ” which are 5 or 6 little bordering units. They live in line-rooms which belong to the estate. The homes were foremost built by British colonial plantation owners for workers brought from South India-forebears of the present plantation workers.
Each household ‘s unit measures merely 6 ten 4 metres. With the enlargement of workers ‘ households from coevals to coevals, the bantam units have had to be partitioned with thin brick walls or polyethylene to supply adjustment for married twosomes. In some instances, two to three households have to portion a individual line house.
They receive salary based on reaping tea foliages sum is around 150-200 rupees [ $ US1.50 to $ 2 ] a twenty-four hours. A They have no possibility to salvage money and to purchase nutrient in sufficient measure and quality and besides no entree to set down ownership and nice lodging.But in many of clip authorities did assure to them to better their life conditions.
Despite legion past promises to better life conditions, the state of affairs confronting workers continues to deteriorate.Degree centigrades: UserscompaqDocumentsNew folderz_p12-Sees4.jpgDegree centigrades: UserscompaqDocumentsNew folderChildren.jpg C: UserscompaqDocumentsNew folderIMG_0589resized-165×123.jpg C: UserscompaqDocumentsNew folderz_p12-Sees2.jpghypertext transfer protocol: //www.
wsws.org/articles/2005/dec2005/Lineroom.jpg C: UserscompaqDocumentsNew folderaa.
2.3.1Facilities in this Line room
1.1 Water installations
There are merely limited H2O lights-outs for these households, and some of these operate for merely 90 proceedingss each twenty-four hours. Workers are forced to line up to roll up H2O for their households, and in the dry season they must travel to a nearby small town in hunt of H2O. Merely plantation direction staffs are supplied with H2O from a oiler.
220.127.116.11 Sanitary installations
Sanitary installations are in a awful province.
Two or three households are forced to portion a individual lavatory, which has no H2O supply.
18.104.22.168 Education installations
Education installations for Tamil-speaking plantation kids are highly hapless. Most of plantation young person have to abandon their instruction by grade 6 or 7, and in some instances even before so. Youth unemployment is rampant.
Young people have lost all hope of happening work on the estate. Male childs have left to happen servant occupations as servers or assistants in little hotels and stores in environing towns or in Colombo. The misss frequently have to work as domestic retainers in the metropoliss.
2.4 Government part to work out this job
As a authorities Sri Lankan authorities has taken many stairss to work out these lodging jobs.
In every twelvemonth, Sri Lanka ‘s national budget allocated financess to ease house for low income peoples. The National Housing Development Authority ( NHDA ) is the lone Government Agency that launches lodging undertakings in the state. It focused its attending on the building of single houses, flats and community edifices for low income households.hypertext transfer protocol: //www.
sundayobserver.lk/2010/03/14/z_p19-Lanka.jpgRagama lodging strategyAlthough authorities did take the stairss to work out these lodging jobs in the state, the job is today besides can see low income people are populating in many slums, hovel and unsuitable colonies in all around the state.
Government has no a proper program to work out this job. In 2009, authorities used military power to evict more than 70,000 occupants from the metropoliss in order to clear land for commercial development. But job was authorities did n’t give a topographic point for these evicted people. Harmonizing to the amplification on the authorities ‘s programs on November 28, 2010 the authorities is faced with the challenge of relocating 75,000 households who are chiefly busying the most valuable land and strategically critical canals in Colombo. The authorities outlook of these evictions is they want to develop the metropolis to pull planetary investors and to do it a beautiful capital.The authorities is confronting to this job in same manner from over the past decennaries. After eviction people from illicitly occupy authorities land within two or three month another group was settled in that country because of deficiency of authorities planning. Although authorities had facilitated to these people, authorities did non hold a proper thought about how to utilize these land for the economical growing of the state.
3.International Case survey about Housing Problem
Harmonizing to UnitedA Nations Human Settlements Programme ( UN HABITAT ) the universe ‘s population stands at 5.7 billion people in 2009. Harmonizing to that over 100 million people in our universe today have no lodging. Millions more people, approximately 25 % of the universe ‘s population, face a terrible lodging job. They live in places without equal sanitation, with an irregular electricity supply, built out of flimsy stuffs, and without equal security. Millions more unrecorded in solid and serviced adjustment but in overcrowded conditions.
Housing jobs affect both big and little metropoliss. The following table expresses information about slum population as % of entire urban population. Harmonizing to that information on universe urban population 31.6 % is slum population. It means they are enduring a large job with place.
Population life in slums ( UN-HABITAT, 2001estimates )
Entire urban population ( 1000000s )
Urban population as % of entire population
Urban slum population ( 1000000s )
Slum population as % of entire urban population
987043.0Eastern Asia53339.119436.4Eastern Asia excepting China6177.11625.
4South Central Asia45230.026258.0South Eastern Asia20338.35728.0Western Asia12564.94133.1Beginning: UN-HABITAT, Global Urban Observatory, 2003. Appraisals based on Total and Urban population: UN Population Division, World Urbanization Prospects: The 2001 Revision
1 South Korea
With rapid economic development in South Korea after 1960, was faced a large job sing hovel house. Korean authorities estimation is that there were 320,000 illegal families in 1976. The proportion of the population was lived in slums and homesteader colonies. The formation of vinyl house communities has been centered in Gangnam territory ( South of the Han River ) .
Between 1970s and the early 1990s there were monolithic eviction plans in Seoul Metropolitan Region ( SMR ) . But since the 1980s, the figure of illegal homes has decreased well. The Korea authorities did seek to undertake this job in many ways. Particularly in the 1988 Summer Olympics game was changed the Korea economic system. There was some solution for slum and hovel.One issue is landowner and building company partnership.
The undertakings were initiated on a voluntary footing under the way of a commission of landholders and building company functionaries, selected by representatives of householders ‘ cooperates, theoretically to construct high-rise flats, sharing the net incomes.Since 1989, a lasting rental-housing ( societal lodging ) plan has been implemented. A sum of 190,000 units had been constructed by 1992.
The Korea National Housing Corporation ( KNHC ) has been on the enlargement of state-developed lodging for sale instead than the proviso of rental adjustment. The proportion of lodging for sale to entire lodging constructed between 1962 and 2000 was 62 % . Even though the corporation produced rental homes, these houses were sold after a 5-year period passed.
Degree centigrades: UserscompaqDocumentsNew folderDSCN1121.jpg C: UserscompaqDocumentsNew folderHakNam01.jpgOver the past 20 old ages, Thailand has been transformed quickly into a modern state. Many of hapless rural migrators have come into metropoliss seeking for occupations.
This rapid urban growing has besides led to jobs of environmental debasement, over-crowded residential countries and the extension of slums in all Thailand ‘s chief metropoliss, peculiarly in the Bangkok metropolitan part. Harmonizing to the study in 2000, there are wholly about 5,500 low-income communities and homesteader colonies in Thai metropoliss, where 6.75 million people, in 1.5 million families, live. Another 1.5 million hapless people ( 370,000 families ) do non populate in communities at all, but find shelter within the compounds of temples, in scattered rental room or in the mills or building sites where they work.In 2003 Thai authorities was created a plan name as Baan Mankong ( Secure Housing ) Program as solution for support community-led slum upgrading in low income urban and rural communities of Thailand. In January 2003, the Thai authorities announced a policy to supply secure lodging to one million hapless families within five old ages.
This ambitious mark was to be met through two plans.Degree centigrades: UserscompaqDocumentsNew folderuntitled.bmp C: UserscompaqDocumentsNew folderkibera_decant_site.jpg C: UserscompaqDocumentsNew folderimages.jpgIn the first, the Baan Ua Arthorn Program ( “ We care ” in Thai ) , the National Housing Authority designs, concepts and sells ready-to-occupy flats and houses at subsidised rates to lower-income appliers on a “ rent-to-own ” footing. The 2nd, Baan Mankong Collective Housing Program ( “ Secure lodging ” in Thai ) , channels authorities financess, in the signifier of substructure subsidies and soft lodging loans, straight to hapless communities.
Alternatively of presenting lodging units to single hapless households, the Baan Mankong Program encourages bing slum communities to organize cooperatives and develop their lodging in a corporate manner ; each take parting community would stop up holding a corporate land rubric.The Ban Mankong lodging undertaking has provided 440 lodging strategies consisting of 54,000 families and eradicated 773 slums in the old four old ages.The donees of this undertaking include about 213,000 people and it aims to supply 12,353 houses to the general populace this twelvemonth.
Singapore ‘s extremely successful public lodging plan, which provides places for 85 % of the population, has been an of import facet of its planned urbanisation scheme for economic development. Merely incrementally did the populace lodging authorization develop lodging estates and new towns farther off from the metropolis centre. The first new town developed was located some 6 to 8A kilometers off. To counterbalance for the longer distance between their new places and the metropolis centre, this new town was planned with a full scope of vicinity installations and services, including public coach conveyance. Furthermore, the new town was located along main roads linking the town centre to the metropolis, therefore easing comparatively convenient and fast transit to workplaces.In the late sixtiess a funding strategy was introduced to enable families to purchase public lodging units through the usage of a portion of the money in their retirement nest eggs fund-Central Provident Fund. In the beginning, the places built were little.
In 2000 whereas that life in the larger four- and five-room flats has increased to more than half among public lodging occupants.Public lodging flats have been allocated to appliers on a first semen, foremost served footing. Furthermore, public lodging estates in Singapore have been equitably developed throughout the city-state providing location picks.
When seeking information about lodging jobs in worldwide, can place there are many proposals, solutions for the lodging jobs but job is it can non be solve in 100 % . The universe is altering towards urbanisation and increasing poorness degree in relevant states.Degree centigrades: UserscompaqDocumentsNew folderimages r.jpg C: UserscompaqDocumentsNew folderimages.jpgHousing and Development Board Project-Housing and Development Board Project, SingaporeA Housing and Development Board Project, SingaporeA Housing and Development Board Project, SingaporeSingaporeSingapore ‘s Slums.
87 % of the population live in them.Singapore ‘s Slums. 87 % of the population live in them.
4.1 Past Policy Implication in Sri Lanka
When comparing Sri Lanka state of affairs with other relevant states, chiefly can place there was no a proper plan to work out these lodging jobs.
Although did present a good plan, after altering political environment the plan besides was discontinue. The influence of political power is high in Sri Lanka. That is the 1 of chief ground for every job in state.
Even the most popular or successful plans were finally terminated because of altering political power. Although authorities introduced many policies to work out these lodging job the job is today besides about 600,000 families are suffer from lodging jobs.
4.2 Solutions and Policy Implications
Harmonizing to William C Apgar “ Which lodging policy is best? ” Housing policy argument 1 ( 1990 ) , ( page28 ) , he explain about best lodging policy as, “ non best at all times and under all state of affairs ” . The best policy varies across metropolitan countries and within metropolitan countries, depending on market status. Besides writer has explained that the best policy depends in a critical manner on the nature and the extent of plan induced monetary value additions and outwardness effects. That account is wholly right.When sing Sri Lanka, a solution to the urban country it is non matched for the rural sector lodging jobs.
Harmonizing to that authorities should set up lodging policies in individually.National Housing PolicyNational Housing Policy is the most of import policy in every state. National Housing Policy is fundamentally concentrating on economically weaker sections of the population. But present in Sri Lanka around 600,000 households are enduring with lodging job. It means current policy is non fit with current state of affairs. The current authorities has recognized that should alter lodging policy in state and harmonizing to that did get down to revise in twelvemonth 2009. In this revision phase authorities should consideration all of import information to go forth aside these lodging jobs from the state.
4.2.2 Public HousingPublic lodging mean is managed by local lodging governments, capable to regulations adopted by the cardinal authorities. When sing about other states solution for lodging jobs public lodging or public lodging flat is good solution for urban and estate sector lodging jobs in Sri Lanka.
There have about 60,000 units in low income houses in urban country and around 200,000 units in estate sector. The Sri Lankan authorities should construct flat as province degree or local authorization degree in every relevant metropoliss under control of The National Housing Development Authority ( NHDA ) to work out these lodging jobs.Financing Capital for public houseThis capital investing on public lodging delivers its benefits for many old ages or decennaries.
Harmonizing to the current state of affairs in state to finance this capital investing can utilize a bonds issue. A bond is fundamentally promise to do refunds to the purchaser on a regular, prearranged footing. Most of people in state will supply their support to work out these lodging jobs in the state.Promote the private sector to construct low cost lodgingOne option to public lodging is private sector low cost lodging method. Government should supply substructure and inducements to private sector plans for build low cost lodging.Government can besides utilize system of subsidies to promote the private sector to construct and pull off low income lodging.
This system will assist to cut down rural sector lodging jobs. In rural sector lodging jobs are spread out all over the small town. Then this low cost lodging system largely will useful to work out these rural sectors lodging job.Degree centigrades: UserscompaqDocumentsNew folderllm.jpg C: UserscompaqDocumentsNew folderpp.jpgLand Use districtingThe basic thought of zoning is to separate land uses that are “ incompatible ” in some sense. ( Beginning: O’Sullivan, urban economic sciences ( 7th edition ) “ Zoning and Growth Controls ” ( page 226 ) .
Cities implemented districting to divide industry from places. However in Sri Lanka do non utilize this system in proper manner. Harmonizing to Urban Development Authority Act ( UDA act ) every local authorization must developed a land usage districting program sing to their administrative bound. But most of local governments do non follow that regulation.
Relevant to that in some local governments can non explicate what can make in some country and can non make. As a consequence they gave blessing for usage land as assorted.As a solution, each Local Authorities must develop the Land usage districting program under the Urban Development Authority. This activity must take into consideration land usage policy.
Zoning can determine the urban form by barricading or restricting growing in some countries and therefore, in consequence, deviating it to other countries. This system will be helpful to cut down this slum job in urban country.Lending installationsBanks and lodging finance companies in Sri Lanka are constrained by the really systems when they pass a lodging loan. Their fiscal analysis is biased towards people with bank histories, formal sector occupations and a proved recognition history. As portion of disqualification of these demands the hapless people can non obtain loan from these establishments.As a solution the authorities can make affect to this map as a province degree or local authorization degree.
To promote moneymans to impart for low-priced lodging, authorities can publish mortgage insurance behalf of loan appliers. It will be helpful for the hapless people.Finally can be achieved mark of rebuild the metropoliss as a modern and beautiful metropolis in line with the hustling metropoliss of Asia.